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1.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of neoadjuvant immunotherapy agent in advanced stage NSCLC is controversial. Herein, we aim to report on a case series of successful conversion from initial unresectable stage cIIIB NSCLC to radical minimally invasive surgery through immunochemotherapy; with particular attention given to surgical outcomes and survival benefit of surgery. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with initial stage cIIIB NSCLC who received PD-1 agents plus platinum-based chemotherapy between May, 2018 to August, 2020 were retrospectively identified. Surgical and oncological outcomes of enrolled patients were collected. RESULTS: Of 31 patients who underwent subsequent resection, 23 (74.2%) patients underwent lobectomy, 1 (3.2%) underwent pneumonectomy, 5 (16.1%) underwent sleeve lobectomy, and 2 (6.5%) with bilobectomy. The median surgical time was 205 minutes (range, 100-520). The average blood loss was 185 (range: 10-1100) ml. Dense adhesions or fibrosis was noted in 15 cases. The median postoperative hospital stay was 6 (range: 3-13) days. No surgical-related mortality was recorded, only 5 patients (16.1%) experienced any postoperative morbidity (no grade 3 complications). Ten patients (32.3%) had major pathological response, with mediastinal down-staging been observed in 22/31 (71.0%) patients. With a median after up of 15.4 months, thirty-one patients that had surgery had relatively longer median DFS/PFS compared to that of either non-responders or responders that without surgery (27.5 vs. 4.7 vs. 16.7 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Radical surgery after chemoimmunotherapy in initial unresectable stage IIIB NSCLC seems to be safe with low surgical-related mortality and morbidity, and was favorably associated with longer DFS/PFS compared to those without surgery.

2.
Sleep Med ; 87: 183-190, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between insomnia and lung cancer is scanty. The Mendelian randomization approach provides the rationale for evaluating the potential causality between genetically-predicted insomnia and lung cancer risk. METHODS: We extracted 148 insomnia-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables (IVs) from published genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Summary data of individual-level genetic information of participants were obtained from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) (29,266 cases and 56,450 controls). MR analyses were performed using the inverse-variance-weighted approach, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test, weighted median estimator, and MR-Egger regression. Sensitivity analyses were further performed using Egger intercept analysis, leave-one-out analysis, MR-PRESSO global test, and Cochran's Q test to verify the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: The results of the MR analysis indicated an increased risk of lung cancer in insomnia patients (OR = 1.1671; 95% CI 1.0754-1.2666, p = 0.0002). The subgroup analyses showed increased risks of lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.1878; 95% CI 1.0594-1.3317, p = 0.0032) and squamous cell lung cancer (OR = 1.1595; 95% CI 1.0248-1.3119, p = 0.0188). CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that insomnia is a causal risk factor in the development of lung cancer. Due to the lack of evidence on both the epidemiology and the mechanism level, more studies are needed to better elucidate the results of the study.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the short-term outcomes between spontaneous ventilation video-assisted thoracic surgery (SV-VATS) and mechanical ventilation video-assisted thoracic surgery (MV-VATS) in the elderly. All patients included in the present study underwent lobectomy, segmentectomy, or wedge resection and lymph node dissection. DESIGN: A retrospective cohor. SETTING: The first affiliated hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: The present study included 799 elderly patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing SV-VATS or MV-VATS. After propensity score matching, 80 patients in the SV-VATS group and 80 patients in the MV-VATS group were analyzed. INTERVENTIONS: Patients in the SV-VATS group received spontaneous-ventilation anesthesia, which was administered as follows: intravenous anesthesia + laryngeal mask airway + thoracic paravertebral block + visceral pleural surface anesthesia + thoracic vagus nerve block. Patients in the MV-VATS group received general endotracheal anesthesia. SV-VATS or MV-VATS was performed according to the preference of the patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were no significant differences in anesthesia time (226.3 ± 79.8 v 238.5 ± 66.2 min; p = 0.44), surgery time (166.2 ± 102.6 v 170.1 ± 83.4 min; p = 0.66), and number of dissected lymph nodes (5.3 ± 7.5 v 4.4 ± 7.4; p = 0.23) between the two groups. There were significant differences in intraoperative bleeding (61.5 ± 165.1 v 82.2 ± 116.9 mL; p < 0.001). After surgery, the two groups were statistically comparable in terms of hospitalization (17.6 ± 7.6 v 17.2 ± 6.9 days; p = 0.95) and incidence of complications (7.5% v 13.8%; p = 0.20), while there were significant differences in chest tube duration (6.1 ± 3.3 v 4.5 ± 1.2 days; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SV-VATS is feasible and as safe as MV-VATS, and it could be considered as an alternative treatment for the elderly.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 1021-1029, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Icotinib has provided survival benefits for patients with advanced, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to compare icotinib with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection. Here, we report the results from the preplanned interim analysis of the study. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 29 hospitals in China, eligible patients were aged 18-70 years, had histopathogically confirmed stage II-IIIA NSCLC, had complete resection up to 8 weeks before random assignment, were treatment-naive, and had confirmed activation mutation in exon 19 or exon 21 of the EGFR gene. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive web-based response system to receive either oral icotinib 125 mg thrice daily for 2 years or four 21-day cycles of intravenous chemotherapy (vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of each cycle plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 of each cycle for adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma; or pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks for non-squamous carcinoma). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed in the full analysis set. Secondary endpoints were overall survival assessed in the full analysis set and safety assessed in all participants who received study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448797. FINDINGS: Between June 8, 2015, and August 2, 2019, 322 patients were randomly assigned to icotinib (n=161) or chemotherapy (n=161); the full analysis set included 151 patients in the icotinib group and 132 in the chemotherapy group. Median follow-up in the full analysis set was 24·9 months (IQR 16·6-36·4). 40 (26%) of 151 patients in the icotinib group and 58 (44%) of 132 patients in the chemotherapy group had disease relapse or death. Median disease-free survival was 47·0 months (95% CI 36·4-not reached) in the icotinib group and 22·1 months (16·8-30·4) in the chemotherapy group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0·36 [95% CI 0·24-0·55]; p<0·0001). 3-year disease-free survival was 63·9% (95% CI 51·8-73·7) in the icotinib group and 32·5% (21·3-44·2) in the chemotherapy group. Overall survival data are immature with 14 (9%) deaths in the icotinib group and 14 (11%) deaths in the chemotherapy. The HR for overall survival was 0·91 (95% CI 0·42-1·94) in the full analysis set. Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in two (1%) of 156 patients in the icotinib group and 19 (14%) of 139 patients in the chemotherapy group. No interstitial pneumonia or treatment-related death was observed in either group. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that compared with chemotherapy, icotinib significantly improves disease-free survival and has a better tolerability profile in patients with EGFR-mutant stage II-IIIA NSCLC after complete tumour resection. FUNDING: Betta Pharmaceuticals TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Éteres de Coroa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , China , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(10): 2837-2849, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since little consensus has been reached on whether milder reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) increases lung cancer incidence, we conducted a meta-analysis and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to explore the association and causal relationship between FEV1 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search from PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases as of February 2020. MR analysis was performed using summary data obtained from two large consortia [International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) and Neale Lab] to assess the possible causality between FEV1 and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 88,743 cases were included. The incidence of lung cancer increased with decreasing FEV1.The combined odds ratio (OR) of decreased FEV1 for lung cancer incidence was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-2.19; P < 0.001]. Compared with the highest quintile of FEV1 (quintile 5, > 100% of predicted), the OR was 3.06 (95% CI 2.20-4.24; P < 0.001) for quintile 1 (< 70% of predicted), 1.89 (95% CI 1.50-2.38; P < 0.001) for quintile 2 (70-80% of predicted), 1.53 (95% CI 1.31-1.79; P < 0.001) for quintile 3 (80-90% of predicted), and 1.64 (95% CI 1.18-2.28; P = 0.003) for quintile 4 (90-100% of predicted). In subgroup meta-analysis, the correlation between FEV1 and lung cancer risk was different among men (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.49-2.03; P < 0.001) and women (OR = 2.80; 95% CI 1.87-4.19; P < 0.001). However, MR analysis showed no causality between the FEV1 and lung cancer risk (OR = 1.199; 95% CI 0.958-1.500; P = 0.114). CONCLUSION: FEV1 is likely to be a predictor of lung cancer, especially for women. However, genetically decreased FEV1 is not causally correlated with lung cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
7.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(3): 565-575, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be associated with lung cancer (LC) risk, while the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis and a Mendelian randomization study to investigate the association and causality between RA and the LC risk. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of cohort studies and performed a meta-analysis (PROSPERO ID CRD42020159082) to calculate the relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Subgroup analyses based on sex and initiation year of follow-up were carried out. E-values of each study were calculated to evaluate if existing studies were sensitive to unmeasured confounding. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between genetically predisposed RA and LC risk using summary statistics from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (11,348 cases and 15,861 controls) and 90 RA-related single nucleotide polymorphisms from European and East Asian descent as instrumental variables. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to detect the findings based on LC and histological subtypes. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of 11 cohort studies involving 183,888 patients, an increased risk of LC was observed among RA patients (RR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.31-1.57). Subgroup analyses suggested that male patients have a relatively higher LC risk than female patients, and an increased incidence of LC in RA patients was found from 1950 to 2010. Conversely, in the MR analysis, we found that genetically predisposed RA was associated with a decreased risk of LC overall, while neither causally associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma nor squamous cell lung cancer. Nevertheless, genetically predisposed RA was associated with a decreased LC risk among the East Asian population, but not in Europeans. These results were robust against extensive sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggested that although RA was associated with a relatively higher LC risk, the causal relationship between genetically predisposed RA and LC risk was not supported by the MR study. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the possible association between RA and the risk of LC, as well as its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Yi Chuan ; 43(5): 442-458, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972215

RESUMO

In order to develop a variety of japonica rice with good eating quality suitable for planting in Jiangsu Province, the genetic basis of high quality, disease resistance and high yield japonica rice varieties in Jiangsu Province was systematically studied. The relationship among different rice qualities of cooking, nutrition, and eating was studied by association analysis. It was clear that amylose content was the key factor affecting eating quality. The semi waxy rice with amylose content of 10%~14% has bright surface, soft texture, and elasticity, combining the softness of glutinous rice and the elasticity of japonica rice. The cold rice is not hard, and the taste is excellent. It meets the taste requirements of people in Yangtze River Delta region who like to eat soft fragrant japonica rice. The semi waxy japonica rice variety "Kantou 194" with a low expression of amylose content gene Wx mp and an amylose content of about 10% was selected as the core germplasm for improving eating quality. Pyramiding breeding of japonica rice variety with good eating quality, disease resistance and high yield was carried out by examining the development of Wx mp gene molecular markers and the use of closely linked molecular markers with disease resistance and high yield genes. A series of new japonica rice varieties with good taste such as Nanjing 46, Nanjing 5055, Nanjing 9108, and Nanjing 5718, suitable for different rice areas of Jiangsu Province, have been bred and approved by Jiangsu Provincial Variety Approval Committee. The layout of japonica rice varieties with good taste covering different rice areas in Jiangsu Province has been formed. These varieties have been planted with an accumulated area of more than 5.3 million hectares, which has effectively promoted the development of high quality rice industry in Jiangsu Province and its surrounding areas, and made important contributions to the structural adjustment of the supply side of rice industry, improving quality and efficiency, and ensuring food security.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amilose , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(591)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910977

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) causes high mortality and lacks any pharmacological intervention. Here, we found that pazopanib ameliorated ALI manifestations and reduced mortality in mouse ALI models and reduced edema in human lung transplantation recipients. Pazopanib inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MAP3K2)- and MAP3K3-mediated phosphorylation of NADPH oxidase 2 subunit p47phox at Ser208 to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in myeloid cells. Genetic inactivation of MAP3K2 and MAP3K3 in myeloid cells or hematopoietic mutation of p47phox Ser208 to alanine attenuated ALI manifestations and abrogates anti-ALI effects of pazopanib. This myeloid MAP3K2/MAP3K3-p47phox pathway acted via paracrine H2O2 to enhance pulmonary vasculature integrity and promote lung epithelial cell survival and proliferation, leading to increased pulmonary barrier function and resistance to ALI. Thus, pazopanib has the potential to be effective for treating ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Indazóis/farmacologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
10.
Curr Oncol ; 28(2): 1424-1436, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated benefits from adjuvant tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) compared with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. We launched a multi-center retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant TKIs with or without chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant stage III-pN2 lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-four consecutive cases with stage III-pN2 lung adenocarcinoma and complete resection have been investigated. Clinic-pathologic characteristics, adjuvant treatments, long-term survivals, and toxicities were documented. Risk factors of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 52 (19.0%) patients treated with adjuvant TKIs alone, 199 (72.6%) with adjuvant chemotherapy alone, and 23 (8.4%) with both. After a median follow-up time of 29 months, the two-year DMFS, DFS, and OS was 61.2%, 54.1%, and 91.2%, respectively. According to univariable analyses, the risk factors were lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001), extranodal extension (p = 0.005), and adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.006) for DMFS, EGFR mutation type (p = 0.025), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.013), extranodal extension (p = 0.004), and adjuvant systemic therapy (p < 0.001) for DFS, and EGFR mutation type (p < 0.001) for OS. Multivariable analyses indicated that the independent prognostic factors were adjuvant systemic therapy (TKIs vs. TKIs+chemotherapy, Harzard ratio (HR) = 0.40; p = 0.036; TKIs vs. chemotherapy, HR = 0.38; p = 0.004), lymphovascular invasion (yes vs. no, HR = 2.22; p = 0.001) for DMFS, and adjuvant systemic therapy (TKIs vs. TKIs+chemotherapy, HR = 0.42; p = 0.034; TKIs vs. chemotherapy, HR = 0.33; p < 0.001) for DFS. No significant difference was found in the incidence of Grade 3-4 toxicities between groups (p = 0.445). CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant TKIs might be a beneficial choice compared with adjuvant chemotherapy or combination systemic treatments.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Invest ; 131(10)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793424

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDCurrent clinical management of patients with pulmonary nodules involves either repeated low-dose CT (LDCT)/CT scans or invasive procedures, yet causes significant patient misclassification. An accurate noninvasive test is needed to identify malignant nodules and reduce unnecessary invasive tests.METHODWe developed a diagnostic model based on targeted DNA methylation sequencing of 389 pulmonary nodule patients' plasma samples and then validation in 140 plasma samples independently. We tested the model in different stages and subtypes of pulmonary nodules.RESULTSA 100-feature model was developed and validated for pulmonary nodule diagnosis; the model achieved a receiver operating characteristic curve-AUC (ROC-AUC) of 0.843 on 140 independent validation samples, with an accuracy of 0.800. The performance was well maintained in (a) a 6 to 20 mm size subgroup (n = 100), with a sensitivity of 1.000 and adjusted negative predictive value (NPV) of 1.000 at 10% prevalence; (b) stage I malignancy (n = 90), with a sensitivity of 0.971; (c) different nodule types: solid nodules (n = 78) with a sensitivity of 1.000 and adjusted NPV of 1.000, part-solid nodules (n = 75) with a sensitivity of 0.947 and adjusted NPV of 0.983, and ground-glass nodules (n = 67) with a sensitivity of 0.964 and adjusted NPV of 0.989 at 10% prevalence. This methylation test, called PulmoSeek, outperformed PET-CT and 2 clinical prediction models (Mayo Clinic and Veterans Affairs) in discriminating malignant pulmonary nodules from benign ones.CONCLUSIONThis study suggests that the blood-based DNA methylation model may provide a better test for classifying pulmonary nodules, which could help facilitate the accurate diagnosis of early stage lung cancer from pulmonary nodule patients and guide clinical decisions.FUNDINGThe National Key Research and Development Program of China; Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province; The National Natural Science Foundation of China National.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(6): 509-521, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859385

RESUMO

Common lung diseases are first diagnosed using chest X-rays. Here, we show that a fully automated deep-learning pipeline for the standardization of chest X-ray images, for the visualization of lesions and for disease diagnosis can identify viral pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and assess its severity, and can also discriminate between viral pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia. The deep-learning system was developed using a heterogeneous multicentre dataset of 145,202 images, and tested retrospectively and prospectively with thousands of additional images across four patient cohorts and multiple countries. The system generalized across settings, discriminating between viral pneumonia, other types of pneumonia and the absence of disease with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.94-0.98; between severe and non-severe COVID-19 with an AUC of 0.87; and between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral or non-viral pneumonia with AUCs of 0.87-0.97. In an independent set of 440 chest X-rays, the system performed comparably to senior radiologists and improved the performance of junior radiologists. Automated deep-learning systems for the assessment of pneumonia could facilitate early intervention and provide support for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Aprendizado Profundo , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(2): 661-664, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) is a life-saving treatment option for patients with advanced cardiopulmonary failure. However, posterior mediastinal bleeding and phrenic nerve damage are still intraoperative challenges for the traditional surgical method. This study reports an innovative non-in situ HLTx performed in our center, preventing posterior mediastinal bleeding and phrenic nerve damage effectively. DESCRIPTION: Between September 2015 and September 2020, 12 patients without previous heart surgery underwent a traditional HLTx and were deemed a control group, and 3 patients underwent an innovative non-in situ HLTx. The operative time, cold ischemic time, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative transfusion, and the intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay were assessed between traditional HLTx and non-in situ HLTx. EVALUATION: The innovative non-in situ HLTx was successfully performed in the 3 patients. We found that the intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, total surgical time, cold ischemic time, intraoperative bleeding, and intraoperative transfusion were decreased in the 3 patients compared with the traditional surgical method. CONCLUSION: Non-in situ HLTx may decrease posterior mediastinal bleeding and phrenic nerve damage effectively.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração-Pulmão/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4134-4142, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early endotracheal extubation in operating room (E-OR) after lung transplantation is rarely reported worldwide. Herein, we aim to explore the feasibility and safety of E-OR after lung transplantation and demonstrate its potential benefits. METHODS: This study is a single-center retrospective database analysis of 18 patients. All lung transplantation patients with E-OR attempted between June 2018 and September 2019 were included retrospectively. Perioperative variables, including ischemia time, total blood loss, blood lactic acid, the partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspiration oxygen ratio, time of semi-open pulmonary artery occlusion clamp, extubation rate, and complications after E-OR, were analyzed. Data were compared using non-parametric tests and expressed as the median or number (percentage). RESULTS: Clinical data of 18 patients with E-OR attempted were collected. Overall, 15/18 (83.33%) patients successfully underwent E-OR without reintubation. Reintubation occurred in 3/18 (16.67%) patients; one patient presented with decreased blood oxygen saturation and unconsciousness, while two patients developed hypoxemia and respiratory failure after E-OR. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was not used postoperatively. No grade 3 primary graft dysfunction was observed and all eighteen patients were alive 1 year after the transplant. No postoperative hemodialysis and tracheotomy occurred. The median length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) for E-OR patients was 120 hours, the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 19 days, and the median hospitalization cost was 35,577 USD. CONCLUSIONS: Early endotracheal extubation in operating room was feasible and did not delay postoperative recovery in these 18 lung transplantation recipients.


Assuntos
Extubação , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Salas Cirúrgicas , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5069-5083, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for poor prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is necessary to enable the risk stratification and modify the patient's management. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All studies were searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was pooled. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for evaluation of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 80 studies were included with a pooled in-hospital mortality of 14% (95% CI: 12.2-15.9%). Older age (MD =13.32, 95% CI: 10.87-15.77; P<0.00001), male (OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.01; P<0.00001), hypertension (OR =2.67, 95% CI: 2.08-3.43; P<0.00001), diabetes (OR =2.14, 95% CI: 1.76-2.6; P<0.00001), chronic respiratory disease (OR =3.55, 95% CI: 2.65-4.76; P<0.00001), chronic heart disease/cardiovascular disease (OR =3.15, 95% CI: 2.43-4.09; P<0.00001), elevated levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (MD =66.65, 95% CI: 16.94-116.36; P=0.009), D-dimer (MD =4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-5.68; P<0.00001), C-reactive protein (MD =48.03, 95% CI: 27.79-68.27; P<0.00001), and a decreased level of albumin at admission (MD =-3.98, 95% CI: -5.75 to -2.22; P<0.0001) are associated with higher risk of death. Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR =62.85, 95% CI: 29.45-134.15; P<0.00001), acute cardiac injury (OR =25.16, 95% CI: 6.56-96.44; P<0.00001), acute kidney injury (OR =22.86, 95% CI: 4.60-113.66; P=0.0001), and septic shock (OR =24.09, 95% CI: 4.26-136.35; P=0.0003) might have a higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male, comorbidities, increased levels of acute inflammation or organ damage indicators, and complications are associated with the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, and should be integrated into the risk stratification system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , China , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102927, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of multiple sclerosis (MS) with lung cancer is under debate. Conventional observational studies have reported conflicting findings, but such studies are susceptible to confounding and reverse causation. With a Mendelian Randomization approach, we were able to evaluate the causality between MS and lung cancer. METHODS: According to published genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we obtained 35 MS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were used as instrumental variables in our study. Summary data of individual-level genetic information were obtained from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), with a total of 15,861 controls and 11,348 cases; the latter is composed of patients with lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer. The inverse variance-weighted method was applied to estimate the causation between MS and lung cancer. To further evaluate the pleiotropy, the MR-Egger and Weighted median methods were implemented. RESULTS: The results of MR analysis suggested a causal effect of MS on lung cancer incidence, with evidence of an increased risk for overall lung cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.0648; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0163-1.1156; p = 0.0082]. However, subgroup analyses showed no significant causal relationships between MS and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.0716; 95% CI 0.9840-1.1671, p = 0.1119) and squamous cell lung cancer (OR = 1.0284; 95% CI 0.9575-1.1045, p = 0.4424). In addition, no pleiotropy was found in our study. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that MS is a causal risk factor in the development of lung cancer. Further work is needed to elucidate the potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Esclerose Múltipla , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(7): 2645-2655.e14, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between CRD (including disease overlap) and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: Data of diagnoses, comorbidities, medications, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the national COVID-19 reporting system. CRD was diagnosed based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. The primary endpoint was the composite outcome of needing invasive ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death within 30 days after hospitalization. The secondary endpoint was death within 30 days after hospitalization. RESULTS: We included 39,420 laboratory-confirmed patients from the electronic medical records as of May 6, 2020. Any CRD and CRD overlap was present in 2.8% and 0.2% of patients, respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was most common (56.6%), followed by bronchiectasis (27.9%) and asthma (21.7%). COPD-bronchiectasis overlap was the most common combination (50.7%), followed by COPD-asthma (36.2%) and asthma-bronchiectasis overlap (15.9%). After adjustment for age, sex, and other systemic comorbidities, patients with COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-2.03) and asthma (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-1.98), but not bronchiectasis, were more likely to reach to the composite endpoint compared with those without at day 30 after hospitalization. Patients with CRD were not associated with a greater likelihood of dying from COVID-19 compared with those without. Patients with CRD overlap did not have a greater risk of reaching the composite endpoint compared with those without. CONCLUSION: CRD was associated with the risk of reaching the composite endpoint, but not death, of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103305, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757838

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are treatments commonly used for lung cancer. The toxicity profile including toxicity incidence, severity, and spectrum (involving various specific adverse events) of each EGFR-TKI are of particular clinical interest and importance. Data from phase II and III randomized controlled trials comparing treatments among EGFR-TKIs (osimertinib, dacomitinib, afatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, and icotinib) and chemotherapy for lung cancer were synthesized with Bayesian network meta-analysis. The primary outcome was systemic all-grade and grade ≥3 adverse events. The secondary outcome was specific all-grade adverse events including those of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, etc. 40 trials randomizing 13,352 patients were included. Generally greater toxicity for dacomitinib and afatinib, and safety for icotinib were suggested. Furthermore, we found individual EGFR-TKIs had different toxicity spectrums. These findings provide a compelling safety reference for the individualized use of EGFR-TKIs for patients with lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Teorema de Bayes , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Metanálise em Rede , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous ventilation video-assisted thoracic surgery (SV-VATS) is reported to have superior or equal efficacy on postoperative recovery to mechanical ventilation VATS (MV-VATS). However, perioperative safety of the SV-VATS blebectomy is not entirely demonstrated. METHODS: We performed a noninferiority, randomized controlled trial (No. NCT03016858) for primary spontaneous pneumothorax patients aged 16 to 50 years undergoing a SV-VATS and the MV-VATS procedure. The trial was conducted at 10 centers in China from April 2017 to January 2019. The primary outcome was the comparison of intra- and postoperative complications between SV-VATS and MV-VATS procedures. Secondary outcomes included total analgesia dose, change of vital sign during surgery, procedural duration, recovery time, postoperative visual analog pain scores, and hospitalization length. RESULTS: In this study, 335 patients were included. There was no significant difference between the SV-VATS group and the MV-VATS group in the intra- and postoperative complication rates (17.90% vs 22.09%; relative risk, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.26; P = .346). The SV-VATS group was associated with significantly decreased total dose of intraoperative opioid agents; that is, sufentanil (11.37 µg vs 20.92 µg; P < .001) and remifentanil (269.78 µg vs 404.96 µg; P < .001). The SV-VATS procedure was also associated with shorter extubation time (12.28 minutes vs 17.30 minutes; P < .001), postanesthesia care unit recovery time (25.43 minutes vs 30.67 minutes; P = .02) and food intake time (346.07 minute vs 404.02 minutes; P = .002). Moreover, the SV-VATS procedure deceased the anesthesia cost compared with the MV-VATS ($297.81 vs $399.81; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: SV-VATS was shown to be noninferior to MV-VATS in term of complication rate and in selected patients undergoing blebectomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

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