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1.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 13(4): e00464, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383606

RESUMO

The multitarget stool DNA test with fecal immunochemical test (sDNA-FIT) is recommended by all major US guidelines as an option for colorectal cancer screening. It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in average-risk individuals aged 45 years and older. The sDNA-FIT tests for 11 biomarkers, including point mutations in KRAS, aberrant methylation in NDRG4 and BMP3, and human hemoglobin. Patients collect a stool sample at home, send it to the manufacturer's laboratory within 1 day, and the result is reported in approximately 2 weeks. Compared with FIT, sDNA-FIT has higher sensitivity but lower specificity for colorectal cancer, which translates to a higher false-positive rate. A unique feature of sDNA-FIT is the manufacturer's comprehensive patient navigation system, which operates 24 hours a day and provides active outreach for patient education and reminders in the first month after a test is ordered. Retesting is recommended every 1-3 years, although the optimal testing interval has not yet been determined empirically. The cost of sDNA-FIT is $681 without insurance, but Medicare and most private insurers cover it with no copay or deductible.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA , Fezes , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(3): 647-653, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of the dietary supplement glucosamine has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer; however, it remains unclear if the association varies by screening status, time, and other factors. METHODS: We therefore evaluated these questions in UK Biobank. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: No association was observed between use of glucosamine and risk of colorectal cancer overall (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.85-1.04). However, the association varied by screening status (Pinteraction = 0.05), with an inverse association observed only among never-screened individuals (HR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98). When stratified by study time, an inverse association was observed in early follow-up among those entering the cohort in early years (2006-2008; HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95). No heterogeneity was observed by age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, or use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: While there was no association between glucosamine use and colorectal cancer overall, the inverse association among never-screened individuals mirrors our observations in prior exploratory analyses of U.S. cohorts. The National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Program started in 2006 in England and was more widely implemented across the UK by 2009/2010. In line with this, we observed an inverse association limited to early follow-up in those surveyed from 2006 to 2008, before screening was widely implemented. IMPACT: These data suggest that unscreened individuals may benefit from use of glucosamine; however, further studies are needed to confirm the interplay of screening and timing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Glucosamina , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 13(2): e00438, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Veterans Health Administration introduced a clinical reminder system in 2018 to help address process gaps in colorectal cancer screening, including the diagnostic evaluation of positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the differences between facilities who performed in the top vs bottom decile for follow-up colonoscopy. METHODS: Seventeen semistructured interviews with gastroenterology (GI) providers and staff were conducted at 9 high-performing and 8 low-performing sites. RESULTS: We identified 2 domains, current practices and perceived barriers, and most findings were described by both high- and low-performing sites. Findings exclusive to 1 group mainly pertained to current practices, especially arranging colonoscopy for FIT-positive patients. We observed only 1 difference in the perceived barriers domain, which pertained to primary care providers. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that what primarily distinguishes high- and low-performing sites is not a difference in barriers but rather in the GI clinical care process. Developing and disseminating patient education materials about the importance of diagnostic colonoscopy, eliminating in-person precolonoscopy visits when clinically appropriate, and involving GI in missed colonoscopy appointments and outside referrals should all be considered to increase follow-up colonoscopy rates. Our study illustrates the challenges of performing a timely colonoscopy after a positive FIT result and provides insights on improving the clinical care process for patients who are at substantially increased risk for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Saúde dos Veteranos , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Sangue Oculto
7.
Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am ; 32(2): 215-226, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361332

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer screening incorporates various testing modalities. Factors including effectiveness, harms, cost, screening interval, patient preferences, and test availability should be considered when determining which test to use. Fecal occult blood testing and endoscopic screening have the most robust evidence, while newer blood- and imaging-based techniques require further evaluation. In this review, we compare the effectiveness, harms, and costs of the various screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sangue Oculto
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has decreased overall in the last several decades, but it has increased among younger adults. Prior studies have characterized this phenomenon in the United States (U.S.) using only a small subset of cases. We describe CRC incidence trends using high-quality data from 92% of the U.S. population, with an emphasis on those younger than 50 years. METHODS: We obtained 2001 to 2016 data from the U.S. Cancer Statistics database and analyzed CRC incidence for all age groups, with a focus on individuals diagnosed at ages 20 to 49 years (early-onset CRC). We compared incidence trends stratified by age, as well as by race/ethnicity, sex, region, anatomic site, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: We observed 191,659 cases of early-onset and 1,097,765 cases of late-onset CRC during the study period. Overall, CRC incidence increased in every age group from 20 to 54 years. Whites were the only racial group with a consistent increase in incidence across all younger ages, with the steepest rise seen after 2012. Hispanics also experienced smaller increases in incidence in most of the younger age groups. Asians/Pacific Islanders and blacks saw no increase in incidence in any age group in 2016, but blacks continued to have the highest incidence of CRC for every age group. Greater increase in early-onset CRC incidence was observed for males, left-sided tumors, and regional and distant disease. CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset CRC incidence increased overall from 2001 to 2016, but the trends were markedly different for whites, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. These results may inform future research on the risk factors underlying early-onset CRC.

9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(3)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041438

RESUMO

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite. Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite. Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27; P = .04). Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1327-1336, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581359

RESUMO

DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this expert review is to describe the role of medications for the chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia. Neoplasia is defined as precancerous lesions (e.g., adenoma and sessile serrated lesion) or cancer. The scope of this review excludes dietary factors and high-risk individuals with hereditary syndromes or inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: The best practice advice statements are based on a review of the literature to provide practical advice. A formal systematic review and rating of the quality of evidence or strength of recommendation were not performed. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: In individuals at average risk for CRC who are (1) younger than 70 years with a life expectancy of at least 10 years, (2) have a 10-year cardiovascular disease risk of at least 10%, and (3) not at high risk for bleeding, clinicians should use low-dose aspirin to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 2: In individuals with a history of CRC, clinicians should consider using aspirin to prevent recurrent colorectal neoplasia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 3: In individuals at average risk for CRC, clinicians should not use non-aspirin NSAIDs to prevent colorectal neoplasia because of a substantial risk of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse events. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 4: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, clinicians may consider using metformin to prevent colorectal neoplasia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 5: In individuals with CRC and type 2 diabetes, clinicians may consider using metformin to reduce mortality. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 6: Clinicians should not use calcium or vitamin D (alone or together) to prevent colorectal neoplasia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 7: Clinicians should not use folic acid to prevent colorectal neoplasia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 8: In individuals at average risk for CRC, clinicians should not use statins to prevent colorectal neoplasia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 9: In individuals with a history of CRC, clinicians should not use statins to reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
12.
J Med Screen ; 28(1): 51-53, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer screening programs frequently report problems ensuring adequate follow-up of positive fecal immunochemical tests (FITs). We investigated strategies implemented by ongoing screening programs to improve follow-up for FIT-positive participants, and explored associations between interventions and reported rates of follow-up. METHODS: We submitted an electronic survey to 58 colorectal cancer screening programs or affiliated researchers. Primary outcomes were the proportion of program participants with a positive FIT completing diagnostic colonoscopy, and patient, provider, and system-level interventions used to improve follow-up. We compare mean colonoscopy completion at six months in programs with and without interventions. RESULTS: Thirty-five programs completed the survey (60% response). The mean proportion of participants with a positive FIT who completed colonoscopy was 79% (standard deviation 16%). Programs used a mean of five interventions to improve follow-up. Programs using patient navigators had an 11% higher rate of colonoscopy completion at six months (p = 0.05). Programs sending reminders to primary care providers when no colonoscopy has been completed had a 12% higher rate of colonoscopy completion (p = 0.03). Other interventions were not associated with significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Almost all programs employ multiple interventions to ensure timely follow-up of positive FIT. The use of patient navigators and provider reminders is associated with higher rates of colonoscopy completion.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Sangue Oculto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(9): 2907-2915, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic Americans. Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic subgroup in the USA and the largest in New York City, but little is known about predictors of colorectal cancer screening uptake in this population. AIMS: We used the New York City Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, to investigate predictors of up-to-date colonoscopy use over time among Puerto Ricans aged ≥ 50 years in NYC. METHODS: We assessed the association between sociodemographic and medical factors and up-to-date colonoscopy use (defined as colonoscopy within the last 10 years) using univariable and multivariable logistic regression over six time periods: 2003-2005, 2006-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016. RESULTS: On multivariable analysis, age ≥ 65 years (OR 1.64-1.93 over three periods) and influenza vaccination (OR 1.86-2.17 over five periods) were the two factors most consistently associated with up-to-date colonoscopy use. Individuals without a primary care provider (OR 0.38-0.50 over three periods) and who did not exercise (OR 0.49-0.52 over two periods) were significantly less likely to have an up-to-date colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, influenza vaccination, having a primary care provider, and exercise are independent predictors of up-to-date colonoscopy use among Puerto Ricans in NYC. Interventions to improve screening colonoscopy uptake among Puerto Ricans should be targeted to those aged 50-64 years and who do not have a primary care provider.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Causalidade , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Saúde das Minorias , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1153): 706-715, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine how self-reported level of exposure to patients with novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) affected the perceived safety, training and well-being of residents and fellows. METHODS: We administered an anonymous, voluntary, web-based survey to a convenience sample of trainees worldwide. The survey was distributed by email and social media posts from April 20th to May 11th, 2020. Respondents were asked to estimate the number of patients with COVID-19 they cared for in March and April 2020 (0, 1-30, 31-60, >60). Survey questions addressed (1) safety and access to personal protective equipment (PPE), (2) training and professional development and (3) well-being and burnout. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 1420 trainees (73% residents, 27% fellows), most commonly from the USA (n=670), China (n=150), Saudi Arabia (n=76) and Taiwan (n=75). Trainees who cared for a greater number of patients with COVID-19 were more likely to report limited access to PPE and COVID-19 testing and more likely to test positive for COVID-19. Compared with trainees who did not take care of patients with COVID-19 , those who took care of 1-30 patients (adjusted OR [AOR] 1.80, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.51), 31-60 patients (AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.86 to 5.88) and >60 patients (AOR 4.03, 95% CI 2.12 to 7.63) were increasingly more likely to report burnout. Trainees were very concerned about the negative effects on training opportunities and professional development irrespective of the number of patients with COVID-19 they cared for. CONCLUSION: Exposure to patients with COVID-19 is significantly associated with higher burnout rates in physician trainees.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Segurança , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hepatology ; 74(1): 322-335, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whether patients with cirrhosis have increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the extent to which infection and cirrhosis increase the risk of adverse patient outcomes remain unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We identified 88,747 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 1, 2020, and May 14, 2020, in the Veterans Affairs (VA) national health care system, including 75,315 with no cirrhosis-SARS-CoV-2-negative (C0-S0), 9,826 with no cirrhosis-SARS-CoV-2-positive (C0-S1), 3,301 with cirrhosis-SARS-CoV-2-negative (C1-S0), and 305 with cirrhosis-SARS-CoV-2-positive (C1-S1). Patients were followed through June 22, 2020. Hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death were modeled in time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards regression. Patients with cirrhosis were less likely to test positive than patients without cirrhosis (8.5% vs. 11.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99). Thirty-day mortality and ventilation rates increased progressively from C0-S0 (2.3% and 1.6%) to C1-S0 (5.2% and 3.6%) to C0-S1 (10.6% and 6.5%) and to C1-S1 (17.1% and 13.0%). Among patients with cirrhosis, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were 4.1 times more likely to undergo mechanical ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.12; 95% CI, 2.79-6.10) and 3.5 times more likely to die (aHR, 3.54; 95% CI, 2.55-4.90) than those who tested negative. Among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, those with cirrhosis were more likely to be hospitalized (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.66), undergo ventilation (aHR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.05-2.46) or die (aHR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.18-2.30) than patients without cirrhosis. Among patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection, the most important predictors of mortality were advanced age, cirrhosis decompensation, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was associated with a 1.7-fold increase in mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(8): 714-719, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520886

RESUMO

GOALS: The goal of this study was to quantify the association between demographic factors and advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under age 50. BACKGROUND: CRC incidence in the United States has declined in older individuals but increased in those under age 50 (early-onset). More than 60% of early-onset CRC patients present with advanced disease (stage III/IV), but predictors of stage in this population are poorly defined. STUDY: We analyzed CRC cases diagnosed between age 20 and 49 in the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database during 2004 to 2015. Logistic regression models were fit to assess the impact of age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, and cancer site on the probability of advanced disease. RESULTS: The analysis included 37,044 cases. On multivariable regression, age was inversely associated with advanced disease. Relative to 45 to 49-year-olds, 40 to 44-year-olds had 8% greater odds of having advanced CRC, and 20 to 24-year-olds had 53% greater odds. Asians, blacks, and Pacific Islanders had 10%, 12%, and 45% greater odds of advanced disease compared with whites. Compared with nonpartnered individuals, those with partners had 11% lower odds of advanced CRC. Both right-sided and left-sided colon cancer were more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV compared with rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with early-onset CRC, younger age, Asian, black, or Pacific Islander race, and being nonpartnered were predictors of advanced disease at presentation. Colon cancer was more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV than rectal cancer. Patient characteristics associated with advanced CRC may indicate both differences in tumor biology and disparities in health care access.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(3): e00155, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status are known to influence staging and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). It is unclear how these relationships are affected by geographic factors and changes in insurance coverage for CRC screening. We examined the temporal trends in the association between sociodemographic and geographic factors and staging and survival among Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: We identified patients 65 years or older with CRC using the 1991-2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database and extracted area-level sociogeographic data. We constructed multinomial logistic regression models and the Cox proportional hazards models to assess factors associated with CRC stage and survival in 4 periods with evolving reimbursement and screening practices: (i) 1991-1997, (ii) 1998-June 2001, (iii) July 2001-2005, and (iv) 2006-2010. RESULTS: We observed 327,504 cases and 102,421 CRC deaths. Blacks were 24%-39% more likely to present with distant disease than whites. High-income areas had 7%-12% reduction in distant disease. Compared with whites, blacks had 16%-21% increased mortality, Asians had 32% lower mortality from 1991 to 1997 but only 13% lower mortality from 2006 to 2010, and Hispanics had 20% reduced mortality only from 1991 to 1997. High-education areas had 9%-12% lower mortality, and high-income areas had 5%-6% lower mortality after Medicare began coverage for screening colonoscopy. No consistent temporal trends were observed for the associations between geographic factors and CRC survival. DISCUSSION: Disparities in CRC staging and survival persisted over time for blacks and residents from areas of low socioeconomic status. Over time, staging and survival benefits have decreased for Asians and disappeared for Hispanics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , /estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/economia , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Geografia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Medicare/economia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , /estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437378

RESUMO

Bowel preparation with low-residue diet (LRD) has resulted in higher patient satisfaction and similar polyp detection rates compared to conventional clear liquid diet. However, there is limited experience with LRD in veterans, in whom conditions associated with poor bowel preparation are more prevalent than the general population. To examine risk factors associated with inadequate bowel preparation, we conducted a chart review of outpatient colonoscopies at the Manhattan VA Medical Center from February 2017 to April 2018. To examine patient satisfaction and compliance, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy from March to August 2018. Patients assessed by chart review (n = 660) were 92% male with a mean age of 64 years. An adequate Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score ≥2 in each colonic segment was achieved in 94% of procedures. Higher BMI, diabetes, prior inadequate bowel preparation, bowel preparation duration of two days, and opioid use were associated with inadequate bowel preparation on univariable analysis. On multiple logistic regression, only higher BMI remained a predictor, with every one-unit increase associated with a 6% increased odds of poor bowel preparation. Questionnaire responses showed 84% of patients were willing to repeat LRD bowel preparation, 85% found the process easy or acceptable, and 78% reported full adherence to LRD. These findings demonstrate that bowel preparation quality, patient satisfaction, and compliance were all high among veterans using LRD.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Dieta , Cooperação do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Catárticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos
20.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(4): 395-402, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015094

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer screening has increased substantially in New York City in recent years. However, screening uptake measured by telephone surveys may not fully capture rates among underserved populations. We measured screening completion within 1 year of a primary care visit among previously unscreened patients in a large urban safety-net hospital and identified sociodemographic and health-related predictors of screening.We identified 21,256 patients ages 50 to 75 who were seen by primary care providers (PCP) in 2014, of whom 14,425 (67.9%) were not up-to-date with screening. Because PCPs facilitate the majority of screening, we compared patients who received screening within 1 year of an initial PCP visit to those who remained unscreened using multivariable logistic regression.Among patients not up-to-date with screening at study outset, 11.5% (1,658 patients) completed screening within 1 year of a PCP visit. Asian race, more PCP visits, and higher area-level income were associated with higher screening completion. Factors associated with remaining unscreened included morbid obesity, ever smoking, Elixhauser comorbidity index of 0, and having Medicaid/Medicare insurance. Age, sex, language, and travel time to the hospital were not associated with screening status. Overall, 39.9% of patients were up-to-date with screening by 2015.In an underserved urban population, colorectal cancer screening disparities remain, and overall screening uptake was low. Because more PCP visits were associated with modestly higher screening completion at 1 year, additional community-level education and outreach may be crucial to increase colorectal cancer screening in underserved populations.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
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