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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double lumen tube (DLT) and Univent are two commonly used lung isolation devices that often require bronchoscopy assistance. In order to facilitate blind placement for situations where bronchoscopy was unavailable, the cricoid displacing maneuver (CDM) was adopted. This study was designed to explore whether the CDM could improve the successful blind placement rate in left lung isolation esophageal surgeries. METHODS: 120 ASA 1-3 patients who received left lung isolation esophageal surgeries from October 2014 to February 2016 and October 2018 to January 2020 were enrolled in this single-centered prospective assessorblinded randomized controlled trial. After anesthesia induction, patients were intubated either with DLT or Univent by applying the CDM, and the position of devices was checked by bronchoscopy. After turning into the right decubitus position, the devices were pulled back to the trachea, and placement was conducted once again. Successful placement rate for the first attempt, time needed for initial placement, malposition and reposition times by bronchoscopy during surgery, bronchus injury score, rank of lung isolation and postoperative anesthesia-related complications were recorded. RESULTS: At supine position, the successful placement rates for the first attempt of DLT-CDM, DLTcontrol, Univent-CDM and Univent-Control were 100%, 76.7%, 96.7% and 66.7% respectively (DLT: P=0.016; Univent: P=0.003) while at right decubitus position were 86.7%, 66.7%, 93.3% and 66.7% (DLT: P=0.067; Univent: P=0.010). There was no significant difference in the time needed for successful intubation and no severe complications. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provided evidence that the CDM is an effective and safe blind endobronchial placement technique for left DLT and Univent. We suggest that CDM could be applied to the endobronchial placement of left DLT and Univent.

2.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18297, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398872

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells play an important role in tissue damage and repair. This role is mainly due to a paracrine mechanism, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are an important part of the paracrine function. EVs play a vital role in many aspects of cell homeostasis, physiology, and pathology, and EVs can be used as clinical biomarkers, vaccines, or drug delivery vehicles. A large number of studies have shown that EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) play an important role in the treatment of various diseases. However, the problems of low production, low retention rate, and poor targeting of MSC-EVs are obstacles to current clinical applications. The engineering transformation of MSC-EVs can make up for those shortcomings, thereby improving treatment efficiency. This review summarizes the latest research progress of MSC-EV direct and indirect engineering transformation from the aspects of improving MSC-EV retention rate, yield, targeting, and MSC-EV visualization research, and proposes some feasible MSC-EV engineering methods of transformation.

3.
Brain Res Bull ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-chronic exposure to morphine can increase the efficacy of propofol but decrease the efficacy of ketamine by unknown mechanisms. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sub-chronic exposure to morphine on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits, which might contribute to the efficacy changes of ketamine and propofol in vivo. METHODS: Sub-chronic exposure to morphine was established by administering subcutaneous injections of morphine for 5 consecutive days. The median effective dose (ED50) of ketamine and/or propofol was measured on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 15, after the last morphine dosage. Mice in the sham group received an equal volume of normal saline. The expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits in the forebrain were measured. Knockdown or overexpression of a subunit was used to determine the causality between the change in anesthetic potency and the expression of an identified receptor subunit. RESULTS: After sub-chronic exposure of mice to morphine, the expression of NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) was most elevated in the forebrain on day 1 (P < 0.0001 vs. sham). In contrast, the expression of GABAA receptor ß3 (GABAARß3) gradually decreased to its lowest level on day 7 (P = 0.005 vs. sham) in the forebrain. Regression analysis revealed that the expression of NR1 in the forebrain was relevant to the increased ED50 of ketamine (P = 0.0002), while the expression of GABAARß3 in the forebrain was relevant to the decreased ED50 of propofol (P = 0.0051) after morphine exposure. Knockdown expression of NR1 in the forebrain reversed the elevated ED50 of ketamine after morphine treatment. Overexpression of GABAARß3 in the forebrain increased the ED50 of propofol to the sham-level after morphine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Sub-chronic exposure to morphine can differentially modulate the expressions of NR1 and GABAARß3 in mice, which may contribute to the changes in ED50 of ketamine and propofol in vivo.

4.
Microbiol Res ; 242: 126599, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010586

RESUMO

Pathogens secrete effectors to establish a successful interaction with their host. It is well understood that plant pathogens recruit classically secreted chorismate mutase (Cmu) as an effector to disrupt plant salicylic acid (SA) synthesis. However, the identity and function of the Cmu effector from powdery mildew fungi remain unknown. Here, we identified a novel secreted Cmu effector, EqCmu, from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell) powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe quercicola). Unlike the classically secreted Cmu, EqCmu lack signal peptide, and exhibited characteristics of non-classically secreted proteins. EqCmu could fully complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScAro7 mutant that was deficient in the synthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine. In addition, transient expression of EqCmu could promote infection by Phytophthora capsici and reduce the levels of SA and the mRNA of PR1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana in response to P. capsici infection, while confocal observations showed that EqCmu was localized within the cytoplasm and nucleus of transfected N. benthamiana leaf cells. These non-homologous systems assays provide evidences that EqCmu may serve as a "moonlighting" protein, which is not only a key enzyme in the synthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine within fungal cells, but also has the function of regulating plant SA synthesis within plant cells. This is the first study to identify and functionally validate a candidate effector from E. quercicola. Overall, the non-classical secretion pathway is a novel mechanism for powdery mildew fungal effectors secretion and might play an important role in host-pathogen interactions.

5.
Environ Res ; 193: 110565, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275920

RESUMO

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) process has a promising prospect in anaerobic wastewater treatment, utilizing methane as the sole electron source to remove nitrite. However, the metabolic activity of n-damo bacteria is too low for practical application. This study aimed to stimulate n-damo process by introducing conductive nano-magnetite and/or electron shuttle anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), and also set a comparative treatment of adding insulated ferrihydrite. The results showed that the nitrite reduction rate was enhanced the most significantly in treatment with nano-magnetite, approximately 1.6 times higher than that of the control without any supplement. While ferrihydrite application showed an adverse effect on n-damo process. The well-known aerobic methane oxidizer Methylomonas spp. was found to be enriched under n-damo condition with the supplementation of nano-magnetite and/or AQDS, but abundance of n-damo bacteria did not exhibit significant increase. It was hypothesized that Methylomonas spp. could be survived under anaerobic n-damo condition using oxygen produced by n-damo bacteria for the self-growth, and the nitrite reduction could be promoted through the enhancement of microbial interspecies electron transfer triggered by the introduction of conductive materials. It opens a new direction for the stimulation of n-damo activity, which needs more evidences to verify the hypothetic mechanism.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 144137, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293094

RESUMO

Effects of sewage sludge-derived biochar and its precursor on the accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in soil and their uptake by plants in a 1-year field experiment involving corn-radish rotation were comparatively studied. The human health risks were assessed, and the safe application period of biochar were estimated. The application of biochar, compares to sewage sludge, significantly enhanced the radish yield (p < 0.05; not corn yield) and significantly reduced the accumulation of metals in both plants (p < 0.05), especially the annual application at ≤15 t ha-1. The hazard quotient analyses of the metals showed there were no health risks to humans (Hazard Index < 1) in consuming the edible parts of the both plants. The application of sewage sludge at ≥15 t ha-1 resulted in Cd in radish exceeded the threshold for foodstuffs set by China (0.1 mg kg-1). The total contents of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil increased gradually as the application of sewage sludge or its biochar increased from 7.5 t ha-1 to 30 t ha-1. More metals were found to be introduced to soil by the land application of biochar than by its precursor at the same doses, because the metals were concentrated in biochar during the preparation process. The contamination risk assessment of soil based on the geo-accumulation index, the contamination factor and the pollution load index suggested the application of biochar on farmland should <15 t ha-1. Therefore, taking into account the yield of and metal concentrations in the radish and corn plants and the contamination risks in soil, it is recommended that the continuous safe application period at an application of 7.5 t ha-1 year-1 of biochar should not exceed 15 years, and that of its precursor sewage sludge should not exceed 17 years.

7.
Environ Pollut ; : 116039, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261971

RESUMO

Phytoremediation of metal(loid)s contaminated sites is widely used, while there is scarce of investigation on the metal-enriched biomass waste safely disposal which resulted in risks of causing secondary pollution to the soil and water bodies and even to human health. Thus, this study compared the effects of ashing and pyrolysis treatments on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation plant Sedum plumbizincicola. Chemical speciation, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were employed to characterize the bioavailability and leachability of Cd and Zn in the solid residues after pyrolysis and ashing. The risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were subsequently used to evaluate the risk of the solid residues to the environment. The results showed that both ashing and pyrolysis treatments could transform the bioavailable Cd and Zn in S. plumbizincicola into a more stable form, and the higher the temperature the greater the stablility. Pyrolysis converted a maximum of 80.0% of Cd and 70.3% of Zn in S. plumbizincicola to the oxidisable and residual fractions, compared with ashing which achieved only a ∼42% reduction. The pyrolysis process minimised the risk level of Cd and Zn to the environment based on the RAC and RI assessments. The results of the TCLP test, and DTPA extraction confirmed that the leaching rate and the bioavailable portion of Cd and Zn in the biochars produced by pyrolysis were invariably significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the solid residues produced by ashing, and reached the lowest at 650 °C. In other words, pyrolysis was better than ashing for thermal treatment of the metal-enriched hyperaccumulator plant, in view of minimising the bioavailability and leachability of Cd and Zn from the solid residues to the environment. This study provides fundamental data on the choice of treatments for the disposal of metal-enriched plant biomass.

8.
Acta Histochem ; 123(1): 151653, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to physiological and pathological stimuli, the latter of which frequently progresses to valvulopathy, heart failure and sudden death. Recent reports revealed that pyroptosis is involved in regulating multiple cardiovascular diseases progression, including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aims to extensively investigate the regulation of miR-133a-3p on pyroptosis in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophyin vitro. METHODS: The in vitro model of cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Ang II, which was validated by qPCR combined with measurement of cell surface area by immunofluorescence assay. CCK-8 assay and Hochest33342/PI staining was performed to assess pyroptosis. Dual luciferase reporter system was used to verify the direct interaction between miR-133a-3p and IKKε. The effects of miR-133a-3p/IKKε on pyroptosis activation and cardiac hypertrophy markers (Caspase-1, NLRP3, IL-1ß, IL-18, GSDMD, ASC, ANP, BNP and ß-MHC) were evaluated by western blot, ELISA and qPCR. RESULTS: Ang II treatment could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and pyroptosis. The expression of miR-133a-3p was repressed in Ang II-treated HCM cells, and its overexpression could attenuate both pyroptosis and cardiac hypertrophyin vitro. Additionally, IKKε expression was significantly up-regulated in Ang II-induced HCM cells. Dual luciferase reporter system and qPCR validated that miR-133a-3p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of IKKε and suppressed its expression. Moreover, IKKε overexpression impaired the protective function of miR-133a-3p in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. CONCLUSION: Collectively, miR-133a-3p attenuates Ang II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of pyroptosis by targeting IKKε. Therefore, miR-133a-3p up-regulation may be a promising strategy for cardiac hypertrophy treatment.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 320(Pt B): 124371, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186803

RESUMO

An electrically stimulated anaerobic-aerobic coupled system was developed to improve the biodegradation of refractory phenolics. Expected 4-nitrophenol, 2, 4-dinitrophenol, and COD removals in the system with aerobic cathodic and anaerobic anodic chambers were approximately 53.7%, 45.4%, 22.3% (intermittent mode) and 37.9%, 19.8%, 17.3% (continuous mode) higher than that in the control system (26.0 ± 6.4%, 30.7 ± 7.1%, 49.8 ± 3.0%). 2, 4-dichlorophenol removal in the system with aerobic anodic and anaerobic cathodic chambers was approximately 28.5% higher than that in the control system (71.4 ± 5.7%). The contribution of the aerobic cathodic/anodic chambers to the removal of phenolic compounds was higher than that of the anaerobic cathodic/anodic chambers. The species related to phenolic biodegradation (Rhodococcus, Achromobacter, PSB-M-3, and Sphingobium) were enriched in the cathodic and anodic chambers of the system. These results showed that intermittent electrical stimulation could be a potential alternative for the efficient degradation of refractory phenolics.

10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 173: 112822, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221512

RESUMO

Besides serving in wastewater treatment and energy generation fields, electroactive biofilm (EAB) has been employed as a sensitive bio-elements in a biosensor to monitor water quality by delivering electrical signals without additional mediators. Increasing studies have applied EAB-based biosensor in specific pollutant detection, typically biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection, as well as in early-warning of composite pollutants. Based on a comprehensive review of literatures, this study reveals how EAB outputs electrical signal, how we can evaluate and improve this performance, and what information we can expect from EAB-based biosensor. Since BOD detection and early-warning are normally confusing, this study manages to differentiate these two applications through distinguished purposes and metrics. Based on the introductions of progresses and applications of EAB-based biosensors so far, several novel strategies toward the future development of EAB-based biosensors are proposed.

11.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(10): 1512-1520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078099

RESUMO

AIM: To identify mutations in the genes of a four-generation Chinese family with congenital membranous cataracts and investigate the morphologic changes and possible functional damage underlying the role of the mutant gene. METHODS: Whole exome analysis of thirteen members of a four-generation pedigree affected with congenital membranous cataracts was performed; co-segregation analysis of identified variants was validated by Sanger sequencing. All members underwent detailed physical and complete eye examinations. The physical changes caused by the mutation were analyzed in silico through homology modeling. The lens fiber block from a patient was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins from the human lenses donated by one patient with cataract in this family and from the dislocated lens resulted from the penetrating ocular trauma of a patient unrelated with this family were extracted, and the expression and localization of MP20 and Cx46 were detected by Western blot (WB) assay in these proteins. RESULTS: A novel LIM2 heterozygous mutation (c.388C>T, p.R130C) was identified with congenital membranous cataracts inherited by an autosomal dominant (AD) pattern. Nystagmus and amblyopia were observed in all patients of this family, and exotropia and long axial length were observed in most patients. A/B ultrasound scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed obvious thin crystalline lenses from 1.7 to 2.7 mm in central thickness in all cataract eyes. The bioinformatic analysis showed that the mutation was deleterious to the physiological function of LIM2-encoded MP20. Furthermore, by SEM, ultrastructure of the cataract nucleus showed that lens fiber cells (LFCs) remained morphologic characteristics of immature fiber cells, including flap cell surface with straight edges and lacking normal ball-and-socket joint boundaries, which implied that the differentiation of LFCs might be inhibited. Accumulation of MP20 and Cx46 in the cytoplasm was observed in the cytoplasm of the LFCs in human cataract lens. CONCLUSION: We identify a novel heterozygous LIM2 (c.388C>T, p.R130C) mutation inherited by an AD pattern. This LIM2 mutation causes the abnormal sub-localization of MP20 and Cx46 in LFCs resulting in membranous cataracts.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 142445, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113701

RESUMO

Sulfur autotrophic denitrification utilizes elemental sulfur as the electron donor for nitrate removal from aquatic environments. Organic carbon could stimulate the conversion of sulfur and facilitates the S0-based denitrification process in the mix-trophic. In this study, the co-cultured system of sulfur reducer (Geobacter sulfurreducens) and Thiobacillus denitrificans was used to investigate that how organic carbon could boost the S0-based denitrification. The results showed that the rate of S0-based denitrification was improved with C/N ratio of 0.13 and this improvement continued even after the acetate was exhausted. Sulfur probe test and Raman analysis suggested that reduced sulfur species (Sx2-) were formed with the addition of organic carbon. The Sx2- could recombine with element sulfur and the bioavailability of S0 would be improved, as a result, the rate of S0-based denitrification increased as well. Nitrate reduction rate could further increase with the C/N ratio of 0.88, but it would decrease significantly when the C/N ratio increased to 1.50 as the high concentration of generated S2-. Our results provided explanations that why organic carbon addition would improve the bioavailability of S0 which could further promote the S0-dominant denitrification process.


Assuntos
Thiobacillus , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Geobacter , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Enxofre
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106405

RESUMO

Potassium secondary batteries are contenders of next-generation energy storage devices owing to the much higher abundance of potassium than lithium. However, safety issues and poor cycle life of K metal battery have been key bottlenecks. Here we report an ionic liquid electrolyte comprising 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/AlCl3/KCl/potassium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide for safe and high-performance batteries. The electrolyte is nonflammable and exhibits a high ionic conductivity of 13.1 mS cm-1 at room temperature. A 3.6-V battery with K anode and Prussian blue/reduced graphene oxide cathode delivers a high energy and power density of 381 and 1,350 W kg-1, respectively. The battery shows an excellent cycling stability over 820 cycles, retaining ∼89% of the original capacity with high Coulombic efficiencies of ∼99.9%. High cyclability is also achieved at elevated temperatures up to 60 °C. Uniquely, robust K, Al, F, and Cl-containing passivating interphases are afforded with this electrolyte, which is key to superior battery cycling performances.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 13322-13332, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966059

RESUMO

Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a highly toxic groundwater contaminant. In this study, we demonstrate a selective electrochemical process tailored for removal of Cr(VI) using a hybrid MOF@rGO nanomaterial synthesized by in situ growth of a nanocrystalline, mixed ligand octahedral metal-organic framework with cobalt metal centers, [Co2(btec)(bipy)(DMF)2]n (Co-MOF), on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO provides the electric conductivity necessary for an electrode, while the Co-MOF endows highly selective adsorption sites for CrO42-. When used as an anode in the treatment cycles, the MOF@rGO electrode exhibits strong selectivity for adsorption of CrO42- over competing anions including Cl-, SO42-, and As(III) and achieves charge efficiency (CE) >100% due to the strong physisorption of CrO42- by Co-MOF; both electro- and physisorption capacities are regenerated with the reversal of the applied voltage, when highly toxic Cr(VI) is reduced to less toxic reduced Cr species and subsequently released into brine. This approach allows easy regeneration of the nonconducting Co-MOF without any chemical addition while simultaneously transforming Cr(VI), inspiring a novel electrochemical method for highly selective degradation of toxic contaminants using tailor-designed electrodes with high affinity adsorbents.

15.
Anal Methods ; 12(20): 2599-2607, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930286

RESUMO

This study presents a practical method for high-precision Cu and Pb isotope determination without column chemistry for bronze materials using MC-ICP-MS. The standard-sample bracketing method combined with Ga internal normalization (SSBIN) was used to correct the instrumental mass bias during Cu isotopic analysis. The effects of acidity mismatch, concentration mismatch, and matrix effect were rigorously evaluated using a Nu Plasma II MC-ICP-MS in the wet plasma mode. The precision and accuracy of this method were verified by measurements of the Chinese bronze standard material GBW02137 over four months. The δ65Cu of GBW02137 was 0.04 ± 0.02‰ (2s standard deviation, n = 44) relative to NIST SRM 976, which is consistent with the recommended value (0.04 ± 0.02‰). GBW02137 could serve as a potential bracketing standard and quality control sample for in situ Cu isotope measurements of ancient bronze artifacts. The 205Tl/203Tl ratio of 2.3889 and an exponential law were used to correct the instrumental mass discrimination during Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb isotopic ratios determined without column chemistry were within 0.04% of the reference values. Therefore, the method for the direct determination of Cu and Pb isotope presented here is a promising tool for research on bronze materials owing to the chemistry without columns, high precision and accuracy, and rapidity.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The experience of safe extubation in the operating room (OR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure remains not well established. The authors conducted this study to assess the effect of OR extubation in comparison with extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the outcomes and cost in patients undergoing transapical-TAVI. DESIGN: A propensity score-matched analysis. SETTING: A single major urban teaching and university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 266 patients undergoing transapical TAVI under general anesthesia between June 2015 and March 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Propensity matching on pre- and intraoperative variables was used to identify 99 patients undergoing extubation in the OR versus 72 undergoing extubation in the ICU for outcome analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After matching, extubation in the OR showed significant reductions of length of stay (LOS) in ICU (38.8 ± 17.4 v 58.0 ± 70.0 h, difference -19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] -35.7 to -2.7, p = 0.009) and postoperative LOS in hospital (7.1 ± 3.9 v 10.1 ± 4.6 d, difference -3.0, 95% CI -4.3 to -1.7, p < 0.0001) compared with ICU extubation, but did not significantly affect the composite incidence of any postoperative complications (46.5% [46 of 99] v 52.8% [38 of 72], difference -6.3%, 95% CI -21.5 to 8.9, p = 0.415). Also, extubation in the OR led to significant reduction of total hospital cost compared with extubation in the ICU (¥303.5 ± 17.3 v ¥329.9 ± 52.3 thousand, difference -26.2, 95% CI -38.8 to -13.7, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The current study provided evidence that extubation in the OR could be performed safely without increases in morbidity, mortality, or reintubation rate and could provide cost-effective outcome benefits in patients undergoing transapical-TAVI.

17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111736, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918989

RESUMO

The reproductive toxicity of SnS2 nanoflowers (SnS2 NFs) has been studied in our previous experiment, but the underlying mechanism is still not clear. Astaxanthin (ASX) is a red carotenoid pigment with antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, showing neuroprotective properties via its antioxidant capacity. To examine the ASX effect on sub-chronic testis injury induced by SnS2 NFs, we randomly and equally divided 40 Kunming male mice into four groups (control, ASX control, NF and NF + ASX groups). Then, ASX dissolved in olive oil was administered intragastrically for 30 consecutive days. Results showed that ASX treatment improved the sperm parameters in mice. Meanwhile, the ASX treatment significantly attenuated testis histopathological injury and ultrastructure alterations induced by SnS2 NFs. It also alleviated testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and necroptosis in mice. Furthermore, ASX markedly upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and downregulated the expressions of Fas, FasL, RIPK1, FADD, Bax, Cytochrome C, Caspase-9, Cleaved Caspase-8, Cleaved Caspase-3, RIPK3, MLKL and FLIP in the testis tissues compared with the NF group. Therefore, ASX had a markedly protective effect against SnS2 NFs in mice, and the potential mechanism is associated with its ability to inhibit the oxidative stress, inflammatory response, testicular apoptosis and necroptosis, as well as downregulating in the expression of the RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL signaling and mitochondrial related apoptosis genes.

18.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(13): 825, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793670

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder syndrome caused by relative or absolute lack of insulin and varying degrees of insulin resistance. The type and regimen of anesthesia may affect perioperative hyperglycemia following major surgical stress. The effect of perioperative anesthetics on the blood glucose level of diabetic patients will play an essential role in the postoperative recovery of patients. However, there is no rigorously-designed randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and total inhalation anesthesia (TIHA) on blood glucose and complications in type 2 diabetes. Hence, we design this clinical trial to compare the effects of TIVA and TIHA of hyperglycemia and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes undergoing surgery. Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trial. One hundred twelve patients with type 2 DM who meet the qualification criteria will be randomly divided into two groups: TIVA group and TIHA group. The levels of serum insulin and cortisol will be measured before and after the operation, and the levels of blood glucose at different setting time will be monitored. All patients will be followed up by blinded evaluators at baseline and 1, 3, 7, and 30 days after the intervention. The follow-up included postoperative complications [such as myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, renal failure, anastomotic fistula, stress ulcer, incision infection, lung infection] and adverse events. Discussion: The routinely used clinical anesthesia schemes are TIVA, TIHA and intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia. We expect that the results of this trial will provide high-quality clinical evidence for the choice of anesthesia options for patients with type 2 DM. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000029247, registration date: 20 January 2020.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(18): 11536-11545, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841015

RESUMO

Conventional ultrafiltration (UF) technology suffers from membrane fouling and limited separation performance. This work demonstrates a novel electrical tuning strategy to improve the separation efficiency of the UF process. An electrically enhanced UF (EUF) system with two sets of oppositely placed membrane-electrode modules was set up. A series of multicycle treatment experiments were conducted to reveal the performance and tuning mechanism of the EUF system. The applied electrical tuning operation brought about an up to 68% reduction of average transmembrane pressure increasing rate (Rp), indicating a strong capability in inhibiting membrane fouling. This fouling reduction can be mainly ascribed to the applied electrophoretic force, changes in solution chemistry, and generation of peroxide, which repulses foulants away from the membrane, hampers foulant adsorption owing to enhanced electrostatic repulsion, and degrades foulants, respectively. The 1.2 V voltage was identified as an effective voltage for stably inhibiting membrane fouling. Besides, the electrical tuning operation led to an up to ∼32% increase in foulant retention rate (φ) owing to both non-Faradaic effects (including electrosorption and electrophoretic repulsion) and Faradaic oxidative degradation. Moreover, the electrical tuning operation allowed a remarkable desalination capability with a significantly higher desalination rate and an up to ∼43% greater salt adsorption capacity as compared with a conventional capacitive deionization process. Additionally, the EUF system achieved a good performance in removing heavy metals (Ag, Cu, Pb, Se, and Sb). The overall enhanced EUF performance suggests promising prospects for practical applications.

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