Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283017

RESUMO

Solid-state narrow-band light emitters are on-demand for quantum optoelectronics. Current approaches based on defect engineering in low-dimensional materials usually introduce a broad range of emission centers. Here, we report narrow-band light emission from covalent heterostructures fused to the edges of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by controllable on-surface reactions from molecular precursors. Two types of heterojunction (HJ) states are realized by sequentially synthesizing GNRs and graphene nanodots (GNDs) and then coupling them together. HJs between armchair GNDs and armchair edges of the GNR are coherent and give rise to narrow-band photoluminescence. In contrast, HJs between the armchair GNDs and the zigzag ends of GNRs are defective and give rise to nonradiative states near the Fermi level. At low temperatures, sharp photoluminescence emissions with peak energy range from 2.03 to 2.08 eV and line widths of 2-5 meV are observed. The radiative HJ states are uniform, and the optical transition energy is controlled by the band gaps of GNRs and GNDs. As these HJs can be synthesized in a large quantity with atomic precision, this finding highlights a route to programmable and deterministic creation of quantum light emitters.

2.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248214

RESUMO

Gallium selenide (GaSe) is one of the layered group-III metal monochalcogenides, which has an indirect bandgap in the monolayer and a direct bandgap in bulk unlike other conventional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoX2 and WX2 (X = S and Se). Four polytypes of bulk GaSe, designated as ß-, ε-, γ-, and δ-GaSe, have been reported. Since different polytypes result in different optical and electrical properties even with the same thickness, identifying the polytype is essential in utilizing this material for various optoelectronic applications. We performed polarized Raman measurements on GaSe and found different ultra-low-frequency Raman spectra of inter-layer vibrational modes even with the same thickness due to different stacking sequences of the polytypes. By comparing the ultra-low-frequency Raman spectra with the theoretical calculations and high-resolution electron microscopy measurements, we established the correlation between the ultra-low-frequency Raman spectra and the stacking sequences of trilayer GaSe. We further found that the AB-type stacking is more stable than the AA'-type stacking in GaSe.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150384

RESUMO

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials face significant energy barriers for synthesis and processing into functional metastable phases such as Janus structures. Here, the controllable implantation of hyperthermal species from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) plasmas is introduced as a top-down method to compositionally engineer 2D monolayers. The kinetic energies of Se clusters impinging on suspended monolayer WS2 crystals were controlled in the <10 eV/atom range with in situ plasma diagnostics to determine the thresholds for selective top layer replacement of sulfur by selenium for the formation of high quality WSSe Janus monolayers at low (300 °C) temperatures and bottom layer replacement for complete conversion to WSe2. Atomic-resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy in tilted geometry confirm the WSSe Janus monolayer. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that Se clusters implant to form disordered metastable alloy regions, which then recrystallize to form highly ordered structures, demonstrating low-energy implantation by PLD for the synthesis of 2D Janus layers and alloys of variable composition.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023412

RESUMO

We report atomically precise pentagonal PdSe2 nanoribbons (PNRs) fabricated on a pristine PdSe2 substrate with a hybrid method of top-down and bottom-up processes. The PNRs form a uniform array of dimer structure with a width of 2.4 nm and length of more than 200 nm. In situ four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) reveals metallic behavior of PNRs with ballistic transport for at least 20 nm in length. Density functional theory calculations produce a semiconducting density of states of isolated PNRs and find that the band gap narrows and disappears quickly once considering coupling between PNR stacking layers or interaction with the PdSe2 substrate. The coupling of PNRs is further corroborated by Raman spectroscopy and field-effect transistor measurements. The facile method of fabricating atomically precise PNRs offers an air-stable functional material for dimensional control.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 740-746, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880944

RESUMO

The atomic and electronic structures of pristine PdSe2 as well as various intrinsic vacancy defects in PdSe2 are studied comprehensively by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Other than the topmost Se atoms, sublayer Pd atoms and the intrinsic Pd and Se vacancy defects are identified. Both VSe and VPd defects induce defect states near the Fermi level. As a result, the vacancy defects can be negatively charged by a tip gating effect. At negative sample bias, the screened Coulomb interaction between the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip and the charged vacancies creates a disk-like protrusion around the VPd and crater-like features around VSe. The magnification effect of the long-range charge localization at the charged defect site makes sublayer defects as deep as 1 nm visible even in STM images. This result proves that by gating the probe, scanning probe microscopy can be used as an easy tool for characterizing sublayer defects in a nondestructive way.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(48): 18994-19001, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689101

RESUMO

Electron-phonon coupling in two-dimensional nanomaterials plays a fundamental role in determining their physical properties. Such interplay is particularly intriguing in semiconducting black phosphorus (BP) due to the highly anisotropic nature of its electronic structure and phonon dispersions. Here we report the direct observation of symmetry-dependent electron-phonon coupling in BP by performing the polarization-selective resonance Raman measurement in the visible and ultraviolet regimes, focusing on the out-of-plane Ag1 and in-plane Ag2 phonon modes. Their intrinsic resonance Raman excitation profiles (REPs) were extracted and quantitatively compared. The in-plane Ag2 mode exhibits remarkably strong resonance enhancement across the excitation wavelengths when the excitation polarization is parallel to the armchair (Ag2//AC) direction. In contrast, a dramatically weak resonance effect was observed for the same mode with the polarization parallel to zigzag (Ag2//ZZ) direction and for the out-of-plane Ag1 mode (Ag1//AC and Ag1//ZZ). Analysis on quantum perturbation theory and first-principles calculations on the anisotropic electron distributions in BP demonstrated that electron-phonon coupling considering the symmetry of the involved excited states and phonon vibration patterns is responsible for this phenomenon. Further analysis of the polarization-dependent REPs for Ag phonons allows us to resolve the existing controversies on the physical origin of Raman anomaly in BP and its dependence on excitation energy, sample thickness, phonon modes, and crystalline orientation. Our study gives deep insights into the underlying interplay between electrons and phonons in BP and paves the way for manipulating the electron-phonon coupling in anisotropic nanomaterials for future device applications.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(2): 025306, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581144

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive theoretical study on thermal transport in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M: Mo, W; X: S, Se) with various sample sizes. An unusually high anharmonic scattering strength is found in MoSe2 compared to the other three family members, which arises from its unique phonon band dispersion, specifically the mid-frequency phonon branches associated with the vibrations of Se atoms of MoSe2. The mid-frequency modes almost completely span the gap that exists between the high-frequency phonon branches and the acoustic ones, allowing the former to readily decay into the latter. The resultant high anharmonic scattering gives rise to a short mean free path which makes the room temperature in-plane thermal conductivity in MoSe2 even lower than WSe2 when the sample length is larger than 51.5 nm. With varying sample sizes, the ordering of thermal conductivity among the four materials changes as phonon transport transits from the ballistic to diffusive regime, driven by the competition between the phonon frequency spectrum range and the scattering strength. Our work provides a microscopic picture of phonon transport in TMDs and guidance to tailor their thermal conductivities for electronic and thermoelectric applications.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(52): 12074-12082, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190412

RESUMO

A bottom up method for the synthesis of unique tetracene-based nanoribbons, which incorporate cyclobutadiene moieties as linkers between the acene segments, is reported. These structures were achieved through the formal [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of ortho-functionalized tetracene precursor monomers. The formation mechanism and the electronic and magnetic properties of these nanoribbons were comprehensively studied by means of a multitechnique approach. Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy showed the occurrence of metal-coordinated nanostructures at room temperature and their evolution into nanoribbons through formal [2+2] cycloaddition at 475 K. Frequency-shift non-contact atomic force microscopy images clearly proved the presence of bridging cyclobutadiene moieties upon covalent coupling of activated tetracene molecules. Insight into the electronic and vibrational properties of the so-formed ribbons was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Magnetic properties were addressed from a computational point of view, allowing us to propose promising candidates to magnetic acene-based ribbons incorporating four-membered rings. The reported findings will increase the understanding and availability of new graphene-based nanoribbons with high potential in future spintronics.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1124-1130, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676030

RESUMO

Understanding the charge interaction between molecules and two-dimensional (2D) materials is essential for the design of functional devices. Here, we report the bifacial Raman enhancement of molecules on monolayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride ( h-BN). Taking advantage of the atomically thick layered structure, we show that both surfaces of 2D materials can interact with molecules and simultaneously enhance their Raman scattering. Different enhancement features were observed for monolayer graphene and h-BN. The intensity decrease of particular Raman modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on both surfaces of h-BN suggests that z-dipoles exist and are partially canceled out between the two interfaces, while the twice Raman intensities of the characteristic Raman modes of CuPc on both surfaces of graphene compared to that on one surface evidenced the charge transfer process. These results provide an approach to modify 2D materials by bifacial adsorption of molecules, and the findings can inspire the design of functional 2D material-based devices.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 2481-2489, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673215

RESUMO

Isotopes represent a degree of freedom that might be exploited to tune the physical properties of materials while preserving their chemical behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides can be tailored through isotope engineering. Monolayer crystals of MoS2 were synthesized with isotopically pure 100Mo and 92Mo by chemical vapor deposition employing isotopically enriched molybdenum oxide precursors. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the 100MoS2 monolayers, measured using a non-destructive, optothermal Raman technique, is found to be enhanced by ∼50% compared with the MoS2 synthesized using mixed Mo isotopes from naturally occurring molybdenum oxide. The boost of thermal conductivity in isotopically pure MoS2 monolayers is attributed to the combined effects of reduced isotopic disorder and a reduction in defect-related scattering, consistent with observed stronger photoluminescence and longer exciton lifetime. These results shed light on the fundamentals of 2D nanoscale thermal transport important for the optimization of 2D electronic devices.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(12): 12512-12522, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507160

RESUMO

Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) with an in-plane puckered crystalline structure has attracted intense interest for strain engineering due to both its significant anisotropy in mechanical and electrical properties and its high intrinsic strain limit. Here, we investigated the phonon response of few layer BP under uniaxial tensile strain (∼7%) with in situ polarized Raman spectroscopy. Together with the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) analysis, the anisotropic Poisson's ratio in few-layer BP was verified as one of the primary factors that caused the large discrepancy in the trend of reported Raman frequency shift for strained BP, armchair (AC) direction in particular. By carefully including and excluding the anisotropic Poisson's ratio in the DFT emulations, we rebuilt both trends reported for Raman mode shifts. Furthermore, the angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy was conducted in situ under tensile strain for systematic investigation of the in-plane anisotropy of BP phonon response. The experimentally observed thickness and crystallographic orientation dependence is elaborated using DFT theory as having a strong correlation between the strain-perturbated electronic-band structure and the phonon vibration modes. This study provides insight, both experimentally and theoretically, for the complex electron-phonon interaction behavior in strained BP, which enables diverse possibilities for the strain engineering of electrical and optical properties in BP and similar two-dimensional nanomaterials.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(42): 36540-36548, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256093

RESUMO

Atmospheric and long-term aging effects on electrical properties of WSe2 transistors with various thicknesses are examined. Although countless published studies report electrical properties of transition-metal dichalcogenide materials, many are not attentive to testing environment or to age of samples, which we have found significantly impacts results. Our as-fabricated exfoliated WSe2 pristine devices are predominantly n-type, which is attributed to selenium vacancies. Transfer characteristics of as-fabricated devices measured in air then vacuum reveal physisorbed atmospheric molecules significantly reduced n-type conduction in air. First-principles calculations suggest this short-term reversible atmospheric effect can be attributed primarily to physisorbed H2O on pristine WSe2, which is easily removed from the pristine surface in vacuum due to the low adsorption energy. Devices aged in air for over 300 h demonstrate irreversibly increased p-type conduction and decreased n-type conduction. Additionally, they develop an extended time constant for recovery of the atmospheric adsorbents effect. Short-term atmospheric aging (up to approximately 900 h) is attributed to O2 and H2O molecules physisorbed to selenium vacancies where electron transfer from the bulk and adsorbed binding energies are higher than the H2O-pristine WSe2. The residual/permanent aging component is attributed to electron trapping molecular O2 and isoelectronic O chemisorption at selenium vacancies, which also passivates the near-conduction band gap state, p-doping the material, with very high binding energy. All effects demonstrated have the expected thickness dependence, namely, thinner devices are more sensitive to atmospheric and long-term aging effects.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(36): 23546-23555, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183024

RESUMO

We apply the density-functional theory to study various phases (including non-magnetic (NM), anti-ferromagnetic (AFM), and ferromagnetic (FM)) in monolayer magnetic chromium triiodide (CrI3), a recently fabricated 2D magnetic material. It is found that: (1) the introduction of magnetism in monolayer CrI3 gives rise to metal-to-semiconductor transition; (2) the electronic band topologies as well as the nature of direct and indirect band gaps in either AFM or FM phases exhibit delicate dependence on the magnetic ordering and spin-orbit coupling; and (3) the phonon modes involving Cr atoms are particularly sensitive to the magnetic ordering, highlighting distinct spin-lattice and spin-phonon coupling in this magnet. First-principles simulations of the Raman spectra demonstrate that both frequencies and intensities of the Raman peaks strongly depend on the magnetic ordering. The polarization dependent A1g modes at 77 cm-1 and 130 cm-1 along with the Eg mode at about 50 cm-1 in the FM phase may offer a useful fingerprint to characterize this material. Our results not only provide a detailed guiding map for experimental characterization of CrI3, but also reveal how the evolution of magnetism can be tracked by its lattice dynamics and Raman response.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(8): 086101, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192587

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials such as layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are ideal platforms for studying defect behaviors, an essential step towards defect engineering for novel material functions. Here, we image the 3D lattice locations of selenium-vacancy V_{Se} defects and manipulate them using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) near the surface of PdSe_{2}, a recently discovered pentagonal layered TMD. The V_{Se} show a characterisitc charging ring in a spatially resolved conductance map, based on which we can determine its subsurface lattice location precisely. Using the STM tip, not only can we reversibly switch the defect states between charge neutral and charge negative, but also trigger migrations of V_{Se} defects. This allows a demonstration of direct "writing" and "erasing" of atomic defects and tracing the diffusion pathways. First-principles calculations reveal a small diffusion barrier of V_{Se} in PdSe_{2}, which is much lower than S vacancy in MoS_{2} or an O vacancy in TiO_{2}. This finding opens an opportunity of defect engineering in PdSe_{2} for such as controlled phase transformations and resistive-switching memory device application.

15.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): e1700336, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719860

RESUMO

Ammonia synthesis consumes 3 to 5% of the world's natural gas, making it a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Strategies for synthesizing ammonia that are not dependent on the energy-intensive and methane-based Haber-Bosch process are critically important for reducing global energy consumption and minimizing climate change. Motivated by a need to investigate novel nitrogen fixation mechanisms, we herein describe a highly textured physical catalyst, composed of N-doped carbon nanospikes, that electrochemically reduces dissolved N2 gas to ammonia in an aqueous electrolyte under ambient conditions. The Faradaic efficiency (FE) achieves 11.56 ± 0.85% at -1.19 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, and the maximum production rate is 97.18 ± 7.13 µg hour-1 cm-2. The catalyst contains no noble or rare metals but rather has a surface composed of sharp spikes, which concentrates the electric field at the tips, thereby promoting the electroreduction of dissolved N2 molecules near the electrode. The choice of electrolyte is also critically important because the reaction rate is dependent on the counterion type, suggesting a role in enhancing the electric field at the sharp spikes and increasing N2 concentration within the Stern layer. The energy efficiency of the reaction is estimated to be 5.25% at the current FE of 11.56%.

16.
ACS Nano ; 11(12): 11777-11802, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099577

RESUMO

Ever since the isolation of single-layer graphene in 2004, two-dimensional layered structures have been among the most extensively studied classes of materials. To date, the pool of two-dimensional materials (2DMs) continues to grow at an accelerated pace and already covers an extensive range of fascinating and technologically relevant properties. An array of experimental techniques have been developed and used to characterize and understand these properties. In particular, Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a key experimental technique, thanks to its capability to identify minute structural and electronic effects in nondestructive measurements. While high-frequency (HF) intralayer Raman modes have been extensively employed for 2DMs, recent experimental and theoretical progress has demonstrated that low-frequency (LF) interlayer Raman modes are more effective at determining layer numbers and stacking configurations and provide a unique opportunity to study interlayer coupling. These advantages are due to 2DMs' unique interlayer vibration patterns where each layer behaves as an almost rigidly moving object with restoring forces corresponding to weak interlayer interactions. Compared to HF Raman modes, the relatively small attention originally devoted to LF Raman modes is largely due to their weaker signal and their proximity to the strong Rayleigh line background, which previously made their detection challenging. Recent progress in Raman spectroscopy with technical and hardware upgrades now makes it possible to probe LF modes with a standard single-stage Raman system and has proven crucial to characterize and understand properties of 2DMs. Here, we present a comprehensive and forward-looking review on the current status of exploiting LF Raman modes of 2DMs from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, revealing the fundamental physics and technological significance of LF Raman modes in advancing the field of 2DMs. We review a broad array of materials, with varying thickness and stacking configurations, discuss the effect of in-plane anisotropy, and present a generalized linear chain model and interlayer bond polarizability model to rationalize the experimental findings. We also discuss the instrumental improvements of Raman spectroscopy to enhance and separate LF Raman signals from the Rayleigh line. Finally, we highlight the opportunities and challenges ahead in this fast-developing field.

17.
Nanoscale ; 9(40): 15340-15355, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984333

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have been extensively studied owing to their fascinating and technologically relevant properties. Their functionalities can be often tailored by the interlayer stacking pattern. Low-frequency (LF) Raman spectroscopy provides a quick, non-destructive and inexpensive optical technique for stacking characterization, since the intensities of LF interlayer vibrational modes are sensitive to the details of the stacking. A simple and generalized interlayer bond polarizability model is proposed here to explain and predict how the LF Raman intensities depend on complex stacking sequences for any thickness in a broad array of 2D materials, including graphene, MoS2, MoSe2, NbSe2, Bi2Se3, GaSe, h-BN, etc. Additionally, a general strategy is proposed to unify the stacking nomenclature for these 2D materials. Our model reveals the fundamental mechanism of LF Raman response to the stacking, and provides general rules for stacking identification.

18.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 6241-6247, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876939

RESUMO

Electrical contact to low-dimensional (low-D) materials is a key to their electronic applications. Traditional metal contacts to low-D semiconductors typically create gap states that can pin the Fermi level (EF). However, low-D metals possessing a limited density of states at EF can enable gate-tunable work functions and contact barriers. Moreover, a seamless contact with native bonds at the interface, without localized interfacial states, can serve as an optimal electrode. To realize such a seamless contact, one needs to develop atomically precise heterojunctions from the atom up. Here, we demonstrate an all-carbon staircase contact to ultranarrow armchair graphene nanoribbons (aGNRs). The coherent heterostructures of width-variable aGNRs, consisting of 7, 14, 21, and up to 56 carbon atoms across the width, are synthesized by a surface-assisted self-assembly process with a single molecular precursor. The aGNRs exhibit characteristic vibrational modes in Raman spectroscopy. A combined scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory study reveals the native covalent-bond nature and quasi-metallic contact characteristics of the interfaces. Our electronic measurements of such seamless GNR staircase constitute a promising first step toward making low resistance contacts.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(40): 14090-14097, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873294

RESUMO

Most studied two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit isotropic behavior due to high lattice symmetry; however, lower-symmetry 2D materials such as phosphorene and other elemental 2D materials exhibit very interesting anisotropic properties. In this work, we report the atomic structure, electronic properties, and vibrational modes of few-layered PdSe2 exfoliated from bulk crystals, a pentagonal 2D layered noble transition metal dichalcogenide with a puckered morphology that is air-stable. Micro-absorption optical spectroscopy and first-principles calculations reveal a wide band gap variation in this material from 0 (bulk) to 1.3 eV (monolayer). The Raman-active vibrational modes of PdSe2 were identified using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and a strong interlayer interaction was revealed from large, thickness-dependent Raman peak shifts, agreeing with first-principles Raman simulations. Field-effect transistors made from the few-layer PdSe2 display tunable ambipolar charge carrier conduction with a high electron field-effect mobility of ∼158 cm2 V-1 s-1, indicating the promise of this anisotropic, air-stable, pentagonal 2D material for 2D electronics.

20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14815, 2017 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287090

RESUMO

In the bottom-up synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) from self-assembled linear polymer intermediates, surface-assisted cyclodehydrogenations usually take place on catalytic metal surfaces. Here we demonstrate the formation of GNRs from quasi-freestanding polymers assisted by hole injections from a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip. While catalytic cyclodehydrogenations typically occur in a domino-like conversion process during the thermal annealing, the hole-injection-assisted reactions happen at selective molecular sites controlled by the STM tip. The charge injections lower the cyclodehydrogenation barrier in the catalyst-free formation of graphitic lattices, and the orbital symmetry conservation rules favour hole rather than electron injections for the GNR formation. The created polymer-GNR intraribbon heterostructures have a type-I energy level alignment and strongly localized interfacial states. This finding points to a new route towards controllable synthesis of freestanding graphitic layers, facilitating the design of on-surface reactions for GNR-based structures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA