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1.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408742

RESUMO

The salt-tolerant unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil FACHB-847 can accumulate large amounts of lutein, but the underlying cause of massive accumulation of lutein is still unknown. In this study, genes encoding two types of carotene hydroxylases, i.e., ß-carotene hydroxylase (DbBCH) and cytochrome P450 carotenoid hydroxylase (DbCYP97s; DbCYP97A, DbCYP97B, and DbCYP97C), were cloned from D. bardawil. Their substrate specificities and enzyme activities were tested through functional complementation assays in Escherichia coli. It was showed that DbBCH could catalyze the hydroxylation of the ß-rings of both ß- and α-carotene, and displayed a low level of ε-hydroxylase. Unlike CYP97A from higher plants, DbCYP97A could not hydroxylate ß-carotene. DbCYP97A and DbCYP97C showed high hydroxylase activity toward the ß-ring and ε-ring of α-carotene, respectively. DbCYP97B displayed minor activity toward the ß-ring of α-carotene. The high accumulation of lutein in D. bardawil may be due to the multiple pathways for lutein biosynthesis generated from α-carotene with zeinoxanthin or α-cryptoxanthin as intermediates by DbBCH and DbCYP97s. Taken together, this study provides insights for understanding the underlying reason for high production of lutein in the halophilic green alga D. bardawil FACHB-847.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440869

RESUMO

A novel bimetallic coordinated g-C3N4 with Fe2O3 composite catalyst (FeCu-g-C3N4) was synthesized by simple calcination of Fe3+/Cu2+/melamine precursor. Its catalytic performance was analyzed via photodegrading aniline. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the composition and structure of the catalysts. Results indicated that Fe mainly distributed in the Fe(III)-N coordination form and partly in Fe2O3 lattice, and Cu inserted at the interstitial positions of g-C3N4 in the Cu(I)-N form. The great optical property was also proved by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and photocurrent responses. The heterogeneous photo-assisted catalyst exhibited excellent performance in activation of H2O2, resulting in 80% decomposition of aniline with low metal leaching in 6 h. The incorporation of Cu elevated the performance of degradation compared to that only iron doped. A synergistic catalytic effect between solid Cu(I) and Fe(III) accelerated the reduction of Fe(III). The ·OH and 1O2 were confirmed as major reactive oxygen species (ROS) identified by scavenging experiments and ESR, and e- was the most essential since it not only led to the generation of ROS but also participated in the circulation of Fe3+/Fe2+, Cu2+/Cu+, and Fe3+/Cu+. Furthermore, the possible catalytic mechanism was proposed based on the analysis.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(23): 3960-3967, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321685

RESUMO

This study investigated the concentrations and seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps and rubella among children in Guangzhou, China. We conducted a cross-sectional study focusing on the post-vaccination immune statuses of children on scheduled immunisation. Human IgG antibody against six diseases were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Of 620 subjects, the male-to-female ratio was 2.04 (416/204). Seroprevalence (81.97% vs 90.20%) and IgG concentrations (686.55 IU/mL vs 884.26 IU/mL, P < 0.05) for measles, tetanus (0.94 IU/mL vs 1.21 IU/mL) and rubella (34.33 IU/mL vs 47.37 IU/mL) were all higher in females. No differences based on sex were observed in the seroprevalence and IgG concentrations for anti-pertussis antibodies, anti-diphtheria antibodies and anti-mumps. Slight increase in seroprevalence and IgG concentration occurred with anti-pertussis antibodies after primary and booster vaccinations (from 0.00% [1 m], 5.45% [6 m], to 17.14% [1.5 yr]; and from 8.57% [5 yr] to 15.79% [6 yr]). Although no booster vaccination was given after age 6 yr, the seroprevalence and IgG concentration for anti-pertussis antibodies remained relatively stable. For diphtheria, tetanus, measles and rubella, seroprevalence reached their peaks after the primary and first booster vaccination. A plateau occurred after age 1.5 yr with a declining trend in subjects >8-10 yr. The IgG concentrations of these 4 pathogens showed a dramatic increase after primary vaccination, with steadily declining trends thereafter. For mumps, subjects showed increased seroprevalence and IgG concentration after the primary mumps-containing vaccination in 1.5-yr-olds (from 7.14% to 57.14%; 52.13 IU/mL to 214.18 IU/mL); however, following that low seroprevalence levels (from 42.86% to 80.00%) were observed. The post-vaccination immune statuses against diphtheria, tetanus, measles and rubella were relatively satisfactory, compared to those against pertussis and mumps. Booster vaccination against pertussis and mumps at appropriate time should be considered.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138103, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224403

RESUMO

Most of the reported magnetic adsorbents are difficult to absorb multi-class of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), especially the short-chain PFASs. In this work, a novel fluorine and nitrogen functionalized magnetic graphene (G-NH-FBC/Fe2O3) was first synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The as-prepared G-NH-FBC/Fe2O3 was utilized as adsorbents for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of 19 PFASs from water and functional beverages and showed excellent adsorption capacity probably due to the hydrophobic interaction. Under the optimal pretreatment and instrumental conditions, a selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Orbitrap HRMS) method was developed for the determination of PFASs. Results indicated that the proposed method had favorable linearity (R2 ≥ 0.994) within a wide range of concentrations. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the developed method ranged from 3 ng/L to 15 ng/L and 10 ng/L to 49 ng/L, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determine PFASs in drinking water, river water, tap water, factory drainage and functional beverages with recoveries ranging from 71.9% to 117.6% and relative standard deviation of <10%. The prepared G-NH-FBC/Fe2O3 was easy to recycle and could be reused for five times without significant decrease in extraction recoveries of PFASs. These results demonstrated that this novel magnetic G-NH-FBC/Fe2O3 could efficiently enrich PFASs and the proposed method is reliable and robust for the determination of PFASs in water and beverage samples.

5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(4): 402-407, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal anemia is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and threatens maternal or fetal life. Anemia increases the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. We aimed to determine the cutoff level of hemoglobin and risk factors for maternal anemia at admission for delivery and investigate the association between maternal anemia and adverse perinatal outcomes in contemporary Taiwanese women. METHODS: About 32,234 women admitted to the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective observational cohort study. The prevalence of pre-delivery maternal anemia in Taiwan and the maternal demographic and perinatal outcomes associated with maternal anemia was assessed. RESULTS: The 10th and 5th percentile hemoglobin levels of the test cohort (2001-2008, n = 15,602) were 10.8 g/dL and 9.9 g/dL, respectively. In the study cohort (2009-2016, n = 13,026), women who were multiparous, who were aged >34 years, with history of cesarean delivery, and with history of uterine fibroids had higher prevalence of anemia. Anemic women were at increased risk of cesarean delivery, primary cesarean delivery, premature rupture of membranes, early preterm birth <34 weeks, having very low birth weight infants (<1,500 g), having large for gestational age infants, and neonatal intensive care center transfer, but at lower risk of having small for gestational age infants. CONCLUSION: Maternal anemia at delivery is a risk factor for primary cesarean delivery and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Furthermore, we hypothesize that maternal anemia might increase fetoplacental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis as an adaptive response.

6.
J Econ Entomol ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300789

RESUMO

Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is a high-risk invasive forest pest worldwide. We surveyed Asian longhorned beetle parasitoid guilds and their seasonal abundance using field-deployed sentinel host logs infested with Asian longhorned beetle eggs or newly hatched (early-instar) larvae in three different sites of China (Beijing City, Shanghai City, and Jilin Province) from 2015 to 2018. Our survey detected 12 species of hymenopteran parasitoids (four Pteromalidae, three Braconidae, two Eupelmidae, one Eurytomidae, one Ichneumonidae, and one Bethylidae) attacking sentinel Asian longhorned beetle larvae or eggs deployed in these sites. Total parasitism by all the parasitoid species varied with different sites and across different years of the survey (averaging 7-16% in Beijing, 4-11% in Shanghai, and 0-0.2% in Jilin Province). In addition, the seasonal pattern of parasitism also differed among different sites, with parasitism peaking in July in the northern site (Beijing, 19%) and June in the southern site (Shanghai, 16%). Among all the parasitoid species recovered, Oxysychus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was the most abundant parasitoid species in both Beijing and Shanghai (with 42-66% relative abundance and an average of 6% Asian longhorned beetle parasitism). The second most abundant species was Bracon planitibiae Yang, Cao et Gould (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which accounted for 35% of the species collected and caused an average of 5% Asian longhorned beetle parasitism. Relevance of our findings to Asian longhorned beetle biocontrol is discussed.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114389, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220691

RESUMO

The present work reported a high-throughput strategy for the analysis of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water, tap water, river water and plant effluent from southern China by supramolecular solvent (SUPARS) vortex-mixed microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Orbitrap HRMS). The SUPRAS without heating assistance is less solvent-consumption, meeting the requirements for green environmental protection and sustainable development. Parameters in the microextraction such as volume of dodecanol and tetrahydrofuran (THF), vortexing extraction and centrifugation time, salt concentration were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were 250 µL of undecanol, 1.0 mL of THF and 20.0% (w/v, 4 g) NaCl. Under the optimum conditions, method limit of detection and method limit of quantitation in the ranges of 0.01-0.08 µg/L and 0.03-0.25 µg/L, good recoveries (72.5-117.8%) and intra-day precision (1.1-11.2%, n = 6), high enrichment factors (48-78) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of PFCs in 13 drinking water, tap water, river water and plant effluent samples collected from southern China. Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid was detected in one river water with concentration of 0.48 µg/L and 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid was detected in one river water and two plant effluent samples with concentrations in the range of 0.14-0.67 µg/L.

8.
Chin J Traumatol ; 23(2): 89-95, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192909

RESUMO

Pericyte, a kind of pluripotent cell, may regulate the irrigation flow and permeability of microcirculation. Pericytes are similar to the smooth muscle cells, which express several kinds of contractile proteins and have contractility. The dysfunction of pericytes is related to many microvascular diseases, including hypoxia, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, fibrosis, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and tumor formation. For a long time, their existence and function have been neglected. The distribution, structure, biomarker, related signaling pathways as well as the roles of pericytes on vascular diseases will be introduced in this review.

9.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(6): 1365-1372, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151412

RESUMO

The aims of the study described here were to evaluate medial arterial calcification (MAC) of the lower limbs, identified on ultrasound, in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to analyze the association of MAC with diabetic complications including peripheral arterial disease, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Ultrasound was performed in 359 patients, and the severity of MAC was assessed by the length of MAC (score range: 0-8) and the number of arterial segmentations with MAC (score range: 0-6). Our results revealed that MAC scoring based on the segmentation method was an independent predictor of peripheral arterial disease and nephropathy, but not an independent predictor of peripheral neuropathy or retinopathy. MAC scoring based on the length method was not an independent predictor of any complication. The segmentation method for assessing MAC on ultrasound may be a valuable tool in clinical work.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(11)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198171

RESUMO

Our current understanding of the host-microbiota interaction in the gut is dominated by studies focused primarily on prokaryotic bacterial communities. However, there is an underappreciated symbiotic eukaryotic protistic community that is an integral part of mammalian microbiota. How commensal protozoan bacteria might interact to form a stable microbial community remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a murine protistic commensal, phylogenetically assigned as Tritrichomonas musculis, whose colonization in the gut resulted in a reduction of gut bacterial abundance and diversity in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Meanwhile, dietary nutrient and commensal bacteria also influenced the protozoan's intestinal colonization and stability. While mice fed a normal chow diet had abundant T. musculis organisms, switching to a Western-type high-fat diet led to the diminishment of the protozoan from the gut. Supplementation of inulin as a dietary fiber to the high-fat diet partially restored the protozoan's colonization. In addition, a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics rendered permissive engraftment of T. musculis even under a high-fat, low-fiber diet. Furthermore, oral administration of Bifidobacterium spp. together with dietary supplementation of inulin in the high-fat diet impacted the protozoan's intestinal engraftment in a bifidobacterial species-dependent manner. Overall, our study described an example of dietary-nutrient-dependent murine commensal protozoan-bacterium cross talk as an important modulator of the host intestinal microbiome.IMPORTANCE Like commensal bacteria, commensal protozoa are an integral part of the vertebrate intestinal microbiome. How protozoa integrate into a commensal bacterium-enriched ecosystem remains poorly studied. Here, using the murine commensal Tritrichomonas musculis as a proof of concept, we studied potential factors involved in shaping the intestinal protozoal-bacterial community. Understanding the rules by which microbes form a multispecies community is crucial to prevent or correct microbial community dysfunctions in order to promote the host's health or to treat diseases.

11.
J Vis Exp ; (155)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065149

RESUMO

Adoptive cellular immunotherapy focuses on restoring cancer recognition via the immune system and improves effective tumor cell killing. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) T cell therapy has been reported to exert significant cytotoxic effects against cancer cells and to reduce the adverse effects of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy in cancer treatments. CIK can be derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), bone marrow, and umbilical cord blood. CIK cells are a heterogeneous subpopulation of T cells with CD3+CD56+ and natural killer (NK) phenotypic characteristics that include major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted antitumor activity. This study describes a qualified, clinically applicable, flow cytometry-based method for the quantification of the cytolytic capability of PBMC-derived CIK cells against hematological and solid cancer cells. In the cytolytic assay, CIK cells are co-incubated at different ratios with prestained target tumor cells. After the incubation period, the number of target cells are determined by a nucleic acid-binding stain to detect dead cells. This method is applicable to both research and diagnostic applications. CIK cells possess potent cytotoxicity that could be explored as an alternative strategy for cancer treatment upon its preclinical evaluation by a cytometer setup and tracking (CS & T)-based flow cytometry system.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122861, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046939

RESUMO

Swine wastewater is categorized as one of the agricultural wastewater with high contents of organics and nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, which may lead to eutrophication in the environment. Insufficient technologies to remove those nutrients could lead to environmental problems after discharge. Several physical and chemical methods have been applied to treat the swine wastewater, but biological treatments are considered as the promising methods due to the cost effectiveness and performance efficiency along with the production of valuable products and bioenergies. This review summarizes the characteristics of swine wastewaters in the beginning, and briefly describes the current issues on the treatments of swine wastewaters. Several biological techniques, such as anaerobic digestion, A/O process, microbial fuel cells, and microalgae cultivations, and their future aspects will be addressed. Finally, the potentials to reutilize biomass produced during the treatment processes are also presented under the consideration of circular economy.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Suínos
13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913453

RESUMO

AIMS: It is well-established that endothelial dysfunction promotes activation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Whether decreased accumulation of VSMCs affects endothelial regeneration and functions in arteriovenous graft (AVG) remodeling has not been studied. We sought to identify mechanisms by which the Notch ligand, Jagged1, in VSMCs regulates endothelial cell (EC) functions in AVGs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AVGs were created in transgenic mice bearing VSMC-specific knockout (KO) or overexpression of Jagged1. VSMC migration, EC regeneration and its barrier functions as well as AVG remodeling were evaluated. Jagged1 expression was induced in VSMCs of neointima in the AVGs. Jagged1 KO in VSMCs inhibited the accumulation of extracellular matrix as well as VSMC migration. Fewer α-SMA-positive VSMCs were found in AVGs created in VSMC-specific Jagged1 KO mice (VSMCJagged1 KO mice) vs. in WT mice. Decreased VSMCs in AVGs were associated with deterioration of EC functions. In AVGs created in transgenic mice bearing Jagged1 KO in VSMCs exhibited delayed EC regeneration and impaired EC barrier function. Barrier dysfunction of ECs increased inflammatory cell infiltration and dysregulation of AVG remodeling and arterialization. The increased expression of IL-1ß in macrophages was associated with expression of adhesion markers in ECs in AVGs created in VSMCJagged1 KO mice. In contrast, AVGs created in mice with overexpression of Jagged1 in VSMCs exhibited improved EC regeneration plus decreased macrophage infiltration. This led to AVG remodeling and arterialization. In co-cultures of ECs and VSMCs, Jagged1 deficiency in VSMCs suppressed N-cadherin and integrin ß3 expression in ECs. Inhibition of integrin ß3 activation delayed EC spreading and migration. Notably, Jagged1 overexpression in VSMCs or treatment with recombinant Jagged1 stimulated the expression of N-cadherin and integrin ß3 in ECs. Jagged1-induced responses were blocked by inhibition of Notch signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Jagged1 expression in VSMCs maintains EC barrier functions and blocks infiltration of macrophages. These responses promote remodeling and arterialization of AVGs. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The vein is subjected to arterial environment immediately after AVG or arteriovenous fistula surgery. ECs in the vein of the AVGs and arteriovenous fistulae are denuded and regenerated later. Deficiency of Jagged1 expression in VSMCs inhibits VSMC migration, proliferation, and interferes with arterialization of vein of the AVGs. These responses also delay EC regeneration and EC barrier function with increased inflammation leading to failed vascular remodeling of AVGs. Thus, a strategy to regulate Jagged1 expression will improve AVG arterialization and function.

14.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(5): 603-612, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992527

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of soil organic matter (SOM) content levels on the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Batch experiments were conducted with soils with 2% or 10% organic matter that had been contaminated by diesel or fuel oil. In addition to the TPH (diesel or fuel oil) degradation efficiency, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on the TPH-degrading microbial community using molecular tools including oligonucleotide microarray technique and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP). TPH was reduced from 10,000 mg/kg to 1849-4352 mg/kg dry weight soil. Higher biodegradation efficiencies and kinetic rate constants were observed in higher SOM contents. Hydrocarbon fractional analyses were conducted to explain the optimal operation with relatively low resin and aromatic fractions detected at the end of the remediation. The bacterial and fungal counts in the 10% SOM were approximately 10 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g above those in the 2% SOM, and the lowest fungal level was found when the least TPH degradability was measured. The internal transcribed spacer microarray identified the microorganisms that were introduced and proved their survival. The associated growth pattern confirmed that different kinds of contamination oils affected the microbial community diversity over time. Both the microarray and T-RFLP profiles indicated that Gordonia alkanivorans, G. desulfuricans, and Rhodococcus erythoropolis were the dominant bacteria, while Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus versicolor were the dominant fungi. The T-RFLP-derived nonmetric multidimensional scaling concluded that the dynamics of the microbial communities were impacted by the TPH degradation stages.

15.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 106(4): 355-363, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932859

RESUMO

Microvascular complications are prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, it is unclear whether above-knee artery calcification relates to microvascular complications. This study was aimed to investigate the role of calcification in superficial femoral arteries (SFA), the major above-knee artery, compared with anterior tibial arteries (ATA) and posterior tibial arteries (PTA), in T2DM-related microvascular complications and explore its risk factors. A single-center and observational study involving 359 T2DM patients was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. SFA calcification was evaluated by ultrasonography. Compared with ATA and PTA calcification, operating characteristics curve analysis showed that SFA calcification was the strongest predictor (63.1% sensitivity and 69.2% specificity) for T2DM-related microvascular complications (diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy). With the severity of SFA calcification increased, age, duration of T2DM, and SBP were significantly elevated, but triglyceride and glucose index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly reduced (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that eGFR (OR 0.953; 95% CI 0.931-0.976; P < 0.001) was an independent risk factor of SFA calcification, especially in young patients with HbA1c > 7.0. We identified SFA calcification as a good predictor of microvascular complications in T2DM patients. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with increased SFA calcification prevalence, especially in young T2DM patients with bad controlled hyperglycemia.

16.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 72(4): 551-560, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antihyperuricemia and nephroprotective effects of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on hyperuricemia (HUA) mice and explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Orthosiphon stamineus extracts were extracted using 50% ethanol and enriched using ethyl acetate, and characterised utilising UPLC/ESI-MS. A potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemic mouse model was used to evaluate antihyperuricemia and nephroprotective effects of O. stamineus ethyl acetate extracts (OSE). KEY FINDINGS: Eight constituents from OSE were identified and OSE treatment ameliorated HUA by regulating key indicators of kidney dysfunction and xanthine oxidase, adenosine deaminase activity and urate transporters in hyperuricemic mice. Moreover, in renal histopathology analysis, OSE significantly alleviated kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that OSE has antihyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects on PO-induced HUA mice and those results indicate that OSE could be a safe and effective agent or functional ingredient for treating HUA.

17.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-3, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975622

RESUMO

Background: Postoperative hydrocephalus and subdural fluid collection (SFC) have been reported as the rare complications following foramen magnum decompression in patients with Chiari malformation.Case Description: The paper reports the case of a 63-year-old female patient who underwent foramen magnum decompression for basilar invagination. The patient developed a shifting, bilateral SFC and subsequent acute hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunting was performed and the clinical symptom resolved. The dramatic change in CSF distribution supported the diagnosis of external hydrocephalus, which was associated with a postoperative cervical pseudomeningocele.Conclusions: Postoperative SFC in patients underwent foramen magnum decompression may harbor different mechanisms. Subdural drainage for patients having external hydrocephalus may have a higher recurrence rate.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 751-758, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861959

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of defatted walnut meal hydrolysate (DWMH) and tea polyphenols (TP) on learning improvement and to explain mechanistically why the combined treatments were more effective than either subject alone. In the step-down avoidance test and the Morris water maze test, codelivery of DWMH and TP was more effective than either individual supplement in reversing memory impairment in scopolamine-treated mice. Mixing with TP significantly facilitated the protective effects of DWMH or DWMH-derived peptides (cationic peptide P1 and anionic peptide P2) on H2O2-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Although combination treatment with TP and DWMH did not significantly alter systemic exposure to P1 or P2 in rats, it significantly increased the accumulation of the two peptides in the mouse brain. In addition, TP significantly improved cellular uptake of P1 and P2 by brain capillary endothelial cells, indicating that TP enhanced the blood-brain barrier permeation of DWMH-derived peptides. The proposed explanation for the advantage of combined treatment with TP and DWMH in reversing memory impairment was that TP enhanced both the protective effects of DWMH on nerve cells and the accumulation of DWMH in the brain. Our study can aid efforts to develop products and investigate the effects of nutrient combinations on brain disorders.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Juglans/química , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Nozes/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos
19.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 132: 109436, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731954

RESUMO

The halophilic green alga Dunaliella bardawil has been used for commercial production of natural ß-carotene by large-scale outdoor cultivation, which often suffers from heat stress especially at noon in hot summers. In this study, the effects of heat stress on cell growth, pigment contents, and activities of antioxidant system in D. bardawil were studied, and RNA-seq experiment was conducted to analyze the transcriptional response to heat stress (42 °C for 2 h) in D. bardawil. High temperature (42 °C) for short time treatment (≤3 h) did not severely affect the cell growth and pigment accumulation of D. bardawil. Multiple genes encoding heat shock proteins for protein folding and antioxidant enzymes against toxic reactive oxygen species were substantially up-regulated significantly under heat stress. D. bardawil cells tended to shift from aerobic to glycolytic metabolism for energy production to increase survival chances under heat stress. Furthermore, the enrichment of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, up-regulation of genes responsible for chloroplast membranes, and changes in lipid characteristics like carbon chain length and unsaturation degree could play a vital role in achieving thermotolerance of D. bardawil. Taken together, this study improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of heat stress responses in D. bardawil.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Transcriptoma , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
20.
J Therm Biol ; 86: 102436, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789232

RESUMO

Demand for yellow catfish fry, an economically important farmed fish in China, has increased dramatically. Newly hatched larvae are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, with water temperature (T) and dissolved oxygen (DO) being two important factors that affect their early development. We investigate optimal T (between 19.0 and 33.0 °C) and DO (between 2.0 and 12.0 mg L-1) concentrations on growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of newly hatched hybrid yellow catfish larvae (Tachysurus fulvidraco × Pseudobagrus vachellii) using a central composite design. We use a response surface method to optimize the response variables for survival (S) and growth, and the reduction of oxidative stress, over a 50-day experimental duration. T has a significant effect on specific growth rate (SGR), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (P < 0.05). DO concentration has a significant effect on SGR, S, hepatic MDA content, and SOD and CAT activities (P < 0.05). T and DO also have significant second order effects on SGR, S, SOD, and CAT activities (P < 0.05). Increased DO at low T stimulates SOD and CAT activities and alleviates oxidative damage. Adjusted R2 values for SGR, S, CAT, SOD, and MDA models are 0.734, 0.937, 0.916, 0.894 and 0.826, respectively. A combination of 26.8 °C and 7.3 mg L-1 represents optimal rearing conditions, in that larval growth and antioxidant ability is improved. Results show that T and DO during larviculture of yellow catfish have important implications for aquaculture.

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