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1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 256, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593825

RESUMO

Environmental footprint analyses for China have gained sustained attention in the literature, which rely on quality EEIO databases based on benchmark input-output (IO) tables. The Chinese environmentally extended input-output (CEEIO) database series provide publically available EEIO databases for China for 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012 with consistent and transparent data sources and database structure. Based on the latest benchmark IO tables for China for 2017 and 2018, here we develop the corresponding 2017 and 2018 CEEIO databases following the same method used to develop previous CEEIO databases. The 2017 and 2018 CEEIO databases cover 44 and 28 types of environmental pressures, respectively, and consider multiple sector classifications including ones consistent with previous CEEIO databases and ones following the 2017 China's national economy industry classification standard. A notable improvement in the 2017 and 2018 CEEIO databases is the comprehensive inclusion of CO2 emissions from additional industrial processes. This work provides a consistent update of the CEEIO database and enables a wide range of timely environmental footprint analyses related to China.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149781, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467898

RESUMO

Increasing trade cooperation under the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative has promoted economic development and intensified the water scarcity risk transmission between China and countries along the route (B&R countries). Local water scarcity risk (LWSR, the potential direct production losses induced by local water scarcity) can transcend geographical boundaries through global supply chains and influence production activities in downstream economies. To understand the vulnerability of the Initiative to water scarcity, we investigated the impacts of LWSR in China and B&R countries on each other's economies during 2001-2013, using a global environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model. Results reveal that more than 80% of China's trade-related water scarcity risk imports (TWSR imports, the vulnerability to foreign water scarcity risk through imports) originates from B&R countries. The share of TWSR from China in total imports of B&R countries has steadily increased. In particular, India, Thailand, Iran, Pakistan and Kazakhstan have the largest TWSR exports (LWSR in each nation transmitted to other nations through its exports) to China, while South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia have the largest imports from China. Water scarcity to their Agriculture sectors is responsible for TWSR transmission between them. Our study can contribute to the policy-making of governments and firms involved in mitigating the supply chain wide water scarcity risk. It also reveals the need for nations to collectively manage water resources to achieve sustainable development.

3.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(7): 514-526, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haze is a recurrent problem in Southeast Asia. Exposure to haze is linked to ophthalmic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of demographic factors, knowledge and perceived risk in influencing protective behaviours during the 2013 haze in Singapore. METHODS: We evaluated 696 adults in a cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled via a 2-stage simple random sampling without replacement from a large residential district in Singapore in 2015. The questionnaire measured the participant's knowledge, perceived risk and behaviours during the Southeast Asian haze crisis in 2013. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire were assessed using comparative fit index (≥0.96) and root mean square error of approximation (≤0.05). We performed structural equation modelling to examine the relationship between the hypothesised factors and protective behaviours. RESULTS: More than 95% of the individuals engaged in at least 1 form of protective behaviour. Knowledge was strongly associated with protective behaviours via direct effect (ß=0.45, 95% CI 0.19-0.69, P<0.001) and indirect effect through perceived risk (ß=0.18, 95% CI 0.07-0.31, P=0.002). Perceived risk was associated with protective behaviours (ß=0.28, 95% CI:0.11-0.44, P=0.002). A lower household income and ethnic minority were associated with protective behaviours. A lower education level and smokers were associated with lower knowledge of haze. A higher education and ethnic minority were associated with a lower perceived risk. Wearing of N95 masks was associated with other haze-related protective behaviours (ß=0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.37, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Knowledge was associated with protective behaviours, suggesting the importance of public education. Efforts should target those of lower education level and smokers. The wearing of N95 masks correlates with uptake of other protective behaviours.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritários , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura/epidemiologia
4.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113045, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175509

RESUMO

Implementing an integrated assessment system for the carrying capacity of water environments should include recognizing and eliminating warning signs based on future predictions. However, existing methodologies tend to ignore the warning methods already in place, and current studies fail to quantify water ecology issues adequately. To help solve these problems, the ecological footprint that involves water uses a procedural indicator system, which adopts an early warning methodology system approach. This reconstruction has devised definitions, recognizes hazards, states forecasts status, analyses signs, judges situations, distinguishes levels, and eliminates risks. Based on these procedures, a dynamic system model has been developed, comprising five subsystems with an overarching parent system. These subsystems are population, ecology, water resources, water environment, and water ecology. The simulation involves carrying rates for the water environment, water resource, water ecology, and the level of harmony between society and the environment. All these serve to describe the water environment carrying capacity, i.e., the upper limit of the capacity to supply resources, remove pollutants, and offer sustainable ecological services. To properly quantify the carrying capacity, the water environment carrying rate was assessed by a comprehensive analysis of the water environment, water resources, and water ecological carrying rate. The carrying rates were calculated as the ratios of currently existing pressure to the maximum pressure that can be born. When values are greater than 1, they indicate overload because the actual pressure is greater than the pressure they can bear. The degree of coordination between economy and environment was standardized to range between 0 and 1. The larger the value, the more harmonious the relationship. For this research, the North Canal basin, a basin consisting of several rivers flowing through Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei in northern China and its surrounding areas, was chosen. The results showed that water environment and resource carrying rates would decline to 2.60 and 0.94, respectively, while the water ecology carrying rate would remain high at 10.98 by the year 2025. In addition, the degree of coordination would increase from 0.65 to 0.79. These statistics mean that the overload statuses will be high for a long time, although they are expected to ease gradually. Besides, the relationship between society and the environment would become more stable. Considering both the overload statuses and the relationship between society and the environment, the warning signs would not vanish. Based on predictions, the measures used were explained from three perspectives, i.e., alleviating pressures, enhancing carrying capacities, and finding a balance between society and the environment. Finally, the effects of the measures were estimated quantitatively.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios , Pequim , China , Água
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147480, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965816

RESUMO

Identifying critical spatial supply chain paths for embodied water flows driven by food demand can guide the development of more spatially explicit food-related policies for water savings. Previous studies have quantified water uses caused by food demand, but overlook intermediate transfer paths within and among regions. That is, spatial supply chain paths describing step-by-step transfer stages between water uses and final food demand have not been well characterized. Based on the multi-regional input-output model and structural path analysis, this study exhaustively identifies critical spatial supply chain paths for provincial water withdrawals driven by final food demand in China. Results show that the final demand of food products from critical sectors (e.g., agricultural products processing, rice, and swine) and regions (e.g., Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, and Guangdong) drives large amounts of water withdrawals. Critical supply chain paths indicate that agricultural products processing, food manufacturing, and catering should pay special attention to increasing the use efficiency of rice, poultry, cotton, water, and gas products, which can effectively reduce national water withdrawals. The interregional paths further provide evidence for interregional cooperation to save food-related water resources, such as the transfer of capital and technologies from agricultural products processing in Shandong to cotton production in Xinjiang and rice production in Heilongjiang. These critical supply chain paths provide spatially explicit and targeted hotspots for demand-side policies. They can also serve for the evaluation of measures in each stage of the supply chain paths.

6.
J Neurooncol ; 151(2): 295-306, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) can present with motor and non-motor symptoms. In many central nervous system tumors, motor deficits are associated with significant morbidity and functional impairment, and correlate with worse prognosis. CNSLs however, often exhibit remarkable response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy with corresponding symptom improvement. We investigate the survival outcomes and trajectories of motor and functional recovery in a cohort of patients presenting with and without initial motor deficits. METHODS: Patients who underwent biopsy and with a histologically confirmed CNSL between 2008 and 2019 were retrospectively identified. Baseline demographic variables, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, histological type, neuroimaging features (location and number of lesions), and treatment administered (pre- and post-operative steroid use and chemotherapy regime) were recorded. Dates of death were obtained from the National Registry of Births and Deaths. Motor power and performance status at admission, 1 month and 6 months were determined. RESULTS: We identified 119 patients, of whom 34% presented with focal motor deficits. The median overall survival (OS) was 26.6 months. Those with focal motor deficits had longer OS (median 42.4 months) than those without (median 23.3 months; p = 0.047). In multivariate Cox analysis, age (HR 1.04 per year; p = 0.003), CCI (HR 1.31 per point; p < 0.001), leptomeningeal/ependymal involvement (HR 2.53; p = 0.016), thalamus involvement (HR 0.34; p = 0.019), neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.06 per point; p = 0.034), positive HIV status (HR 5.31; p = 0.003), preoperative steroids use (HR 0.49; p = 0.018), postoperative high-dose steroids (HR 0.26; p < 0.001) and postoperative low-dose steroids (HR 0.28; p = 0.010) were significant predictors of OS. By one month, 43% of surviving patients had full power, increasing to 61% by six months. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with initial motor deficits recovered in motor strength by six months. In our population, those presenting with motor deficits had paradoxically better overall survival.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145242, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517018

RESUMO

Since the most stringent-ever clean air policy was implemented in 2013 in China, main industrial air pollutant emissions have notably decreased. However, there are few studies on air pollutant emissions of industrial sectors driven by supply chain before and after implementing this policy. This paper attempts to provide a new perspective from industrial linkage to understand the emission of air pollutants. Based on Input-Output model framework, we revealed the linkages of SO2 and NOx emissions between sectors from 2012 to 2017 and the driving forces behind emission changes. Moreover, we simulated the possible impact of the key sector linkages on air pollutant emissions. Results show that the most noteworthy change during this period is that the metal melting sector has replaced the power sector, as the largest pollutant output emission sector associated with other sectors, especially the transport equipment sector. The main reason of this phenomena is that the emission intensity reduction rate of metal smelting sector (e.g., only 17% for NOx) is far less than other sectors. In the future, the development of the equipment manufacturing may put pressure on the metal smelting sector to reduce emissions. For example, when the transport equipment sector increases total output by 20% ~ 40%, the metal smelting sector will be driven to emit 0.04Mt ~0.08Mt of NOx. This paper provides a basis to quantitatively analyze the industrial sector linkages and identify the key sectors from 2012-2017, and helps decision makers better understand the impact of sector linkage on pollutant emissions.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 813-822, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373195

RESUMO

Spatial differences in CO2 emissions must be taken into account in CO2 mitigation. In this work, a spatial within-between logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition model was developed by using cluster analysis to evaluate the potential role of fiscal decentralization in driving interprovincial differences in CO2 emissions in China. The results revealed that the direct impact of fiscal decentralization emerged as a major emission driver after 2009. The differences of provincial CO2 emissions from the national average can be mainly attributed to emission differences between the distinct provincial clusters. The direct and indirect impacts of fiscal decentralization contributed to the shaping of differences in CO2 emission between provinces and their provincial cluster average, and between provincial cluster average and the national average. Reducing the differences in CO2 emission between distinct provincial clusters should be considered a breakthrough for the Chinese government. The provinces with CO2 emissions below the national average and above the average emissions of its provincial cluster still have the potential for further mitigation. Optimizing the expenditure authority of the central and provincial governments and improving the energy efficiency of the provincial fiscal expenditure are the two effective ways to further promote CO2 mitigation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Governo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Política
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14547-14557, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112142

RESUMO

Over 100 nations signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury to control the adverse effects of mercury (Hg) emissions on human beings. A spatially explicit analysis is needed to identify the specific sources and distribution of Hg-related health impacts. This study maps China's Hg-related health impacts and global supply chain drivers (i.e., global final consumers and primary suppliers) at a high spatial resolution. Here we show significant spatial heterogeneity in hotspots of China's Hg-related health impacts. Approximately 1% of the land area holds only 40% of the Chinese population but nearly 70% of the fatal heart attack deaths in China. Moreover, approximately 3% of the land area holds nearly 60% of the population but 70% of the intelligence quotient (IQ) decrements. The distribution of hotspots of China's Hg-related health impacts and global supply chain drivers are influenced by various factors including population, economy, transportation, resources, and dietary intake habits. These spatially explicit hotspots can support more effective policies in various stages of the global supply chains and more effective international cooperation to reduce Hg-related health impacts. This can facilitate the successful implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Mercúrio , China , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Mercúrio/análise , Políticas
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14204-14214, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105992

RESUMO

The cement industry has become the largest mercury (Hg) emission source in China. Better understanding Hg emission and deposition characteristics and drivers of Hg emission changes can increase the awareness of related risks and support effective policy making. The results show that due to the substantial increase in the use of new suspension preheater and precalciner (NSP) technology in China, an approximate two-fold increase from 80.0 to 144.0 Mg year-1 was observed for the cement-related Hg emissions during 2005-2015, which has resulted in a considerable increase in atmospheric deposition over terrestrial China from 37.9 to 75.9 Mg year-1. Compared to the great majority of emission sectors, the same increase in Hg emissions from cement production can cause more deposition due to the large share of highly water-soluble divalent Hg in the sector. Each 1% increase in the share of divalent Hg can result in an increase of 0.37 Mg year-1 in deposition over terrestrial China. Technical improvement and diversification of cement products are two major driving forces offsetting the economy-induced growth in cement-related Hg emissions during 2005-2015. Measures aimed at reducing the Hg emission intensity against the further increase in the use of NSP technology and avoiding overcapacity against the stimulation of real estate and increasing cement demands are urgently needed for the cement industry in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Materiais de Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12530-12538, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866384

RESUMO

While present international CO2 mitigation agreements account for the impact of population composition and structure on emissions, the impact of international migration is overlooked. This study quantifies the CO2 footprint of international immigrants and reveals their non-negligible impacts on global CO2 emissions. Results show that the CO2 footprint of international immigrants has increased from 1.8 gigatonnes (Gt) in 1995 to 2.9 Gt in 2015. In 2015, the U.S. had the largest total and per capita CO2 emissions caused by international immigrants. Oceania and the Middle East are highlighted for their large portions of immigrant-caused CO2 emissions in total CO2 emissions (around 20%). Changes in the population and structure of global migration have kept increasing global CO2 emissions during 1995-2015, while the reduction of CO2 emission intensity helped offset global CO2 emissions. The global CO2 mitigation targets must consider the effects of global migration. Moreover, demand-side measures need to focus on major immigrant influx nations.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Emigração e Imigração
12.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111036, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778316

RESUMO

Assessing emissions-reduction pressure among Chinese cities is a critical task for local governments formulating and implementing environmental policies. From the perspectives of carbon intensity and carbon inequality, this study develops an improved carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions-reduction index to quantify emissions-reduction pressure on 284 cities in China. Results indicate that driven by the decrease of overall carbon intensity and the rise of inter-city carbon inequality, emissions-reduction pressure on 41.38% of provinces and 49.65% of cities was greater than the overall national level; emissions-reduction pressure on 52.35% of cities exceeded the provincial average level. The central government determines national emissions-reduction pressure by adjusting carbon-inequality tolerance between cities and determines carbon-inequality preference based on population and economic output principles. These determinations become benchmarks for local governments' CO2 emissions-reduction pressure. Provinces and cities that exceed benchmarks become foci for promoting energy savings, emissions reduction, and low-carbon development in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Governo Local , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(16): 9791-9803, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677825

RESUMO

Food, energy, and water resources, which are interconnected with one another, are essential to human beings and sustainable development goals. Existing studies have quantified direct interconnections of food, energy, and water (FEW) systems in China but overlooked their indirect and spatial interconnections through production systems of other products. Quantifying both the direct and indirect spatial interconnections of food, energy, and water systems is the basis of holistic FEW resource management. The spatial interconnections of the FEW systems within China's economic supply chains at the provincial level were quantified from both demand-driven and supply-push perspectives in this study. Results show that food and energy subsystems have tighter coupling relations than the other relationships in the FEW nexus from the demand perspective, and food and water subsystems have tighter coupling relations from the supply perspective. Findings of this study highlight the necessity of demand-side and supply-side measures by identifying critical final consumers and primary suppliers. For example, primary inputs of energy extraction sectors in Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Heilongjiang are crucial for national water withdrawals. Sustainable management of FEW resources in China can be better achieved through strengthening the interdepartmental and interregional cooperation from both the demand and supply sides.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , China , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Recursos Hídricos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2237, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382018

RESUMO

Developing localized climate mitigation strategies needs an understanding of how global consumption drives local carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with a fine spatial resolution. There is no study that provides a spatially explicit mapping of global carbon footprint in China-the world's largest CO2 emitter-simultaneously considering both international and interprovincial trade. Here we map CO2 emissions in China driven by global consumption in 2012 at a high spatial resolution (10 km × 10 km) using a detailed, firm-level emission inventory. Our results show that the carbon footprints of foreign regions in China are concentrated in key manufacturing hubs, including the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and North China Plain. Approximately 1% of the land area holds 75% of the global carbon footprint in China. The carbon footprint hotspots in China identified are the key places in which collaborative mitigation efforts between China and downstream parties that drive those emissions.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1358, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170147

RESUMO

Transforming China's economic growth pattern from investment-driven to consumption-driven can significantly change global CO2 emissions. This study is the first to analyse the impacts of changes in China's saving rates on global CO2 emissions both theoretically and empirically. Here, we show that the increase in the saving rates of Chinese regions has led to increments of global industrial CO2 emissions by 189 million tonnes (Mt) during 2007-2012. A 15-percentage-point decrease in the saving rate of China can lower global CO2 emissions by 186 Mt, or 0.7% of global industrial CO2 emissions. Greener consumption in China can lead to a further 14% reduction in global industrial CO2 emissions. In particular, decreasing the saving rate of Shandong has the most massive potential for global CO2 reductions, while that of Inner Mongolia has adverse effects. Removing economic frictions to allow the production system to fit China's increased consumption can facilitate global CO2 mitigation.

16.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105137, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518931

RESUMO

The U.S. household consumption, a key engine for the global economy, has significant carbon footprints across the world. Understanding how the U.S. household consumption on specific goods or services drives global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is important to guide consumption-side strategies for climate mitigation. Here we examined global GHG emissions driven by the U.S. household consumption from 1995 to 2014 using an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model and detailed U.S. consumer expenditure survey data. The results show that the annual carbon footprint of the U.S. households ranged from 17.7 to 20.6 tCO2eq/capita with an expanding proportion occurring overseas. Housing and transportation contributed 53-66% of the domestic carbon footprint. Overseas carbon footprint shows an overall increasing trajectory, from 16.4% of the total carbon footprint in 1995 to the peak of 20.4% in 2006. These findings provide valuable insights on the scale, distribution, and variations of the global GHG emissions driven by the U.S. household consumption for developing consumption-side strategies in the U.S. for climate mitigation.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Características da Família , Efeito Estufa , Modelos Teóricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Transportes , Estados Unidos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1484, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940811

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) exposure poses substantial risks to human health. Investigating a longer chain from economic activities to human health can reveal the sources and critical processes of Hg-related health risks. Thus, we develop a more comprehensive assessment method which is applied to mainland China-the largest global Hg emitter. We present a map of Hg-related health risks in China and estimate that 0.14 points of per-foetus intelligence quotient (IQ) decrements and 7,360 deaths from fatal heart attacks are related to the intake of methylmercury in 2010. This study, for the first time, reveals the significant impacts of interprovincial trade on Hg-related health risks across the whole country. For instance, interprovincial trade induced by final consumption prevents 0.39 × 10-2 points for per-foetus IQ decrements and 194 deaths from fatal heart attacks. These findings highlight the importance of policy decisions in different stages of economic supply chains to reduce Hg-related health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(3): 1432-1440, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602110

RESUMO

While direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by China's power sector from the generation side have been widely investigated, driving forces from the electricity consumption perspective and inter-regional electricity transmission have been overlooked to a large extent. This study quantified relative contributions of six factors to changes in GHG emissions from interconnected grids in China during 2008-2015. These six factors include three generation-side factors (i.e., fuel mix of thermal power generation, energy efficiency of thermal power generation, and electricity structure), two consumption-side factors (i.e., electricity efficiency of GDP and GDP), and electricity transmission structure. GDP growth and changes in fuel mix of thermal power generation are two major drivers of increased GHG emission during 2008-2015, especially for the North China Grid. In contrast, changes in electricity transmission structure (especially in East China Grid and Southern China Grid), the increase in electricity efficiency of GDP (except for Northwest China Grid), improvements in energy efficiency of thermal power generation (especially in North China Grid and Central China Grid), and changes in electricity structure (especially in Southern Power Grid) are major factors offsetting GHG emission increments. Findings of this study can provide multiple-perspective policy implications for GHG mitigation in China's power sector.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , China , Eletricidade , Efeito Estufa
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(2): 779-788, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540460

RESUMO

The efficient provision of food, energy, and water (FEW) resources to cities is challenging around the world. Because of the complex interdependence of urban FEW systems, changing components of one system may lead to ripple effects on other systems. However, the inputs, intersectoral flows, stocks, and outputs of these FEW resources from the perspective of an integrated urban FEW system have not been synthetically characterized. Therefore, a standardized and specific accounting method to describe this system is needed to sustainably manage these FEW resources. Using the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) as a case, this study developed such an accounting method by using material and energy flow analysis to quantify this urban FEW nexus. Our results help identify key processes for improving FEW resource efficiencies of the DMA. These include (1) optimizing the dietary habits of households to improve phosphorus use efficiency, (2) improving effluent-disposal standards for nitrogen removal to reduce nitrogen emission levels, (3) promoting adequate fertilization, and (4) enhancing the maintenance of wastewater collection pipelines. With respect to water use, better efficiency of thermoelectric power plants can help reduce water withdrawals. The method used in this study lays the ground for future urban FEW analyses and modeling.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Água , Cidades , Nitrogênio , Abastecimento de Água
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(23): 13792-13800, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372053

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is characterized by its ability to migrate between continents and its adverse effects on human health, arousing great concern around the world. The transboundary transport of large anthropogenic Hg emissions from China has attracted particular attention, especially from neighboring countries. Here, we combine an atmospheric transport model, a mass budget analysis, and a multiregional input-output model to simulate the atmospheric Hg outflow from China and investigate the impacts of Chinese interprovincial trade on the outflow. The results show outflows of 423.0 Mg of anthropogenic Hg, consisting of 65.9% of the total Chinese anthropogenic emissions, from China in 2010. Chinese interprovincial trade promotes the transfer of atmospheric outflow from the eastern terrestrial boundary (-6.4 Mg year-1) to the western terrestrial boundary (+4.5 Mg year-1) and a net decrease in the atmospheric outflow for the whole boundary, reducing the chance of risks to foreign countries derived from transboundary Hg pollution from China. These impacts of interprovincial trade will be amplified due to the expected strengthened interprovincial trade in the future. The synergistic promotional effects of interprovincial trade versus Hg controls should be considered to reduce the transboundary Hg pollution from China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Internacionalidade
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