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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 134: 104648, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676238

RESUMO

Accumulation of DNA damage has been detected in the spinal cord of patients as well as in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is a p53-inducible serine/threonine phosphatase that terminates DNA-damage responses via dephosphorylation of DNA-damage response proteins, namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, checkpoint kinase 2, and p53, thus enhancing cell proliferation. However, the role of Wip1, DNA-damage responses, and their interaction in ALS development remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that Wip1 expression levels were substantially decreased in ALS motor neurons compared with wild-type controls both in vivo and in vitro. The DNA-damage response was activated in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A-transfected cells. However, increased expression of Wip1 improved cell viability and inhibited the DNA-damage response in mutated SOD1G93A cells. Further studies demonstrated that decreased Wip1 expression reduced cell viability and further activated the DNA-damage response in chronic H2O2-treated NSC34 cells. In contrast, Wip1 promoted cell survival and suppressed DNA damage-induced apoptosis during persistent DNA damage conditions. Over-expression of Wip1 in the central nervous system (CNS) can delay the onset of disease symptoms, extended the survival, decreased MN loss improved motor function and inhibit the DNA-damage response in SOD1 G93A mice. Furthermore, homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) promoted the degradation of Wip1 via the ubiquitin-proteasome system during chronic stress. These findings indicate that persistent accumulation of DNA damage and subsequent chronic activation of the downstream DNA damage-response ATM and p53 pro-apoptotic signaling pathways may trigger neuronal dysfunction and neuronal death in ALS. Wip1 may play a protective role by targeting the DNA-damage response in ALS motor neurons. Importantly, these findings provide a novel direction for therapeutic options for patients with ALS.

2.
J Hepatol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) has been recognized as a promising target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PC3-secreted microprotein (PSMP)/microseminoprotein (MSMP) is a novel chemotactic cytokine and its receptor is CCR2. In the present study we investigated the expression and role of PSMP in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. METHODS: PSMP expression was studied in patients with fibrosis/cirrhosis and in 3 murine models of liver fibrosis, including mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), bile-duct ligation, or a 5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine diet. The role of PSMP was evaluated in Psmp-/- mice and after treatment with a PSMP antibody in wild-type mice. The direct effects of PSMP on macrophages and hepatic stellate cells were studied in vitro. RESULTS: In this study, we found that PSMP was highly expressed in fibrotic/cirrhotic tissues from patients with different etiologies of liver disease and in the 3 experimental mouse models of fibrosis. Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules HMGB-1 and IL-33 induced hepatocytes to produce PSMP. PSMP deficiency resulted in a marked amelioration of hepatic injury and fibrosis. In CCl4-induced hepatic injury, the infiltration of macrophages and CCR2+ monocytes into the liver was significantly decreased in Psmp-/- mice. Consistent with the decreased levels of intrahepatic macrophages, proinflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced. Moreover, adeno-associated virus-8 vectors successfully overexpressing human PSMP in Psmp-/- mouse livers could reverse the attenuation of liver injury and fibrosis induced by CCl4 in a CCR2-dependent manner. Treatment with a specific PSMP-neutralizing antibody, 3D5, prevented liver injury and fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice. At the cellular level, PSMP directly promoted M1 polarization of macrophages and activation of LX-2 cells. CONCLUSION: PSMP enhances liver fibrosis through its receptor, CCR2. PSMP is a potentially attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with liver fibrosis. LAY SUMMARY: Our present study identifies the essential role of the protein PSMP for the development and progression of liver fibrosis in humans and mice. PSMP promotes liver fibrosis through inflammatory macrophage infiltration, polarization and production of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as direct activation of hepatic stellate cells via its receptor CCR2. A PSMP antibody can significantly reduce liver fibrosis development in vivo. These findings indicate that PSMP is a potential therapeutic target and its antibody is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(24): 12080-12096, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837260

RESUMO

Age can significantly affect human physiology and disease risk. Recent studies have shown that age may affect the composition and function of the gut microbiota, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Non-human primates are an ideal model for uncovering how age shapes the gut microbiota, as their microbial composition is highly similar to that of humans and is not easily affected by confounding factors. Here, using the 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing methods, we characterized the microbial phenotypes of 16 female cynomolgus macaques from three age groups (young, adult and old). Our findings revealed significant differences in microbial composition among the three groups. With increased age, the relative abundances of Veillonellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Succinivibrionaceae were significantly increased, Ruminococcaceae and Rikenellaceae were significantly decreased at the family level. Functional enrichment showed that genes that differed among the three groups were mainly involved in arginine biosynthesis, purine metabolism and microbial polysaccharides metabolism. Moreover, CAZymes corresponding to polysaccharide degrading activities were also observed among the three groups. In conclusion, we characterized the composition and function of the gut microbiota at different ages, and our findings provide a new entry point for understanding the effects of age on the human body.

4.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 3219-3229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819450

RESUMO

Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by molecular and anatomical abnormalities of multiple brain regions. Our recent study showed that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota contributes to the onset of schizophrenia-relevant behaviors, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate how gut microbiota shapes metabolic signatures in multiple brain regions of schizophrenia microbiota recipient mice. Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to compare the metabolic signatures in the cortex, cerebellum and striatum of schizophrenia microbiota and healthy microbiota recipient mice. Enrichment analysis was further conducted to uncover the crucial metabolic pathways related to schizophrenia-relevant behaviors. Results: We found that the metabolic phenotypes of these three regions were substantially different in schizophrenia microbiota recipient mice from those in healthy microbiota recipient mice. In total, we identified 499 differential metabolites that could discriminate the two groups in the three brain regions. These differential metabolites were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid and fatty acyl metabolism. Moreover, we found four of fatty acyl metabolites that were consistently altered in the three brain regions. Conclusion: Taken together, our study suggests that alterations of glycerophospholipid and fatty acyl metabolism are implicated in the onset of schizophrenia-relevant behaviors, which may provide a new understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia.

5.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 39(2): 83-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679249

RESUMO

Mouse cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and its homologue human cathelicidin (LL-37) play active roles in innate immune responses, angiogenesis, and wound healing. In addition, LL-37/CRAMP fends off microbes and protects against infections in the colon, where the epithelium is exposed to myriad of enteric pathogens. It is increasingly recognized that LL-37/CRAMP maintains colon mucosal barrier integrity, shapes the composition of microbiota, and protects the host from tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the importance of LL-37/CRAMP in the homeostasis of the host, with novel findings derived from mice deficient in CRAMP that support the proposition for this natural antimicrobial peptide and an immune modulator as a drug lead for therapeutic development.

6.
PeerJ ; 7: e7441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579562

RESUMO

Background: To identify pivotal lncRNAs in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) using lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA ceRNA network analysis. Methods: We obtained gene expression profiles from the gene expression omnibus database. Cancer specific lncRNA, cancer specific miRNA and cancer specific mRNA were identified. An integrated analysis was conducted to detect potential lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA in regulating disease transformation. The lncRNA regulated gene ontology (GO) terms and regulated pathways were performed by function analysis. Survival analysis was performed for the pivotal lncRNAs. Results: A total of four lncRNAs, 15 miRNAs and 375 mRNAs are identified as the key mediators in the pathophysiological processes of PTC. GO annotation enrichment analysis showed the most relevant GO terms are signal transduction, integral component of membrane and calcium ion binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed different changed genes mainly enriched in pathways in cancer, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and focal adhesion. Among four lncRNAs, only SLC26A4-AS1 was significantly associated with PTC patient disease free survival. Conclusion: This study has constructed lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA ceRNA networks in PTC. The study provides a set of pivotal lncRNAs for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms.

7.
Neuropharmacology ; 160: 107777, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521619

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a critical role in mutant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motor neurons. Thus, an anti-oxidative stress remedy might be a promising means for the treatment of ALS. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of γ-oryzanol (Orz) and elucidate its relevant molecular mechanisms in mutant hSOD1-linked Drosophila and cell models of ALS. Orz treatment provided neuroprotection in flies with expression of hSOD1-G85R in motor neurons, as demonstrated by the prolonged survival, improvement of motor deficits, reduced oxidative damage and regulated redox homeostasis when compared with those in controls. Moreover, Orz significantly decreased neuronal apoptosis and upregulated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) antioxidant pathway via activating Akt in hSOD1-G93A-expressing NSC-34 cells. In addition, our results showed that both in vivo and in vitro, Akt served as an upstream regulator of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 3 stimulated by Orz, which further increased the level of another anti-oxidative stress factor heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). Altogether, these findings provide evidence that Orz has potential neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of ALS disease with SOD1 mutations.

8.
PeerJ ; 7: e7451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523496

RESUMO

Background: Because of the increasing dysplasia rate in the lifelong course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, it is imperative to characterize the crosstalk between IBD and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there have been no reports revealing the occurrence of the ceRNA network in IBD-related CRC. Methods: In this study, we conducted gene expression profile studies of databases and performed an integrated analysis to detect the potential of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA in regulating disease transformation. R packages were used to screen differentially expressed mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA among CRC, IBD and normal tissue. The lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on predicted miRNA-targeted lncRNAs and miRNA-targeted mRNAs. Functional analyses were then conducted to identify genes involved in the ceRNA network, and key lncRNAs were evaluated based on several clinical outcomes. Results: A total of three lncRNAs, 15 miRNAs, and 138 mRNAs were identified as potential mediators in the pathophysiological processes of IBD-related CRC. Gene Ontology annotation enrichment analysis confirmed that the dysplasia process was strongly associated with immune response, response to lipopolysaccharide, and inflammatory response. Survival analysis showed that LINC01106 (HR = 1.7; p < 0.05) were strongly associated with overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. The current study identified a series of IBD-related mRNAs, miRNA, and lncRNAs, and highlighted the important role of ceRNAs in the pathogenesis of IBD-related CRC. Among them, the LINC01106-miRNA-mRNA axis was identified as vital targets for further research.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(18): 1901441, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559142

RESUMO

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a devastating acquired autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiome plays a key role in maintaining immune system homeostasis. This work reports that MG is characterized by decreased α-phylogenetic diversity, and significantly disturbed gut microbiome and fecal metabolome. The altered gut microbial composition is associated with fecal metabolome changes, with 38.75% of altered bacterial operational taxonomic units showing significant correlations with a range of metabolite biomarkers. Some microbes are particularly linked with MG severity. Moreover, a combination of microbial makers and their correlated metabolites enable discriminating MG from healthy controls (HCs) with 100% accuracy. To investigate whether disturbed gut mcirobiome might contribute to the onset of MG, germ-free (GF) mice are initially colonized with MG microbiota (MMb) or healthy microbiota (HMb), and then immunized in a classic mouse model of MG. The MMb mice demonstrate substantially impaired locomotion ability compared with the HMb mice. This effect could be reversed by cocolonizing GF mice with both MMb and HMb. The MMb mice also exhibit similar disturbances of fecal metabolic pathways as found in MG. Together these data demonstrate disturbances in microbiome composition and activity that are likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of MG.

10.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3583-3596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432188

RESUMO

With the increasing rate of chemoresistance in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with advanced tumor stages, it is a matter of urgent importance to delineate the factors involved in the drug resistance process. In this study, gene expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and an integrated analysis with the aim of detecting hub long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their regulated, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during treatment with oxaliplatin (OxPt) or irinotecan was conducted. A total of seven differentially expressed lncRNAs were correlated with OxPt resistance and 21 were correlated with resistance to SN­38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Gene Ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis confirmed that drug resistance was strongly associated with an imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell energetic metabolism under hypoxic conditions, and angiogenesis. Moreover, a large number of lncRNA­targeted DEGs were located in extracellular exosomes. Further analyses identified four hub lncRNAs involved in the process of drug resistance, including CRNDE, H19, UCA1 and HOTAIR, which are predictive factors for treatment sensitivity. Among them, HOTAIR stands out as a strong factor, the elevated expression of which is also associated with advanced tumor node and metastasis stage and poor CRC disease prognosis.

11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 1049-1056, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468466

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of taurine on bowel inflammation resulting from heat stress in broilers, with the intent of providing insight into potential improvement of the condition of broilers. A total of 300 healthy 1 day AA broilers were selected, fed normally until day 7, and allocated randomly to 5 treatment groups, namely, the control group(C), the heat stress group(HS), the low Tau (LTau) group, the middle Tau (MTau) group and the high Tau (HTau) group, which represent low, medium and high concentrations of taurine respectively. In the study, various concentrations of taurine were added to the drinking water. The Heat Stress model was produced by maintaining Broilers in a room at 34 °C.Heat stress persisted for 6 h, 12 h, 7 days, and 14 days. The results showed that the expression levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1ß of the HTau group were significantly lower than that of the HS group at all time points examined (6 h, 12 h, 7 days, and 14 days) (P < 0.05). Compared with the HS group subjected to 6 h, 12 h and 14 days of heat stress, the MTau group exhibited significantly lower degrees of TNF-α and IL-1ß expression. Moreover, the expression of IFN-γ was higher in the HS group after 6 h, 12 h and 7 days of heat stress than that of the MTau group subjected to similar times of heat stress (P < 0.05).There were no significant difference among the groups at other periods of heat stress (P > 0.05).


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Talanta ; 204: 44-49, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357318

RESUMO

Bacillus cereus, a common soil bacterium, has been shown to act as a biogeochemical indicator for concealed mineralisations, e.g., vein-type Au deposits. Field and cultivation-free detection of Bacillus cereus in the presence of Au3+ and other metal ions is significantly important but still almost blank in current biogeochemical prospecting of gold mine system. Herein, a self-established simple approach was slightly improved to make silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) rapidly concentrated on every bacterial cell, and highly strong and distinct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of Bacillus cereus free from any native fluorescence have been obtained in a so called 'mixing-and-measuring' manner. Furthermore, SERS was used for the first time to our knowledge to investigate the impacts of different concentrations of metal ions on Bacillus cereus, and successfully utilized for distinguishing Au3+ ions from other species. A more convincing multi-Raman criterion based on Raman bands, and further the entire Raman spectrum in combination with statistical analysis (e.g., principal component analysis (PCA)) were found capable of detecting spectral differences of Bacillus cereus in the presence of metal ions (Au3+, Ag+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) with different concentrations. An interesting phenomenon has been found that except for Au3+ ions, the highest permissive concentration of other metal ions for the detected Bacillus cereus is up to 10 µg/mL possibly due to their resistance to Au. The results also indicate that an effective biogeochemical exploration technique of SERS spectral response may be developed, where Bacillus cereus spore counts are measured in the field and used as a pre-screening method to target areas useful for further sampling and complete geochemical analysis.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Ouro/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mineração/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156552

RESUMO

Objective: To construct ceRNA network and identify pivotal competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) using ceRNA network analysis. Methods: The RNA sequencing expression data of 77 ACCs in TCGA were obtained from GEPIA. Cancer specific ceRNAs, cancer specific microRNAs (miRNAs), and cancer specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were identified. The interaction of cancer specific miRNAs with cancer specific ceRNAs and cancer specific mRNAs were predicted. CeRNA network was constructed and visualized by Cytoscape 3.7.0 software. The genes in ceRNA network regulated GO terms and regulated pathways were performed by function analysis. Survival analysis of pivotal ceRNAs was performed for the pivotal lncRNAs. Result: Twenty-eight cancer specific ceRNAs, 149 cancer specific miRNAs, and 104 mRNAs were identified. CeRNA network was constructed including 10 ceRNAs, 35 miRNAs, and 34 mRNAs. The genes in ceRNA network regulated GO terms and were classified into three groups: cellular component (CC), molecular function (MF), and biological process (BP). The genes in ceRNA network regulated the following pathways: leukocyte transendothelial migration, and proteoglycans in cancer. Survival analysis showed that CTB-63M22.1 and RP1-241P17.4 were significantly associated with ACC patient disease free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: This study has constructed ceRNA networks in ACC. The study provides a set of pivotal ceRNAs for future investigation into the molecular mechanisms.

14.
Transl Oncol ; 12(9): 1155-1163, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207546

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus, characterized by hyperglycemia, is considered as a risk factor of cancers including malignant gliomas. However, the direct effect of high glucose on cancer cell behavior is not clear. We therefore investigated the effect of hyperglycemia on the growth of human glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Our results revealed that high glucose (HG) promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of a human GBM cell line U87. Mechanistically, HG upregulated the expression and function of a G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor (GPCR) formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on GBM cells, which upon activation by their agonists, promoted cell migration and proliferation. In addition, the invasiveness and the production of VEGF by U87 cells were enhanced under HG conditions, the effects of which were mediated by FPR1 and EGFR agonists. The tumor promoting activity of HG was further substantiated by increased tumorigenicity and growth of xenograft tumors formed by GBM cells in nude mice with induced diabetes mellitus. Thus, our study demonstrates the capacity of HG to promote GBM progression via enhancement of the function of chemoattractant and growth factor receptors.

15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3015-3026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118619

RESUMO

Purpose: The combination of a bone graft with a barrier membrane is the classic method for guided bone regeneration (GBR) treatment. However, the insufficient osteoinductivity of currently-available barrier membranes and the consequent limited bone regeneration often inhibit the efficacy of bone repair. In this study, we utilized the piezoelectric properties of biomaterials to enhance the osteoinductivity of barrier membranes. Methods: A flexible nanocomposite membrane mimicking the piezoelectric properties of natural bone was utilized as the barrier membrane. Its therapeutic efficacy in repairing critical-sized rabbit mandible defects in combination with xenogenic grafts of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) was explored. The nanocomposite membranes were fabricated with a homogeneous distribution of piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BTO NPs) embedded within a poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) matrix. Results: The piezoelectric coefficient of the polarized nanocomposite membranes was close to that of human bone. The piezoelectric coefficient of the polarized nanocomposite membranes was highly stable, with more than 90% of the original piezoelectric coefficient (d33) remaining up to 28 days after immersion in culture medium. Compared with commercially-available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, the polarized BTO/P(VDF-TrFE) nanocomposite membranes exhibited higher osteoinductivity (assessed by immunofluorescence staining for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2) expression) and induced significantly earlier neovascularization and complete mature bone-structure formation within the rabbit mandible critical-sized defects after implantation with DBB Bio-Oss® granules. Conclusion: Our findings thus demonstrated that the piezoelectric BTO/P(VDF-TrFE) nanocomposite membranes might be suitable for enhancing the clinical efficacy of GBR.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Transplante Ósseo , Eletricidade , Membranas Artificiais , Nanocompostos/química , Osteogênese , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Compostos de Bário/farmacologia , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mandíbula/efeitos dos fármacos , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Implantação de Prótese , Coelhos , Ratos , Titânio/farmacologia
16.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 1077-1088, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118641

RESUMO

Purpose: Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder. Various depressive rodent models are usually constructed based on different pathogenesis hypotheses. Materials and methods: Herein, using our previously established naturally occurring depressive (NOD) model in a non-human primate (cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascularis), we performed metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from NOD female macaques (N=10) and age-and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) (N=12). Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed metabolites between the two groups. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and MetaboAnalyst were applied for predicted pathways and biological functions analysis. Results: Totally, 37 metabolites responsible for discriminating the two groups were identified. The NOD macaques were mainly characterized by perturbations of fatty acid biosynthesis, ABC transport system, and amino acid metabolism (eg, aspartate, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism). Interestingly, we found that eight altered CSF metabolites belonging to short-chain fatty acids and amino acids were also observed in the serum of NOD macaques (N=13 per group). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that peripheral and central short-chain fatty acids and amino acids are implicated in the onset of depression.

17.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2019: 7043509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093280

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and its incidence has increased rapidly in recent decades worldwide. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common type of all thyroid cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying the disease still need to be further investigated. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) longer than 200 nucleotides, are aberrantly expressed in malignant diseases, including PTC. Here, we identified a novel isoform of LOC100129940 and designated it as LOC100129940-N. We demonstrated that the expression level of LOC100129940-N was elevated in PTC, indicating that LOC100129940-N may be involved in PTC development and progression. Moreover, our results showed that overexpression of LOC100129940-N promoted, whereas silencing of LOC100129940-N suppressed, PTC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Mechanistically, LOC100129940-N played an important role in activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and upregulating downstream target genes. Taken together, we demonstrate that LOC100129940-N promotes the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, which in turn regulates the downstream target genes, thereby enhancing invasion and progression of PTC.

18.
J Neurol Sci ; 400: 160-168, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954660

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is composed of an enormous number of microorganisms, generally regarded as commensal bacteria. Resident gut bacteria are an important contributor to health and significant evidence suggests that the presence of healthy and diverse gut microbiota is important for normal cognitive and emotional processing. Here we measured the expression of monoamine neurotransmitter-related genes in the hippocampus of germ-free (GF) mice and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice to explore the effect of gut microbiota on hippocampal monoamine functioning. In total, 19 differential expressed genes (Htr7, Htr1f, Htr3b, Drd3, Ddc, Maob, Tdo2, Fos, Creb1, Akt1, Gsk3a, Pik3ca, Pla2g5, Cyp2d22, Grk6, Ephb1, Slc18a1, Nr4a1, Gdnf) that could discriminate between the two groups were identified. Interestingly, GF mice displayed anxiolytic-like behavior compared to SPF mice, which were not reversed by colonization with gut microbiota from SPF mice. Besides, colonization of adolescent GF mice by gut microbiota was not sufficient to reverse the altered gene expression associated with their GF status. Taking these findings together, the absence of commensal microbiota during early life markedly affects hippocampal monoamine gene-regulation, which was associated with anxiolytic behaviors and monoamine neurological signs.

19.
Brain Res Bull ; 146: 287-301, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690059

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been considered as a principal mechanism of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease which could be caused by dominant mutations in an antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of urate, an important endogenous antioxidant and a biomarker of favorable ALS progression rates, in the mutant human SOD1-related cellular and Drosophila models of ALS. Our results showed that urate treatment provided neuroprotective effects as confirmed by enhanced survival, attenuated motor impairments, reduced oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defense in hSOD1-G85R-expressing Drosophila models of ALS. In vitro studies, we demonstrated that urate protected motor neurons (NSC-34 cells) against hSOD1-G93A-induced cell damage and apoptosis by decreasing reactive oxygen specials (ROS) production and oxidative damage. Moreover, urate markedly increased the expression and activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), stimulated Nrf2-targeted antioxidant gene glutathione cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) expression and glutathione (GSH) synthesis by upregulating Akt/GSK3ß pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of Akt pathway with LY294002 abolished urate-mediated elevation of GSH synthesis and neuroprotective effects both in vivo and in vitro. Overall, these results suggested that, in addition to its direct scavenging of ROS, urate markedly enhanced GSH expression by activating Akt/GSK3ß/Nrf2/GCLC pathway, and thus offering neuroprotective effects on motor neurons against oxidative stress.

20.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 74: 51-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630676

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that DNA damage and p53 activation play major roles in the pathological process of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Human SpeedyA1 (Spy1), a member of the Speedy/Ringo family, enhances cell proliferation and promotes tumorigenesis. Further studies have demonstrated that Spy1 promotes cell survival and inhibits DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We showed that the Spy1 expression levels were substantially decreased in ALS motor neurons compared with wild-type controls both in vivo and in vitro by qRT-PCR, western blotting, and Immunoassay tests. In addition, we established that over-expression of human SOD1 mutant G93A led to a decreased expression of Spy1. Furthermore, DNA damage response was activated in SOD1G93A-transfected cells (mSOD1 cells). Moreover, decreased Spy1 expression reduced cell viability and further activated the DNA damage response in mSOD1 cells. In contrast, increased Spy1 expression improved cell viability and inhibited the DNA damage response in mSOD1 cells. These results suggest that Spy1 plays a protective role in ALS motor neurons. Importantly, these findings provide a novel direction for therapeutic options for patients with ALS as well as for trial designs, such as investigating the role of oncogenic proteins in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Mutação , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos
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