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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 774966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745150

RESUMO

A mixed Chinese herbal formula, Xiao-Qing-Long-Decoction (XQLD), may contribute to sustained remission in allergic rhinitis (AR), but it is unknown which factors determine such long-term effect. Here, we aimed to identify bacterial signatures associated with sustained remission. To this end, samples from AR patients at four different times were analyzed to compare the dynamic bacterial community and structure shifts. Diversity indices Chao1 showed significant difference across different time (p<0.05), and the Kruskal-Wallis test identified that Dialister (OTU_31), Roseburia (OTU_36), Bacteroides (OTU_22), Bacteroides (OTU_2040), and Prevotella_9 (OTU_5) were the significant differential bacterial taxa (p<0.05). These distinctive genera were significantly associated with the change of AR clinical indices and the predicted functional pathways such as PPAR signaling pathway, peroxisome, and citrate cycle (TCA cycle) (p<0.05), indicating that they may be important bacterial signatures involving in the sustained remission in AR (p<0.05). Besides, lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio at 6 months follow-up may also contribute to the long-term remission of AR. No seriously adverse events and safety concerns were observed in this study. In conclusion, XQLD is a meaningful, long-term efficient and safe medication for AR treatment. The underlying mechanisms of sustained remission in AR after XQLD treatment may be associated with the dynamic alteration of featured gut bacteria taxa.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 700936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746200

RESUMO

Objective: This review aimed to systematically summarize and meta-analyze the association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews, and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, four electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) were searched until March 2021 to identify eligible articles based on a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Heterogeneity was examined using I 2 statistics. Using random-effects models, the pooled odds ratios (ORs), and 95% CIs were calculated to evaluate the association between eating speed with MetS and its components, including central obesity, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Results: Of the 8,500 original hits generated by the systematic search, 29 eligible studies with moderate-to-high quality were included, involving 465,155 subjects. The meta-analysis revealed that eating faster was significantly associated with higher risks of MetS (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.27-1.86), central obesity (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.37-1.73), elevated BP (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.13-1.40), low HDL (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15-1.31), elevated TG (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.42), and elevated FPG (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27) compared to eating slowly. Conclusions: The results of the review indicated that eating speed was significantly associated with MetS and its components. Interventions related to decreasing eating speed may be beneficial for the management of MetS. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021242213, identifier: CRD42021242213.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 730701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760955

RESUMO

Pigs are the main host of Seneca Valley virus (SVV), previously known as Senecavirus A (SVA). Pigs affected by SVV have vesicles in the nose, hooves, and limp and may cause death in some severe cases. Occasionally, SVV has also been detected in mice, houseflies, environmental equipment, and corridors in pig farms. Moreover, it was successfully isolated from mouse tissue samples. In this study, an SVV strain (SVA/GD/China/2018) was isolated from a buffalo with mouth ulcers in the Guangdong province of China using seven mammalian cell lines (including BHK-21, NA, PK-15, ST, Vero, Marc-145, and MDBK). The genome of SVA/GD/China/2018 consists of 7,276 nucleotides. Multiple-sequence alignment showed that SVA/GD/China/2018 shared the highest nucleotide similarity (99.1%) with one wild boar-origin SVV strain (Sichuan HS-01) from the Sichuan province of China. Genetic analysis revealed that SVA/GD/China/2018 clustered with those porcine-origin SVV strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of SVV infection in buffalo, which might expand the host range of the virus. Surveillance should be expanded, and clinical significance of SVV needs to be further evaluated in cattle.

4.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plenty of diseases have been found having associations with blood types, especially cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there is a relationship between blood groups and acute aortic dissection. We also further studied the distribution of blood groups in different types of acute aortic dissection. METHODS: A total of 291 patients diagnosed with acute aortic dissection from 2011 to 2018 were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively in this study. The control group consisted of 582 patients who received plastic surgery at West China hospital from 2011 to 2018. First, we analyzed the distribution of blood groups between the study group and the control group, including the ABO, Rh, O and non-O groups. Then, we further divided the study group into two groups by the type of acute aortic dissection to determine if there was difference in blood groups between the two types of acute aortic dissection. RESULTS: The analysis of the distribution of ABO blood groups (p = 0.302) and Rh blood groups (p = 0.502) did not reveal statistically significant differences. There were no statistically significant differences in the distributions of ABO blood groups and Rh blood groups in different types of acute aortic dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not prove the incidence of acute aortic dissection, or the type of acute aortic dissection had a relationship with common blood groups.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doença Aguda , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , China , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22365, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785671

RESUMO

Antibody function is typically entirely dictated by the Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) that directly bind to the antigen, while the framework region acts as a scaffold for the CDRs and maintains overall structure of the variable domain. We recently reported that the rabbit monoclonal antibody 4A11 (rbt4A11) disrupts signaling through both TGFß2 and TGFß3 (Sun et al. in Sci Transl Med, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abe0407 ). Here, we report a dramatic, unexpected discovery during the humanization of rbt4A11 where, two variants of humanized 4A11 (h4A11), v2 and v7 had identical CDRs, maintained high affinity binding to TGFß2/3, yet exhibited distinct differences in activity. While h4A11.v7 completely inhibited TGFß2/3 signaling like rbt4A11, h4A11.v2 did not. We solved crystal structures of TGFß2 complexed with Fab fragments of h4A11.v2 or h4A11.v7 and identified a novel interaction between the two heavy chain molecules in the 2:2 TGFb2:h4A11.v2-Fab complex. Further characterization revealed that framework residue variations at either position 19, 79 or 81 (Kabat numbering) of the heavy chain strikingly converts h4A11.v2 into an inhibitory antibody. Our work suggests that in addition to CDRs, framework residues and interactions between Fabs in an antibody could be engineered to further modulate activity of antibodies.

6.
Curr Zool ; 67(6): 639-644, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805541

RESUMO

Selection due to cuckoo parasitism is responsible for the evolution of anti-parasitism defenses in hosts. Different host species breeding sympatrically with a single parasitic cuckoo may evolve different strategies to reduce the risk of counter cuckoo parasitism, resulting in different interactions between cuckoos and hosts in areas of sympatry. Here, we studied the coevolutionary interactions between Himalayan cuckoos Cuculus saturatus and 2 sympatric and closely related potential hosts belonging to the family Pycnonotidae, the brown-breasted bulbul Pycnonotus xanthorrhous and the collared finchbill Spizixos semitorques. We investigated parasitism rates and nest-site selection (nest height, nest cover, human disturbance, perch height, forest distance, and degree of concealment) related to parasitism risk, nest defense against a cuckoo dummy, and egg rejection against cuckoo model eggs. Bulbuls used specific nest sites that were further away from forests than those of finchbills, and they behaved more aggressively toward cuckoos than finchbills. In contrast, bulbuls possessed moderate egg rejection ability, whereas the finchbill rejected 100% of cuckoo model eggs. We suggest that selection of a nest site away from forests by the bulbul explains the absence of parasitism by Himalayan cuckoos. We suggest that these interspecific differences in nest-site selection and nest defense indicate alternative responses to selection due to cuckoos.

7.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802070

RESUMO

Trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis has been proposed as an alternative technique of craniofacial remodelling surgery for craniosynostosis correction. Many studies have defined the contribution of a series of biological events to distraction osteogenesis, such as changes in gene expression, changes in suture cell behaviour and changes in suture collagen fibre characteristics. However, few studies have elucidated the systematic molecular and cellular mechanisms of trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis, and no study has highlighted the contribution of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions with respect to the whole expansion process to date. Therefore, it is difficult to translate largely primary mechanistic insights into clinical applications and optimize the clinical outcome of trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis. In this review, we carefully summarize in detail the literature related to the effects of mechanical stretching on osteoblasts, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, immune cells (macrophages and T cells), mesenchymal stem cells and collagen fibres in sutures during the distraction osteogenesis process. We also briefly review the contribution of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions to bone regeneration at the osteogenic suture front from a comprehensive viewpoint.

8.
Chemosphere ; : 132907, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780744

RESUMO

The aggregation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria is important for the start-up and biomass retention of anammox processes. However, it is unclear whether it is beneficial to the activity, growth and reproduction of anammox bacteria. In this study, four reactor systems were developed to explore the effects of aggregation on anammox activity, growth and reproduction, after excluding the contribution of aggregation to sludge settling and retention. Results demonstrated that (i) compared with free-living planktonic bacteria, the aggregated bacteria had a higher volumetric nitrogen removal rate (0.75 kg-N/(m³·d)) and specific nitrogen removal activity (1.097 kg-N/VSS/d). And after 67 days cultivation, it had the higher sludge concentration and relative abundance (92.4%); (ii) compared with acidic polysaccharides and α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides, ß-d-glucopyranose polysaccharide play more essential roles of anammox aggregation; (iii) norspermidine triggered the secretion of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides to combat the toxicity, and inhibited biomass growth rate; (iv) immobilization in polyvinyl alcohol (10%) or sodium alginate (2%) gel beads was better than sodium alginate-chitosan gel beads and norspermidine (biofilm inhibitor) for the cultivation of free-living planktonic anammox bacteria. This is the first comparative study of three methods for cultivating free-living anammox bacteria. In conclusion, we found that the aggregation of anammox sludge not only facilitates biomass retention but also enhances the bioactivity, relative abundance, growth, and reproduction rate of anammox bacteria. The work is helpful to understand the formation of anammox granular sludge and contribute to the fast start-up and stable operation in anammox application.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 37591-37601, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808828

RESUMO

A new mechanism between the temperature sensitivity and the length ratio of PMMA coating to no-core fiber (NCF) is reported to realize an optical fiber temperature sensor with ultra-high sensitivity and compact size by PMMA-coated no-core fiber. By both theory and experiment, it is found that the sensitivity has a linear response to the length ratio of PMMA coating to NCF rather than the conventional viewpoint that it depends on the length of PMMA. Based on this conclusion and the high thermo-optic coefficient of PMMA, the temperature sensitivity is significantly enhanced as high as -9.582 nm/℃ through a simple, compact, and inexpensive sensor with 5 mm NCF and 3 mm PMMA coating. Our work opens a new avenue of a significant increase in the detection sensitivity of miniaturized fiber temperature sensors.

10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 179: 104979, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802529

RESUMO

Rotenone, a plant-derived pesticide belonging to genera Derris and Lonchorcarpus, is an inhibitor of NADH dehydrogenase complex. Studies have shown that rotenone was applied as a neurotoxic agent in various neuronal models. Hydroxytyrosol [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol] is a natural phenolic compound found in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Studies of hydroxytyrosol have dramatically increased because this compound may contribute to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Although hydroxytyrosol has received increasing attention due to its multiple pharmacological activities, it is not explored whether hydroxytyrosol inhibited rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in the neuronal cell model. The aim of this study was to explore whether hydroxytyrosol prevented rotenone-induced Ca2+ signaling, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HCN-2 neuronal cell line. In HCN-2 cells, rotenone (5-30 µM) concentration-dependently induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) rises and cytotoxicity. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol (30 µM) reversed rotenone (20 µM)-induced cytotoxic responses. In Ca2+-containing medium, rotenone-induced Ca2+ entry was inhibited by 2-APB (a store-operated Ca2+ channel modulator) or hydroxytyrosol. In Ca2+-free medium, treatment with thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor) or hydroxytyrosol significantly inhibited rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Furthermore, treatment with hydroxytyrosol reversed ROS levels, cytotoxic responses, and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT) in rotenone-treated cells. Together, in HCN-2 cells, rotenone induced Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and caused oxidative stress. Moreover, hydroxytyrosol ameliorated Ca2+ or ROS-associated cytotoxicity. It suggests that hydroxytyrosol might have a protective effect on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in human neuronal cells.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Rotenona , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Estresse Oxidativo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Rotenona/toxicidade
11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze clinical characteristics and find potential factors to predict poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We analyzed the clinical characteristics and laboratory tests of COVID-19 patients and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments collected from 53 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 31 January 2020 to 18 February 2020 with qRT-PCR analysis. Then, we classified those patients based on clinical conditions (severe or non-severe syndrome) and urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA (URNA- or URNA+). RESULTS: We found that COVID-19 patients with severe syndrome (severe patients) showed significantly higher positive rate (11 of 23, 47.8%) of urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA than non-severe patients (4 of 30, 13.3%, p = 0.006). URNA+ patients or severe URNA+ subgroup exhibited higher prevalence of inflammation and immune discord, cardiovascular diseases, liver damage and renal dysfunction, and higher risk of death than URNA- patients. To understand the potential mechanisms underlying the viral urine shedding, we performed renal histopathological analysis on postmortems of patients with COVID-19 and found severe renal vascular endothelium lesion characterized by an increase of the expression of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, markers to assess the endothelium dysfunction. We proposed a theoretical and mathematic model to depict the potential factors that determine the urine shedding of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urine specimens can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 severity.

12.
ACS Omega ; 6(44): 30019-30026, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778673

RESUMO

Spin-selective reflection metadevices are usually realized by using chiral metamirrors that can reflect one state of circularly polarized (CP) waves and restrain the other one. However, most of the chiral metamirrors only exhibit chirality in a narrow band, which may impede their potential applications. Here, we propose a Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) coding metasurface composed of the spin-decoupled elements to realize broadband spin-selective reflections with arbitrary wavefront manipulations. The spin-selective anomalous reflection is designed and measured to validate the performance of the proposed PB coding metasurface. Both simulation and experiment results show that the designated CP wave can be efficiently reflected without reversing the spin state, while at the same time, its orthogonally polarized wave is suppressed by random diffusion, in a broad band from 16 to 24 GHz. The results also reveal that the proposed PB coding metasurface has the chiral-like characteristics, even though it is composed of nonchiral meta-elements.

13.
Anim Cogn ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773170

RESUMO

Avian brood parasites leave parental care of their offspring to foster parents. Theory predicts that parasites should select for large host nests when they have sufficient available host nests at a given time. We developed an empirical experimental design to test cognitive ability of female cuckoos in nest size by studying nest choice of common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) among nests of its Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) hosts. We presented three groups of experimental nests: 1) nest dyads tied together including one large and one small artificial nest from reed leaves, 2) nest triads tied together used the old modified warbler's own nests including enlarged, reduced and medium-sized nests, and 3) nest dyads are similar to group 1, but not tied together to elicit parasitism by common cuckoos. We predict that cuckoos prefer larger nest than medium one, the next is smaller nest. Our findings showed that common cuckoo females generally prefer large nests over medium or small sized nests in all three experimental groups. Furthermore, cuckoo parasitism was significantly more common than in previous studies of the same warbler population, implying that larger, higher and more exposed host nests effectively increased the probability of cuckoo parasitism.

14.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265653

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, an astronomical number of publications on the pandemic dynamics appeared in the literature, of which many use the susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR) models, or their variants, to simulate and study the spread of the coronavirus. SIR and SEIR are continuous-time models which are a class of initial value problems (IVPs) of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Discrete-time models such as regression and machine learning have also been applied to analyze COVID-19 pandemic data (e.g. predicting infection cases), but most of these methods use simplified models involving a small number of input variables pre-selected based on a priori knowledge, or use very complicated models (e.g. deep learning), purely focusing on certain prediction purposes and paying little attention to the model interpretability. There have been relatively fewer studies focusing on the investigations of the inherent time-lagged or time-delayed relationships e.g. between the reproduction number (R number), infection cases, and deaths, analyzing the pandemic spread from a systems thinking and dynamic perspective. The present study, for the first time, proposes using systems engineering and system identification approach to build transparent, interpretable, parsimonious and simulatable (TIPS) dynamic machine learning models, establishing links between the R number, the infection cases and deaths caused by COVID-19. The TIPS models are developed based on the well-known NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous inputs) model, which can help better understand the COVID-19 pandemic dynamics. A case study on the UK COVID-19 data is carried out, and new findings are detailed. The proposed method and the associated new findings are useful for better understanding the spread dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843554

RESUMO

Inappropriate water and fertilizer management can lead to unstable crop yields. Excessive fertilization can potentially cause soil degradation and nitrogen (N) leaching. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal N application rate on two wheat varieties with different nitrogen responding under limited water irrigation at three experimental sites in the Piedmont plain of the Taihang Mountains, China. A two-year field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of five N application rates (N0, N120, N180, N240, and N300) on winter wheat growth, leaf area index, aboveground biomass, grain yield, grain N accumulation, and net return. The results showed that N application rate significantly affected leaf area index, aboveground biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Variety and variety × N rate interactions had a significant effect on few indicators. Compared with N0, N180 improved leaf area index, aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain N accumulation. Compared with N240 and N300, N180 increased the harvest index and N harvest index, without significantly reducing grain yield or grain N accumulation, while enhancing a higher N use efficiency. Fertilizers applied in the ranges of 144.7-212.9 and 150.3-247.0 kg ha-1 resulted in the highest net return for the KN199 and JM585 varieties, respectively. Our study provides a sound theoretical basis for high-efficiency fertilizer utilization in sustainable winter wheat production in the Piedmont plains of the Taihang Mountains of China.

17.
Curr Zool ; 67(5): 473-479, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616945

RESUMO

Hole-nesting tits belonging to the family Paridae produce a hissing display that resembles the exhalatory hiss of a snake. When a predatory animal enters the nest hole of a tit, tits often hiss vigorously, while lunging their head forward and shaking their wings and tail, until the intruder retreats. We assessed the acoustic similarity between such hiss calls from 6 species of tits, snake hisses, and tit syllables used in alarm vocalizations, as well as white noise as a control. Tit hiss calls showed a high degree of similarity with snake hisses from 3 different snake families. Tit hisses had lower similarity to syllable alarm calls, suggesting convergence of tit hisses in their spectral structure. Hiss calls would only be effective in protecting nest boxes if nest predators responded to these calls. In order to test this hypothesis, we trained individual Swinhoe's striped squirrels, Tamiops swinhoei hainanus, a common predator of egg and nestling tits, to feed at feeders in proximity to nest boxes. We compared the aversive response of squirrels to tit's hiss calls and white noise, presented in random order. Squirrels showed a higher degree of avoidance of feeders when hiss calls were played back than when white noise was presented. In conclusion, our study suggests that hole-nesting birds have evolved convergent snake-like hiss calls, and that predators avoid to prey on the contents of nest boxes from which snake-like hisses emerge.

19.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 511-522, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631281

RESUMO

Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower extremities is identified as a kind of cardiovascular disease with aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Accumulating studies have demonstrated the vital role of Yes1-associated transcriptional regulator (YAP1) in VSMCs, while its upstream regulatory mechanism in VSMCs in ASO of the lower extremities needs to be further elucidated. Herein, hsa_circ_0024093, a circular RNA (circRNA) from YAP1, was identified to positively regulate the protein level of YAP1 in VSMCs. Functionally, silencing of hsa_circ_0024093 obviously impeded cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in VSMCs in the in vitro model of ASO of the lower extremities. Mechanistically, it was found that hsa_circ_0024093 could regulate the expression of USP9X, which further induced YAP1 deubiquitination to stabilize YAP1 protein. In depth, it was revealed from mechanism experiments that hsa_circ_0024093 sequestered miR-889-3p or miR-4677-3p to enhance USP9X expression. Further, rescue assays validated that hsa_circ_0024093 regulated the miR-4677-3p/miR-889-3p/USP9X axis to accelerate the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in the in vitro model of ASO of the lower extremities. These findings may provide a novel perspective for better understanding of ASO of the lower extremities.

20.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1981570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595060

RESUMO

Low response rates to certain tumor types remain a major challenge for immune checkpoint blockade therapy. In this study, we first conducted an integrated biomarker evaluation of bladder cancer patients from confirmatory cohorts (IMvigor210) and found that no significant differences exist between sexes before acceptance of anti-PD-L1 treatment, whereas male patients showed a better response. Thus, we then focused on sex-related changes post anti-PD-L1 treatment and found no obvious impact on the gut microbiota in male mice but a significant decrease in the sex hormone levels. Further, castration dramatically enhanced the antitumor efficacy against murine colon adenocarcinoma in male mice. Moreover, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, colistin was innovatively used for deregulation of testosterone levels to enhance the immunotherapy efficiency in male mice. These findings indicate that the impact on the sex hormone levels in males may contribute to the sexual dimorphism in response and provide a promising way to enhance immunotherapy efficiency.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testosterona , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
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