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1.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103111, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease, which always leads to osteoporotic fractures. Biomarkers of bone mineral density (BMD) are helpful for prevention and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. This study aims to identify metabolomic biomarkers of low BMD. METHODS: We included 701 participants who had BMD measures by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and donated fasting plasma samples from three clinical centres as a discovery set and another 278 participants from the fourth centre as an independent replication set. We used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach to profile the global metabolites of fasting plasma. FINDINGS: Among the 265 named metabolites identified in our study, six were associated with low BMD (FDR-adjusted P<0.05) in the discovery set and were successfully validated in the independent replication set. The circulating levels of five metabolites, i.e., inosine, hypoxanthine, PC (O-18:0/22:6), SM (d18:1/21:0) and isoleucyl-proline were associated with decreased odds of low BMD, and PC (16:0/18:3) level was associated with increased odds of low BMD. Per 1-SD increase in a composite metabolite score of these six metabolites was associated with about half decreased odds of low BMD (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.68). Furthermore, introduction of a panel of metabolites selected by elastic net regression to a prediction model of classical risk factors and plasma biomarker of bone resorption substantially improved the prediction performance for low BMD (AUCs: 0.782 vs. 0.698, P=0.002). INTERPRETATION: Metabolomics profiling may help identify novel biomarkers of low BMD and be helpful for early diagnosis of osteoporosis beyond the current clinical index. FUNDING: This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China [2018YFC2001500 to J.S.], Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project [2017SHZDZX01], the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Key Program, 91749204 to J.S.], the National Natural Science Foundation of China [General Program, 81771491 to J.S.], the Project of Shanghai Subject Chief Scientist [2017BR011 to J.S.], Grants from the TCM Supported Project [18431902300 to J.S.] from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China [General Program, 81972089 to Z.X.]. Y.Z. was supported by the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China [81973032].

2.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170346

RESUMO

Page 4: In the "Results-Genetic correlation between AD and metabolic traits" section, the sentence "We also observed that HDL had a significant genetic correlation with AD (Rg = -0.137, P = 0.0436)" should be "We also observed that HDL had a significant genetic correlation with AD (Rg = 0.322, P = 0.017)".

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 277, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia and preterm delivery (PTD) are believed to affect women's long-term health including cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the biological underpinnings are largely unknown. We aimed to test whether maternal postpartum metabolomic profiles, especially CVD-related metabolites, varied according to PTD subtypes with and without preeclampsia, in a US urban, low-income multi-ethnic population. METHODS: This study, from the Boston Birth Cohort, included 980 women with term delivery, 79 with medically indicated PTD (mPTD) and preeclampsia, 52 with mPTD only, and 219 with spontaneous PTD (sPTD). Metabolomic profiling in postpartum plasma was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations of each metabolite with mPTD with preeclampsia, mPTD only, and sPTD, respectively, adjusting for pertinent covariates. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis was applied to investigate interconnected metabolites associated with the PTD/preeclampsia subgroups. Bonferroni correction was applied to account for multiple testing. RESULTS: A total of 380 known metabolites were analyzed. Compared to term controls, women with mPTD and preeclampsia showed a significant increase in 36 metabolites, mainly representing acylcarnitines and multiple classes of lipids (diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, phosphocholines, and lysophosphocholines), as well as a decrease in 11 metabolites including nucleotides, steroids, and cholesteryl esters (CEs) (P < 1.3 × 10-4). Alterations of diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and CEs in women with mPTD and preeclampsia remained significant when compared to women with mPTD only. In contrast, the metabolite differences between women with mPTD only and term controls were only seen in phosphatidylethanolamine class. Women with sPTD had significantly different levels of 16 metabolites mainly in amino acid, nucleotide, and steroid classes compared to term controls, of which, anthranilic acid, bilirubin, and steroids also had shared associations in women with mPTD and preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: In this sample of US high-risk women, PTD/preeclampsia subgroups each showed some unique and shared associations with maternal postpartum plasma metabolites, including those known to be predictors of future CVD. These findings, if validated, may provide new insight into metabolomic alterations underlying clinically observed PTD/preeclampsia subgroups and implications for women's future cardiometabolic health.

4.
J Nutr ; 150(11): 2882-2889, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the association between glutamate and glutamine in relation to cardiometabolic disorders has been evaluated, the role of these metabolites in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of glutamate, glutamine, and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with AF and HF incidence in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: The present study used 2 nested case-control studies within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study. During ∼10 y of follow-up, there were 509 AF incident cases matched to 618 controls and 326 HF incident cases matched to 426 controls. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were semiquantitatively profiled with LC-tandem MS. ORs were estimated with multivariable conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, per 1-SD increment, glutamate was associated with a 29% (95% CI: 1.08, 1.54) increased risk of HF and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with a 20% (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) decreased risk. Glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was also inversely associated with HF risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) when comparing extreme quartiles. Higher glutamate concentrations were associated with a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, whereas a higher glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with a better cardiometabolic risk profile. No associations between the concentrations of these metabolites and AF were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high plasma glutamate concentrations possibly resulting from alterations in the glutamate-glutamine cycle may contribute to the development of HF in Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk.This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.

5.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(5): 713-726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Co-deposition of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and IgG4 anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) autoantibodies under subepithelial cells has been observed in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN), but the relationships of MBL deposition to iMN severity and progression remain unclear. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with iMN who underwent renal puncture were enrolled and followed up for a median of 17 months (interquartile range [IQR], 9-25 months). Serum anti-PLA2R and anti-thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A antibodies and MBL were detected by ELISA. Glomerular MBL and anti-PLA2R antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence. Proteinuria remission, including complete remission (CR), was defined as a clinical event. Clinicopathological characteristics and kidney outcomes were compared between patients with and without MBL deposition. RESULTS: In 67 prevalent patients with biopsy-proven iMN, serum anti-PLA2R antibodies and anti-THSD7A antibodies were present in 37 (55.3%) and 1 (1.4%) patient with iMN. The positivity of glomerular MBL deposition and tissue anti-PLA2R antibody was 53 (79.1%) and 49 (73.1%), respectively. No significant difference was found between the MBL-positive and negative groups in the albumin level (26.5 ± 6.6 and 28.6 ± 6.1 g/L), eGFR (104.8 ± 17.4 and 114.6 ± 16.1 mL/min/1.73 m2), 24-h proteinuria (5.35 and 4.25 g/day), or serum MBL level corrected by serum Cr 4.92 (IQR, 0.86, 8.90) and 2.28 (IQR, 0.4, 5.62). In a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, eGFR, immunosuppressive agent use, 24-h proteinuria, and anti-PLA2R antibody concentration, glomerular MBL deposition was independently associated with ICR of proteinuria (HR, 6.31; 95% CI, 1.1-36.1; p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The MBL pathway of complement activation is commonly initiated in patients with iMN, and patients with MBL deposition reach ICR faster than patients without MBL deposition.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2588-2596, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coffee may protect against multiple chronic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Leveraging dietary and metabolomic data in two large cohorts of women (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] and NHSII), we identified and validated plasma metabolites associated with coffee intake in 1,595 women. We then evaluated the prospective association of coffee-related metabolites with diabetes risk and the added predictivity of these metabolites for diabetes in two nested case-control studies (n = 457 case and 1,371 control subjects). RESULTS: Of 461 metabolites, 34 were identified and validated to be associated with total coffee intake, including 13 positive associations (primarily trigonelline, polyphenol metabolites, and caffeine metabolites) and 21 inverse associations (primarily triacylglycerols [TAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]). These associations were generally consistent for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, except for caffeine and its metabolites that were only associated with caffeinated coffee intake. The three cholesteryl esters positively associated with coffee intake showed inverse associations with diabetes risk, whereas the 12 metabolites negatively associated with coffee (5 DAGs and 7 TAGs) showed positive associations with diabetes. Adding the 15 diabetes-associated metabolites to a classical risk factor-based prediction model increased the C-statistic from 0.79 (95% CI 0.76, 0.83) to 0.83 (95% CI 0.80, 0.86) (P < 0.001). Similar improvement was observed in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption is associated with widespread metabolic changes, among which lipid metabolites may be critical for the antidiabetes benefit of coffee. Coffee-related metabolites might help improve prediction of diabetes, but further validation studies are needed.

7.
Metabolism ; 112: 154345, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI], central obesity) and their genetic predisposition with the risk of developing severe COVID-19 in a population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 489,769 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank-a population-based cohort study. The exposures of interest are BMI categories and central obesity (e.g., larger waist circumference). Using genome-wide genotyping data, we also computed polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that represent an individual's overall genetic risk for each obesity trait. The outcome was severe COVID-19, defined by hospitalization for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 489,769 individuals, 33% were normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 43% overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and 24% obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). The UK Biobank identified 641 patients with severe COVID-19. Compared to adults with normal weight, those with a higher BMI had a dose-response increases in the risk of severe COVID-19, with the following adjusted ORs: for 25.0-29.9 kg/m2, 1.40 (95%CI 1.14-1.73; P = 0.002); for 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, 1.73 (95%CI 1.36-2.20; P < 0.001); for 35.0-39.9 kg/m2, 2.82 (95%CI 2.08-3.83; P < 0.001); and for ≥40.0 kg/m2, 3.30 (95%CI 2.17-5.03; P < 0.001). Likewise, central obesity was associated with significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, larger PRS for BMI was associated with higher risk of outcome (adjusted OR per BMI PRS Z-score 1.14, 95%CI 1.05-1.24; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population-based cohort, individuals with more-severe obesity, central obesity, or genetic predisposition for obesity are at higher risk of developing severe-COVID-19.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693092

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous respiratory disease reflecting distinct pathobiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms are based, at least partly, on different genetic factors shared by many other conditions, such as allergic diseases and obesity. Investigating the shared genetic effects enables better understanding of the mechanisms of phenotypic correlations and is less subject to confounding by environmental factors. The increasing availability of large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) for asthma has enabled researchers to examine the genetic contributions to the epidemiologic associations between asthma subtypes and those between coexisting diseases and/or traits and asthma. Studies have found not only shared but also distinct genetic components between asthma subtypes, indicating that the heterogeneity is related to distinct genetics. This review summarizes a recently compiled analytic approach-genome-wide cross-trait analysis-to determine shared and distinct genetic architecture. The genome-wide cross-trait analysis features in several analytic aspects: genetic correlation, cross-trait meta-analysis, Mendelian randomization, polygenic risk score, and functional analysis. In this article, we discuss in detail the scientific goals that can be achieved by these analyses, their advantages, and their limitations. We also make recommendations for future directions: (1) ethnicity-specific asthma GWASs and (2) application of cross-trait methods to multiomics data to dissect the heritability found in GWASs. Finally, these analytic approaches are also applicable to complex and heterogeneous traits beyond asthma.

9.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(11): 1007-1014, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The failure of autologous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) occurs primarily due to stenosis in the anastomotic site, which is mainly related to the development of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). Therefore, we conducted a study to establish a novel approach to create aortocaval fistulas (ACFs) in adenine-induced (AD) chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats to study the NIH in the inferior vena cava. METHODS: Ten adult female rats received a 0.75% adenine-rich diet for 4 weeks to induce CKD and underwent ACF surgery. Ten healthy rats served as controls. A 5-10-mm segment of a vein immediately adjacent to that the portion of the vein used for creating the fistula was surgically removed at the time of creating the fistula, and reconstruction of the failed fistula from the same patient was used as controls. ACF was assessed using duplex scans and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, AD rats showed higher serum creatinine and urea nitrogen than those of vehicle-treated rats. Remarkable histological changes in kidney tissues demonstrated successful CKD models. Sections of the ACF in AD rats and veins removed at the time of the reconstruction of the failed fistula of the patient demonstrated that the eccentric neointima formation is irregularly thickened, with several small vessels within a more cellular region of the neointima. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of myofibroblasts, contractile smooth muscle cells and macrophages within the neointima. CONCLUSIONS: Our rat models with ACFs showed typical features of NIH in the formation of fistula stenosis, which can resemble clinical findings in uremic patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548513

RESUMO

In a large population-based cohort data, adults with asthma had a higher risk of severe COVID-19, which was driven by the increased risk among patients with non-allergic asthma.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied. METHODS: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected P<1.6×10-3). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3) was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (P=5.7×10-15). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (P<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR P<4.5×10-4). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 (FADS2) was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, P=1.5×10-14).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (SNORA54; NAP1L4) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, P=1×10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2645-2656, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406924

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether metabolic signature composed of multiple plasma metabolites can be used to characterize adherence and metabolic response to the Mediterranean diet and whether such a metabolic signature is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our primary study cohort included 1859 participants from the Spanish PREDIMED trial, and validation cohorts included 6868 participants from the US Nurses' Health Studies I and II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (NHS/HPFS). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a validated Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), and plasma metabolome was profiled by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We observed substantial metabolomic variation with respect to Mediterranean diet adherence, with nearly one-third of the assayed metabolites significantly associated with MEDAS (false discovery rate < 0.05). Using elastic net regularized regressions, we identified a metabolic signature, comprised of 67 metabolites, robustly correlated with Mediterranean diet adherence in both PREDIMED and NHS/HPFS (r = 0.28-0.37 between the signature and MEDAS; P = 3 × 10-35 to 4 × 10-118). In multivariable Cox regressions, the metabolic signature showed a significant inverse association with CVD incidence after adjusting for known risk factors (PREDIMED: hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation increment in the signature = 0.71, P < 0.001; NHS/HPFS: HR = 0.85, P = 0.001), and the association persisted after further adjustment for MEDAS scores (PREDIMED: HR = 0.73, P = 0.004; NHS/HPFS: HR = 0.85, P = 0.004). Further genome-wide association analysis revealed that the metabolic signature was significantly associated with genetic loci involved in fatty acids and amino acids metabolism. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that the genetically inferred metabolic signature was significantly associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke (odds ratios per SD increment in the genetically inferred metabolic signature = 0.92 for CHD and 0.91 for stroke; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a metabolic signature that robustly reflects adherence and metabolic response to a Mediterranean diet, and predicts future CVD risk independent of traditional risk factors, in Spanish and US cohorts.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(4): 1049-1056, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taller individuals are at higher risk of melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association of height with nevus count and melanoma and estimate the proportion of height-melanoma association explained by nevus count among white participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study 2 (NHS2). METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards regression and multinomial logistic regression for data analyses, with adjustment of potential confounders in the multivariate model. RESULTS: We included 82,468 and 106,069 women from NHS and NHS2, respectively. The hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.31) for the association between every 10-cm increase in height and melanoma. Compared with women with no nevi, the odds ratios (95% CIs) associated with a 10-cm increase in height were 1.35 (95% CI 1.23-1.48) in the NHS and 1.12 (95% CI 1.09-1.15) in the NHS2 for women with greater than or equal to 10 moles. The proportion of excess melanoma risk associated with each 10-cm increase in height explained by nevus count was 8.03% in the NHS and 10.22% in the NHS2. LIMITATION: Self-reported height and nevus count. Mole counts were limited to 1 arm or both legs. CONCLUSION: Nevus count is an important explanatory factor for the excess risk of melanoma among taller white women.

15.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(12): e2000178, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378786

RESUMO

SCOPE: The plasma metabolomics profiles of protein intake have been rarely investigated. The aim is to identify the distinct plasma metabolomics profiles associated with overall intakes of protein as well as with intakes from animal and plant protein sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis using data from 1833 participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease is conducted. Associations between 385 identified metabolites and the intake of total, animal protein (AP), and plant protein (PP), and plant-to-animal ratio (PR) are assessed using elastic net continuous regression analyses. A double 10-cross-validation (CV) procedure is used and Pearson correlations coefficients between multi-metabolite weighted models and reported protein intake in each pair of training-validation datasets are calculated. A wide set of metabolites is consistently associated with each protein source evaluated. These metabolites mainly consisted of amino acids and their derivatives, acylcarnitines, different organic acids, and lipid species. Few metabolites overlapped among protein sources (i.e., C14:0 SM, C20:4 carnitine, GABA, and allantoin) but none of them toward the same direction. Regarding AP and PP approaches, C20:4 carnitine and dimethylglycine are positively associated with PP but negatively associated with AP. However, allantoin, C14:0 SM, C38:7 PE plasmalogen, GABA, metronidazole, and trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate) behave contrarily. Ten-CV Pearson correlation coefficients between self-reported protein intake and plasma metabolomics profiles range from 0.21 for PR to 0.32 for total protein. CONCLUSIONS: Different sets of metabolites are associated with total, animal, and plant protein intake. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in protein biomarkers' discovery and prediction of cardiometabolic alterations.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 835-844, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the associations of these metabolites with T2D incidence and the potential effect of dietary interventions remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with insulin resistance and T2D incidence, and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions. METHODS: We included 251 incident T2D cases and 638 noncases in a nested case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study during median follow-up of 3.8 y. Participants were allocated to MedDiet + extra-virgin olive oil, MedDiet + nuts, or control diet. Plasma metabolites were measured using a targeted approach by LC-tandem MS. We tested the associations of baseline and 1-y changes in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle metabolites with subsequent T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models and adjusting for potential confounders. We designed a weighted score combining all these metabolites and applying the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. RESULTS: Baseline circulating concentrations of hexose monophosphate, pyruvate, lactate, alanine, glycerol-3 phosphate, and isocitrate were significantly associated with higher T2D risk (17-44% higher risk for each 1-SD increment). The weighted score including all metabolites was associated with a 30% (95% CI: 1.12, 1.51) higher relative risk of T2D for each 1-SD increment. Baseline lactate and alanine were associated with baseline and 1-y changes of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. One-year increases in most metabolites and in the weighted score were associated with higher relative risk of T2D after 1 y of follow-up. Lower risks were observed in the MedDiet groups than in the control group although no significant interactions were found after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related metabolites that was significantly associated with T2D risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A MedDiet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gluconeogênese , Glicólise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 20, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058563

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between dietary fat intake and the presence of AMD. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study with cohorts prospectively recruited from the United States and Portugal. AMD was diagnosed based on color fundus photographs with the AREDS classification. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the percent energy intake of trans fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for quintile of amount of FA were calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the OR. Results: We included 483 participants, 386 patients with AMD and 97 controls. Higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 2.3-fold higher odds of presence of AMD (P for trend = 0.0156), whereas a higher intake of PUFA (OR, 0.25; P for trend = 0.006) and MUFA (OR, 0.24; P for trend < 0.0001) presented an inverse association. Subgroup analysis showed that higher quintile of trans fat was associated with increased odds of having intermediate AMD (OR, 2.26; P for trend = 0.02); and higher quintile of PUFA and MUFA were inversely associated with intermediate AMD (OR, 0.2 [P for trend = 0.0013]; OR, 0.17 [P for trend < 0.0001]) and advanced AMD (OR, 0.13 [P for trend = 0.02]; OR, 0.26 [P for trend = 0.004]). Additionally, a statistically significant effect modification by country was noted with inverse association between MUFA and AMD being significant (OR, 0.04; P for trend < 0.0001) for the Portugal population only. Conclusions: Our study shows that higher dietary intake of trans fat is associated with the presence of AMD, and a higher intake of PUFA and MUFA is inversely associated with AMD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Macular/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(3): e430-e439, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cooking practice has transitioned from use of solid fuels to use of clean fuels, with addition of better ventilation facilities. However, the change in mortality risk associated with such a transition remains unclear. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) Study enrolled participants (aged 30-79 years) from ten areas across China; we chose to study participants from five urban areas where transition from use of solid fuels to clean fuels for cooking was prevalent. Participants who reported regular cooking (weekly or more frequently) at baseline were categorised as persistent clean fuel users, previous solid fuel users, or persistent solid fuel users, according to self-reported fuel use histories. All-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality were identified through linkage to China's Disease Surveillance Point system and local mortality records. FINDINGS: Between June 24, 2004, and July 15, 2008, 226 186 participants living in five urban areas of China were enrolled in the CKB Study. Among 171 677 participants who reported cooking regularly (weekly or more frequently), 75 785 (44%) were persistent clean fuel users, 80 511 (47%) were previous solid fuel users, and 15 381 (9%) were persistent solid fuel users. During a mean of 9·8 (SD 1·7) years of follow-up, 10 831 deaths were documented, including 3819 cardiovascular deaths and 761 respiratory deaths. Compared with persistent clean fuel users, persistent solid fuel users had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·19, 95% CI 1·10-1·28), cardiovascular mortality (1·24, 1·10-1·39), and respiratory mortality (1·43, 1·10-1·85). The excess risk of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality fell by more than 60% in 5 years after cessation of solid fuel use and continued to decrease afterwards. Use of ventilation was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk, even among persistent clean fuel users (HR 0·78, 0·69-0·89). INTERPRETATION: Solid fuel use for cooking is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and cessation of solid fuel use cuts excess mortality risks swiftly and substantially within 5 years. Ventilation use also lowers the risk of mortality, even among people who persistently use clean fuels. It is of prime importance for both policy makers and the public to accelerate the transition from solid fuels to clean fuels and promote efficient ventilation to minimise further adverse health effects. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Wellcome Trust, and Kadoorie Charitable Foundation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Culinária/métodos , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Eletricidade , Feminino , Combustíveis Fósseis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Madeira
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 635-643, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between circulating folate concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been evaluated in Western populations with inconsistent results; however, the observational and causal associations in Chinese populations with relatively low folate concentrations remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association of circulating folate concentrations with incident CAD in Chinese adults, and further evaluated the causal relation using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: We measured baseline serum folate in 1605 incident CAD cases and 1605 age- and sex-matched controls nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, which recruited 27,009 individuals with a mean age of 63.6 y in 2008-2010 and followed up until the end of 2013 (mean: 4.4 y). We quantified the observational association between folate and incident CAD using conditional logistic regression models. A 2-sample MR analysis was performed using summary statistics obtained for genetic variants identified from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating folate concentrations in participants of European ancestry (n = 37,341) and from the CardiogramplusC4D 1000 genomes-based GWAS meta-analysis (n = 184,305). We also conducted 1-sample MR among 1545 incident CAD cases and 1444 controls with genotyping data in the DFTJ cohort. RESULTS: In the DFTJ cohort, higher serum folate concentrations were associated with a lower risk of CAD: the OR (95% CI) across sex-specific quartiles of folate (from lowest to highest concentrations) was 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.63, 0.97), 0.77 (0.61, 0.97), and 0.75 (0.60, 0.95), respectively (P-trend = 0.01). In the MR analysis, the OR of CAD per SD increase in genetically predicted serum folate was 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) and 0.88 (0.59, 1.32) for European and Chinese populations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found an inverse association between circulating folate concentrations and incident CAD among Chinese populations. However, we confirmed that there was no genetic evidence to support the causal relation in both European and Chinese populations.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure with blood lipids and lipoproteins are inconsistent, and existing studies did not account for metabolic heterogeneity of lipoprotein subspecies. This study aimed to examine the associations between plasma PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies. METHODS: The study included 326 men and women from the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) Lost randomized trial. Five PFASs, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), were measured in plasma at baseline. For lipoprotein and apolipoprotein subspecies, total plasma was fractionated first by apolipoprotein (apo) C-III content and then by density. Each subfraction was then measured for apoB, apoC-III, and apoE concentrations, as well as triglyceride and cholesterol contents, both at baseline and at 2 years. RESULTS: For lipids and apolipoproteins in total plasma at baseline, elevated plasma PFAS concentrations were significantly associated with higher apoB and apoC-III concentrations, but not with total cholesterol or triglycerides. After multivariate adjustment of lifestyle factors, lipid-lowering medication use, and dietary intervention groups, PFAS concentrations were primarily associated with lipids or apolipoprotein concentrations in intermediate-to-low density lipoprotein (IDL + LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that contain apoC-III. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) were 4.16 (0.4) vs 3.47 (0.4) for apoB (P trend = 0.04), 2.03 (0.2) vs 1.66 (0.2) for apoC-III (P trend = 0.04), and 8.4 (0.8) vs 6.8 (0.8) for triglycerides (P trend = 0.03) in IDL + LDL fraction that contains apoC-III. For HDL that contains apoC-III, comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of PFOA, the least-square means (SE) (mg/dl) of apoC-III were 11.9 (0.7) vs 10.4 (0.7) (P trend = 0.01). In addition, elevated PFNA and PFDA concentrations were also significantly associated with higher concentrations of apoE in HDL that contains apoC-III (P trend< 0.01). Similar patterns of associations were demonstrated between baseline PFAS concentrations and lipoprotein subspecies measured at 2 years. Baseline PFAS levels were not associated with changes in lipoprotein subspecies during the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that plasma PFAS concentrations are primarily associated with blood lipids and apolipoproteins in subspecies of IDL, LDL, and HDL that contain apoC-III, which are associated with elevated cardiovascular risk in epidemiological studies. Future studies of PFAS-associated cardiovascular risk should focus on lipid subfractions.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Ácidos Decanoicos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Sulfônicos/sangue
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