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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013107, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic hepatitis B requires long-term management aiming to reduce the risks of hepatocellular inflammatory necrosis, liver fibrosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, as well as to improve health-related quality of life. Acupuncture is being used to decrease discomfort and improve immune function in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of acupuncture still need to be established in a rigorous way. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data, and SinoMed to 1 March 2019. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) for ongoing or unpublished trials until 1 March 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, and blinding, comparing acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. We included participants of any sex and age, diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B as defined by the trialists or according to guidelines. We allowed co-interventions when the co-interventions were administered equally to all intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors in pairs individually retrieved data from reports and through correspondence with investigators. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, proportion of participants with one or more serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered not to be serious. We presented the pooled results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the risks of bias using risk of bias domains with predefined definitions. We put more weight on the estimate closest to zero effect when results with fixed-effect and random-effects models differed. We evaluated the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight randomised clinical trials with 555 randomised participants. All included trials compared acupuncture versus no intervention. These trials assessed heterogeneous acupuncture interventions. All trials used heterogeneous co-interventions applied equally in the compared groups. Seven trials included participants with chronic hepatitis B, and one trial included participants with chronic hepatitis B with comorbid tuberculosis. All trials were assessed at overall high risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence for all outcomes was very low due to high risk of bias for each outcome, imprecision of results (the confidence intervals were wide), and publication bias (small sample size of the trials, and all trials were conducted in China). Additionally, 79 trials lacked the necessary methodological information to ensure their inclusion in our review.None of the included trials aim to assess all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. We are uncertain whether acupuncture, compared with no intervention, has an effect regarding adverse events considered not to be serious (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.06; I² = 0%; 3 trials; 203 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or detectable hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.68; I² = 98%; 2 trials; 158 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Acupuncture showed a reduction in detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (a non-validated surrogate outcome; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74; 1 trial, 58 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether acupuncture has an effect regarding the remaining separately reported adverse events considered not to be serious.Three of the eight included trials received academic funding from government or hospital. None of the remaining five trials reported information on funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B remain unknown. The included trials lacked data on all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis-B related mortality, and hepatitis-B related morbidity. The vast number of excluded trials lacked clear descriptions of their design and conduct. Whether acupuncture influences adverse events considered not to be serious is uncertain. It remains unclear if acupuncture affects HBeAg, and if it is associated with reduction in detectable HBV DNA. Based on available data from only one or two small trials on adverse events considered not to be serious and on the surrogate outcomes HBeAg and HBV DNA, the certainty of evidence is very low. In view of the wide usage of acupuncture, any conclusion that one might try to draw in the future should be based on data on patient and clinically relevant outcomes, assessed in large, high-quality randomised sham-controlled trials with homogeneous groups of participants and transparent funding.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 461: 44-55, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278950

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase is a heterotetrameric complex comprising four nuclear-encoded subunits, catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A subset of cancers have been found to be associated with mutations in the four SDH genes. However, the functional roles of the SDH complex in tumorigenesis remain largely unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the expression levels of the four SDH subunits and their clinical significance in HCC, followed by systematic exploration of the effects of SDH dysfunction on HCC cell survival and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that the expression of the SDHA/B/C/D subunits was significantly downregulated in HCC, associated with poor patient prognosis, and contributed to SDH inactivation. Additionally, attenuated SDH activity following SDHC knockdown promoted HCC-cell growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo via elevated reactive oxygen species levels and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling. These findings suggest a critical tumor-suppressive role for SDH and provide strong evidence supporting this enzyme as a potential drug target in the treatment of HCC.

4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013106, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus, which may lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. People with HBV infection may also have coinfections including HIV and other hepatitis viruses (hepatitis C or D), and coinfections may increase the risk of all-cause mortality. Chronic HBV infection increases morbidity, psychological stress, and it is an economic burden on people with chronic hepatitis B and their families. Radix Sophorae flavescentis, a herbal medicine, is administered mostly in combination with other drugs or herbs. It is believed that it decreases discomfort and prevents the replication of the virus in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis on patient-centred outcomes are unknown, and its wide usage has never been established with rigorous review methodology. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus other drugs or herbs in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases to December 2018. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry for ongoing or unpublished trials to December 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, or blinding, comparing Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus other drugs or herbs for people with chronic hepatitis B. In addition to chronic hepatitis B, participants could also have had cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or any other concomitant disease. We excluded polyherbal blends containing Radix Sophorae flavescentis. We allowed cointerventions when the cointerventions were administered equally to all intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors in pairs individually retrieved data from published reports and after correspondence with investigators. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered 'not to be serious'. We presented the meta-analysed results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the risk of bias using domains with predefined definitions. We conducted Trial Sequential Analyses to control the risks of random errors. We used GRADE methodology to evaluate our certainty in the evidence (i.e. "the extent of our confidence that the estimates of the effect are correct or are adequate to support a particular decision or recommendation"). MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 randomised clinical trials with 898 participants. We judged all trials at high risk of bias. The trials covered oral capsules, intravenous infusion, intramuscular injection, and acupoint (a specifically chosen site of acupuncture) injection of Radix Sophorae flavescentis with a follow-up period from 1 to 12 months. The drugs being used as a comparator were lamivudine, adefovir, interferon, tiopronin, thymosin, or other Chinese herbs. Two trials included children up to 14 years old. Participants in one trial had cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B. None of the trials reported all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis B-related mortality, or morbidity. We are uncertain as to whether Radix Sophorae flavescentis has a beneficial or harmful effect on adverse events considered 'not to be serious' (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.75; I2 = 0%; 2 trials, 163 participants; very low-certainty evidence), as well as if it decreases or increases the proportion of participants with detectable HBV-DNA (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.63; I2 = 92%; 8 trials, 719 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Radix Sophorae flavescentis showed a reduction in the proportion of participants with detectable hepatitis B virus e-antigen (HBeAg) (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.98; I2 = 43%; 7 trials, 588 participants; very low-certainty evidence).Two of the 10 trials were not funded, and one received academic funding. The remaining seven trials provided no information on funding.The randomisation process in another 109 trials was insufficiently reported to ensure the inclusion of any of these studies in our review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The included trials lacked data on all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis-B related mortality, and hepatitis-B related morbidity. The evidence on the effect of Radix Sophorae flavescentis on the proportion of participants with adverse events considered 'not to be serious' and on the proportion of participants with detectable HBV-DNA is still unclear. We advise caution regarding the results of Radix Sophorae flavescentis showing a reduction in the proportion of people with detectable HBeAg because the trials were at high risk of bias, because it is a non-validated surrogate outcome, and because of the very low certainty in the evidence. As we were unable to obtain information on a large number of studies regarding their trial design, we were deterred from including them in our review. Undisclosed funding may have influence on trial results and lead to poor design of the trial. In view of the wide usage of Radix Sophorae flavescentis, we need large, unbiased, high-quality placebo-controlled randomised trials assessing patient-centred outcomes.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15749, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145289

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. The first choice for GBM is surgery, and followed by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There are limited treatments for patients with recurrent GBM. Relapsed patients usually have a worse prognosis, and with a median survival time of <6 months. Anlotinib is a novel small molecule multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and inhibit tumor cell growth. This drug has been used to treat advanced lung cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of recurrent GBM was treated with anlotinib in this report. The patient was diagnosed with GBM in August 2016 and treated with surgery and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. She was diagnosed with recurrence in February 2017 following which she was treated with gamma knife and TMZ chemotherapy. In November 2017, the patient presented with decreased vision in left eye. She was given radiation and her left eye vision returned to normal after radiation. On May23, 2018, the patient reported a decrease in left visual acuity again. DIAGNOSES: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed progression of the disease, and the tumor invaded the left optic nerve. INTERVENTIONS: This patient was administer anlotinib 12 mg po qd (d1-14, 21days as a cycle). Three cycles anlotinib were given to this patient. OUTCOMES: The patient reported her left visual acuity increased over 10 days after first cycle of anlotinib treatment. MRI scan revealed tumor volume shrinks, especially the part that invades the left optic nerve shrinks significantly at 26 days after anlotinib treatment on August 11, 2018. However, the tumor progressed in 2 months after using of anlotinib. From the beginning of the application of anlotinib to death, her survival time was 110 days. LESSONS: Anlotinib treatment with mild side effects may be a new option for the patients with recurrent glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Óptico/patologia
6.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2847-2860, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062778

RESUMO

Accumulative evidence has suggested that tea consumption has benefits in reducing body fat and alleviating metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that benefits of tea consumption can be partially mediated by modulating intestinal microbiota via inhibiting the formation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and promoting the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet with the addition of 1% water extracts of green tea, oolong tea and black tea. Results showed that the dietary supplementation of three tea water extracts equally improved the glucose tolerance and reduced a high fat diet-induced gain in weight, hepatic lipids, and white adipose tissue weights. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma LPS and a significant increase in the production of SCFAs. The metagenomic analyses showed that the tea extracts changed the overall composition of gut microbiota and decreased the relative abundance of family Rikenellaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. In addition, tea water extracts could also change the abundance of key operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including OTU473 (Alistipes), OTU229 (Rikenella), OTU179 (Ruminiclostridium) and OTU264 (Acetatifactor). In conclusion, three tea extracts could improve the glucose tolerance, induce the production of SCFAs and inhibit the production of endotoxin LPS, most likely mediated by modulating gut microbiota.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1684, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975991

RESUMO

Obesity triggers the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which involves alterations of regulatory transcription networks and epigenomes in hepatocytes. Here we demonstrate that G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2), a subunit of the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR) and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) complex, has a central role in these alterations and accelerates the progression of NAFLD towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Hepatocyte-specific Gps2 knockout in mice alleviates the development of diet-induced steatosis and fibrosis and causes activation of lipid catabolic genes. Integrative cistrome, epigenome and transcriptome analysis identifies the lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, NR1C1) as a direct GPS2 target. Liver gene expression data from human patients reveal that Gps2 expression positively correlates with a NASH/fibrosis gene signature. Collectively, our data suggest that the GPS2-PPARα partnership in hepatocytes coordinates the progression of NAFLD in mice and in humans and thus might be of therapeutic interest.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Fibrose , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013089, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus, may lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. People with HBV infection may have co-infections including HIV and other hepatitis viruses (hepatitis C or D), and co-infection may increase the risk of all-cause mortality. Chronic HBV infection increases morbidity and psychological stress and is an economic burden on people with chronic hepatitis B and their families. Radix Sophorae flavescentis, an herbal medicine, is administered most often in combination with other drugs or herbs. It is believed that it decreases discomfort and prevents replication of the virus in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis for patient-centred outcomes are not known, and its wide usage has never been established with rigorous review methodology. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo or no intervention in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data, and SinoMed. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry for ongoing or unpublished trials. We conducted the last search in December 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, or blinding, comparing Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus no intervention or placebo in people with chronic hepatitis B. We excluded polyherbal blends containing Radix Sophorae flavescentis. We allowed co-interventions when the co-interventions were administered equally to all intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Review authors in pairs retrieved data from individual published reports and after correspondence with investigators. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered 'not to be serious'. We presented meta-analysed results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed risk of bias using domains with pre-defined definitions. We conducted Trial Sequential Analyses to control the risk of random errors. We used GRADE methodology to evaluate our certainty in the evidence (i.e. "the extent of our confidence that the estimates of the effect are correct or are adequate to support a particular decision or recommendation"). MAIN RESULTS: We included 35 randomised clinical trials with 3556 participants. One trial compared Radix Sophorae flavescentis with placebo; the remaining 34 trials compared effects of Radix Sophorae flavescentis in addition to a co-intervention versus the same co-intervention. The included trials assessed heterogenous forms and ways of administering Radix Sophorae flavescentis (e.g. oral capsules, oral tablets, intravenous infusion, intramuscular injection, acupoint (a specifically chosen site of acupuncture) injection) with treatment duration of 1 to 24 months. Two of the trials included children up to 14 years old. Participants in two trials had cirrhosis in addition to chronic hepatitis B. All trials were assessed at high risk of bias, and certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was very low.Only one of the 35 trials assessed mortality; no deaths occurred. Ten trials assessed serious adverse events; no serious adverse events occurred. None of the trials reported health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, or morbidity. Adverse events considered 'not to be serious' was an outcome in 19 trials; nine of these trials had zero events in both groups. Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus placebo or no intervention showed no difference in effects on adverse events considered 'not to be serious' (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.59; I² = 49%; 10 trials, 1050 participants). Radix Sophorae flavescentis showed a reduction in the proportion of participants with detectable HBV-DNA (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.68; I² = 56%; 29 trials, 2914 participants) and in the proportion of participants with detectable HBeAg (hepatitis B e-antigen) (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.76; I² = 19%; 20 trials, 2129 participants).Seven of the 35 randomised clinical trials received academic funding from government or hospital. Four trials received no funding. The remaining 24 trials provided no information on funding.Additionally, 432 trials lacked the methodological information needed to ensure inclusion of these trials in our review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The included trials lacked data on health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. The effects of Radix Sophorae flavescentis on all-cause mortality and on the proportion of participants with serious adverse events and adverse events considered 'not to be serious' remain unclear. We advise caution in interpreting results showing that Radix Sophorae flavescentis reduced the proportion of people with detectable HBV-DNA and detectable HBeAg because the trials reporting on these outcomes are at high risk of bias and both outcomes are non-validated surrogate outcomes. We were unable to obtain information on the design and conduct of a large number of trials; therefore, we were deterred from including them in our review. Undisclosed funding may influence trial results and may lead to poor trial design. Given the wide usage of Radix Sophorae flavescentis, we need large, unbiased, high-quality placebo-controlled randomised trials in which patient-centred outcomes are assessed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sophora/química , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 181: 24-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio(PLR), and systemic immune inflammation index(SII) in patients with Glioblastoma(GBM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The peripheral blood indexes and other clinical data were obtained within 1 week before surgery. Receiving operating characteristics(ROC) curve was used to find the optimal cut-off value of NLR, SII and PLR, respectively. Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the prognostic value of SII and other indexes. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off values for NLR, SII, PLR were 2.7, 718, 87, respectively. The high NLR group has a higher proportion of Ki67 expression than the low NLR group. KM survival curves revealed that patients with high NLR (>2.7) or high SII (>718) had worse overall survival. Multivariable Cox analysis revealed NLR, adjuvant therapy and age were prognostic factors for overall survival(OS). The AUC area (the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves) of the NLR was higher than the area of PLR or SII. CONCLUSION: Preoperative NLR was superior to SII in prognostic value of patients with glioblastoma.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1951: 167-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825152

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows in-depth analysis of tissue-specific transcriptomes, cistromes, and epigenomes for a better understanding of molecular events at different levels and has proved to be a valuable tool to encrypt the complex transcription networks in both physiological and pathological processes. The preparation of tissues such as the liver for the omics analysis remains to be challenging due to time-consuming and tedious steps. Here we describe a protocol to process frozen liver tissue samples for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). This protocol allows further integrated omics analysis using minimum liver tissues to ensure best-quality data.


Assuntos
Genômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Criopreservação , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To introduce a conceptualized visual error matrix tool to overview the validity of evidence by taking Radix Sophorae flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B as an example and to propose recommendations for improving clinical trial design and evidence quality. METHODS: The randomized clinical trials and reviews were collected during the conduct of a Cochrane systematic review. The authors used a visual error matrix tool to overview the evidence validity by looking at systematic, random, and design error risks. Systematic errors were measured by the type of evidence. Random errors were expressed by the standard error (SE). Design errors were assessed on the priority of outcome measures and the adequacy of nine design components. Three-dimensional error matrix on benefits and harms were then constructed. RESULTS: The authors included 6 meta-analyses and 28 randomized clinical trials. In terms of systematic errors, all reviews were at critically low quality, and all included randomized trials were assessed at high risk of bias. On this systematic error level, they found that there was substantial risk of random errors regarding all-cause mortality (SE 0.36), moderate risk regarding serious adverse events (SE 0.22), substantial risk regarding nonserious adverse events (SE 0.35), and small to moderate risk regarding surrogate outcomes such as detectable hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA (SE 0.16 and 0.21). No study reported results on quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and morbidity. The design error risks were mainly misuse of outcomes (14/34), inadequate selection of participants (5/34), inadequate description of intervention (11/34) and control (9/34), single-center setting (33/34), and unclear study objective regarding superiority, equivalence, or noninferiority. CONCLUSION: The current evidence on Radix S. flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B showed high risks of systematic errors, moderate or high risks of random errors, and high risks of design errors. These findings suggest that more randomized trials at minimum risks of all three errors are needed to assess the benefits and harms of Radix S. flavescentis for chronic hepatitis B. The visual error matrix tool provides an overview of the reliability of evidence and may assist in design and conduct of future randomized trials.

12.
Cell Rep ; 26(4): 984-995.e6, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673619

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common indication for liver transplantation. How fat-rich diets promote progression from fatty liver to more damaging inflammatory and fibrotic stages is poorly understood. Here, we show that disrupting phosphorylation at Ser196 (S196A) in the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα, NR1H3) retards NAFLD progression in mice on a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet. Mechanistically, this is explained by key histone acetylation (H3K27) and transcriptional changes in pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes. Furthermore, S196A-LXRα expression reveals the regulation of novel diet-specific LXRα-responsive genes, including the induction of Ces1f, implicated in the breakdown of hepatic lipids. This involves induced H3K27 acetylation and altered LXR and TBLR1 cofactor occupancy at the Ces1f gene in S196A fatty livers. Overall, impaired Ser196-LXRα phosphorylation acts as a novel nutritional molecular sensor that profoundly alters the hepatic H3K27 acetylome and transcriptome during NAFLD progression placing LXRα phosphorylation as an alternative anti-inflammatory or anti-fibrotic therapeutic target.

13.
Oncol Lett ; 17(1): 719, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655823

RESUMO

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.3892/ol.2018.7959.].

14.
Future Oncol ; 15(7): 727-737, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693787

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the prediction ability of neutrophils and develop a nomogram on radiosensitivity in thoracic cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 398 lung and esophageal cancers patients who received external-beam radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy as first-line therapy. RESULTS: Logistic regression model showed that patients with low levels of neutrophil counts and/or TGF-ß1 exhibited better radiation sensitivity. Furthermore, a nomogram was created to predict radiotherapy sensitivity. The combination of neutrophil count and TGF-ß1 level was an independent prognostic factor for lung and esophageal cancers patients. CONCLUSION: The study developed a nomogram based on the levels of circulating neutrophils and TGF-ß1. The prediction value in radiosensitivity and protumorigenic effect of neutrophils might owe to N2 tumor-associated neutrophils.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos da radiação , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
FASEB J ; 33(3): 4287-4299, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571312

RESUMO

Antiviral drug development against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is urgently needed due to the public health significance of the viral infection. Here, we report the anti-RSV activity of a small molecule, (1S,3R,4R,5R)-3,4- bis{[(E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy}-1,5-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic methyl ester (3,4-DCQAME) or 3,4- O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, which can be isolated from several plants of traditional Chinese medicine. We showed for the first time that compound 3,4-DCQAME potently inhibits RSV entry and infection. In vitro, 3,4-DCQAME can interact with F(ecto), the ectodomain of RSV fusion (F) protein. In cultured cells, the compound can block the interaction of F(ecto) protein with the cellular membrane and inhibit viral fusion during RSV entry, leading to inhibition of viral gene expression and infection. In RSV-infected mice that were treated with 3,4-DCQAME, we observed a reduction of RSV-induced pathologic changes and substantial inhibition of viral infection and growth in the lung tissues. Our results provide the first direct evidence of the anti-RSV activity of 3,4-DCQAME. Furthermore, these results suggest that 3,4-DCQAME represents a promising lead compound for anti-RSV therapeutic development.-Tang, W., Li, M., Liu, Y., Liang, N., Yang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wu, S., Lu, S., Li, Y., Liu, F. Small molecule inhibits respiratory syncytial virus entry and infection by blocking the interaction of the viral fusion protein with the cell membrane.

16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 294, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent research had shown blood glucose was not the only cause of large for gestational age infant (LGA), the contributions of other fuels such as lipids also play an important role in fetal development. However the association between maternal triglyceride at early trimester and the risk of LGA has not yet been clearly elucidated. This research evaluated the association of maternal early trimester TG level with the risk of LGA infant in Chinese mothers. METHODS: 2839 pregnant women were recruited at the first visit of their perinatal health care and followed up prospectively till after delivery. The demographic, maternal characteristics were extracted from a questionnaire. Infant characteristics were collected at delivery. Maternal fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)levels, were measured in 6~8th, 16th, 24th, and 36th gestational weeks. Fasting serum glucose levels were measured at 6~8th, 24th, and 36th gestational weeks. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A consistently lower TG level was observed in mothers with non-LGA infant than mothers with LGA infant and TG level of mothers of LGA infants increased faster than that of control group. The incidence of LGA infants between two groups (TG<1.7 mmol/L and TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L) was 14.46 and 26.63%, respectively. Mothers with the highest TG level (TG > 1.19 mmol/L) gave birth to infants with higher birth weight (BW) than the other two groups (TG < 0.70 mmol/L and TG:0.70~0.89 mmol/L). When stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI), a significantly positive association was founded between the maternal TG level at early trimester and the risk of LGA in non-overweight/obesity women (OR = 1.740, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that high maternal TG level at very early trimester was associated with the increased risk of LGA in non-overweight/obesity pregnant women. Moreover, high maternal TG level at first trimester may be an early predictor of LGA.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415537

RESUMO

The dose-dependent effect of egg consumption on plasma cholesterol in humans remains inconclusive. It is unknown if egg white consumed in a normal amount can reduce plasma cholesterol. We used hamsters as a model to (i) investigate the dose-dependent effect of consuming zero to five whole eggs on plasma total cholesterol (TC) and (ii) examine if egg white, equivalent to one to five eggs, possessed any reducing effects on plasma TC. In experiment 1, hamsters were divided into six groups ( n = 8 each) and fed either a control diet or one of five experimental diets supplemented with whole-egg powder equivalent to one to five eggs per 2000 kcal. Results showed that supplementation with one egg increased plasma TC by 25% compared with that of the control (226 ± 16 versus 282 ± 56 mg/dL, p < 0.05), whereas supplementation with two to five eggs did not significantly produce any additional effects on plasma cholesterol. However, supplementation with one to five eggs in diets caused a dose-dependent accumulation of cholesterol in the liver from 21.5 ± 4.4 to 71.3 ± 7.3 mg/g ( p < 0.01). In the second experiment, hamsters were divided into six groups and fed either a high-cholesterol control diet or one of five experimental diets supplemented with egg-white powder from one to five eggs. Results showed that egg-white powder affected neither plasma nor liver cholesterol levels. The egg-white powder did not affect fecal sterol excretion, suggesting it had no effect on cholesterol absorption. It was therefore concluded that consumption of two to five eggs did not significantly produce any additional effects on plasma cholesterol, whereas egg white did not possess a plasma-cholesterol-lowering activity if it was consumed at amounts similar to those in a normal human diet.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rate of nephrotoxicity in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f (TwHF) preparations approved by the China Food and Drug Administration and the potential risk factors. METHODS: CENTRAL, PubMed, SinoMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, China Important Conference Papers Database, China Dissertation Database, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for articles that reported on nephrotoxicity of TwHF preparations until November 23, 2017. There was no limitation for study design. RESULTS: A total of 36 articles involving 2,017 participants were included. Results showed that the incidence of nephrotoxicity associated with TwHF preparations was 5.81% (95% confidence interval: 4.43-7.57). Subgroup analysis showed that the disease type, combined medication, duration, and study design were not correlated with the incidence of nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of nephrotoxicity in TwHF preparations was 5.81%. The possible risk factors, such as disease type, the combination with other drugs, medication time, and study design, were not found to be correlated with the incidence of nephrotoxicity. However, due to the limited number of included articles, the limited sample size, and the poor methodology quality, the incidence rate of nephrotoxicity of TwHF preparations might be overestimated, and more prospective articles are needed to explore the potential influence factor.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture point (acupoint) injection is a common practice in China. Some trials showed that Chinese herbal extracts and/or conventional medication are injected at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupoint injection for DPN at the ST36 by systematically evaluating the evidence published to date. METHODS: Six databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ST36 injection for DPN with primary outcome of pain, global symptom improvement, and quality of life. Methodological quality was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs involving 1,071 participants with DPN were included. All RCTs were assessed as unclear or high ROB. Few RCTs adequately reported methodology-related items and needling details according to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) and Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) statement. Medications injected at ST36 included conventional medications (11 RCTs) and Chinese herbal extracts (3 RCTs). The authors of this study did not perform any meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of medications used for injections. Two individual RCTs favored ST36 injection in relieving pain compared with intramuscular injection of the same medication. For global symptom measured by Toronto clinical scoring system, one RCT showed that ST36 injection of Fufang Danggui was more effective than intramuscular injection of vitamin B12, two RCTs demonstrated that ST36 injection of mecobalamin or Danhong with cointervention was superior, while one RCT showed no significant differences between ST36 injection and intramuscular injection of mecobalamin. For improving nerve conduction velocity (NCV), three of four individual RCTs showed that ST36 injection was better than intramuscular or intravenous injection of the same medication, two RCTs favored ST36 injection with cointervention, and one RCT favored ST36 injection without cointervention. Four RCTs reported monitoring adverse events, all of which showed no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence suggests that ST36 injection appears to be safe, and potentially effective in reducing pain score and improving NCV compared with intramuscular injection of the same medication. However, poor methodological and reporting quality reduced confidence in the findings. Rigorously designed and well-reported RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of ST36 injection for DPN are warranted.

20.
Complement Ther Med ; 41: 10-22, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits and harms of pediatric Tui Na as a non-pharmaceutical Chinese medicine therapy for acute diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. METHODS: We searched seven major English and Chinese databases from their inception to January 2018 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing pediatric Tui Na therapy with conventional medicine (montmorillonite/diosmectite or probiotics used alone or in combination). Two authors extracted data and assessed the Cochrane risk of bias, independently. The primary outcomes are clinical cure rate and diarrhea duration from admission to the cessation of diarrhea. 'Clinical cure' is defined as the frequency, timing and character of stool back to normal status, as well as disappearance of diarrhea symptoms. We present dichotomous data as risk ratio (RR), and continuous data as mean difference (MD) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the Cochrane's Revman software (v.5.3) for data analysis. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was applied to calculate the required sample size in a meta-analysis and detect the robustness of the results. The GRADEpro was used to generate a summary of finding table. RESULTS: Totally 26 RCTs were included, involving 2410 children with acute diarrhea. Most of the included trials had high or unclear risk of bias in terms of random sequence generation, blinding, and incomplete outcome reporting. The pooled results demonstrated that pediatric Tui Na was superior to montmorillonite after three-session treatment (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.29-1.62, n = 772, 10 trials), and also superior to montmorillonite combined with probiotics after three-session treatment (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.49-2.78, n = 533, 7 trials) and after six-session treatment (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34-1.73, n = 631, 5 trials) in improving clinical cure rate. Pediatric Tui Na significantly decreased the duration of acute diarrhea (hrs) (MD -0.40 h, 95% CI -15.31 to -5.48 h, n = 410, 6 trials) and daily stool frequency (MD -1.71times, 95% CI -2.37 to -1.04, n = 217, 3 trials, after three-session treatment). No adverse event related to pediatric Tui Na was reported in the included trials. The quality of evidence of included trials was generally moderate to low. TSA for cure rate demonstrated that the pooled data reached a sufficient power regarding both numbers of trials and participants. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows pediatric Tui Na appears to be effective and safe in improving clinical cure rate and shortening diarrhea duration in childhood aged less than five years of age with acute diarrhea. However, rigorously designed well-reported RCTs are warranted to confirm the findings.

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