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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 901, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the treatment behaviors among a community-based cohort of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected persons and to examine the disease progression among non-antiviral-treated HBV-infected cases after 5 years of follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a community-based prospective study on people with chronic HBV infection in mainland China from 2009 to 2014. In 2009, we recruited participants who were identified as HBV infected in 2006 in a national sero-survey. A face-to-face follow-up investigation was completed in 2014, and the personal information, the clinical diagnosis provided at the last hospital visit, the HBV antiviral treatment history, and the insurance type was collected for each patient for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors that are associated with active medical care- seeking and antiviral treatments. RESULTS: Among the 2422 chronic HBV-infected patients recruited in 2009, 1784 (73.7%) were followed-up to 2014, and 638 (35.8%) had sought medical care in hospitals; among them, 140 (21.9%) received antiviral treatments. The lowest medical care-seeking rate (26%) was in participants over 50-year old. We determined that the frequency of medical care-seeking was higher among those participants living in urban areas (aRR = 1.3, 95% CI:1.0-1.6), those in 0-19-year old (aRR = 1.5, 95% CI:1.1-2.1), 20-39-year old (aRR = 2.2, 95% CI:1.7-3.0) and 40-49-year old (aRR = 1.5, 95% CI:1.1-2.0), and persons with insurance of the type Urban residents' basic medical insurance (URBMI) or Commercial health insurance (CHI) (aRR = 2.5, 95% CI:1.7-3.6) and New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) (aRR = 1.9, 95% CI:1.4-2.6). Patients were more likely to receive antiviral treatment if they were 20-39-year old (aRR = 0.4, 95% CI:0.3-0.7), had insurance of the type URBMI or CHI (aRR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.1-6.3) or NRCMS (aRR = 3.0, 95% CI:1.3-6.9) and were treated at prefecture and above-level hospitals (aRR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.4-3.0). Among non-antiviral-treated HBV-infected cases, we found the annual rates for HBsAg sero-clearance, progress to cirrhosis and HCC were 1.0, 0.6 and 0.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rates of medical care-seeking and antiviral treatment were low among community-based chronic HBV-infected persons, thus we recommend improving the insurance policies for HBV-infected persons to increase the antiviral treatment rate, and conducting extensive education to promote HBV-infected patients actively seeking medical care from hospitals.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315246

RESUMO

Conventional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) sensors suffer from the fringe effect, i.e., severe distortion of the electric field on both ends of the measurement electrodes, leading to a 3D sensing region for a 2D sensor. As a result, the objects outside an ERT sensor plane affect the sensing and hence image, i.e., deteriorating the image quality. To address this issue, a multiple-plane ERT sensor scheme is proposed in this paper. With this scheme, auxiliary sensor planes are used to provide references for the fringe effect of the measurement plane, for compensation by subtracting the weighed influence of the fringe effect. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme, either three-plane or two-plane sensor, can compensate for the fringe effect induced by objects outside the measurement plane with a variety of axial object distributions, i.e., several non-conductive bars or conductive bars placed at different cross-sectional and axial positions inside the sensor. Experiments were carried out. Images obtained with single-plane and multiple-plane ERT sensors are compared, and the proposed compensation scheme has been hence verified.

3.
Lancet ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health is a priority for the Chinese Government. Evidence-based decision making for health at the province level in China, which is home to a fifth of the global population, is of paramount importance. This analysis uses data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to help inform decision making and monitor progress on health at the province level. METHODS: We used the methods in GBD 2017 to analyse health patterns in the 34 province-level administrative units in China from 1990 to 2017. We estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), summary exposure values (SEVs), and attributable risk. We compared the observed results with expected values estimated based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). FINDINGS: Stroke and ischaemic heart disease were the leading causes of death and DALYs at the national level in China in 2017. Age-standardised DALYs per 100 000 population decreased by 33·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 29·8 to 37·4) for stroke and increased by 4·6% (-3·3 to 10·7) for ischaemic heart disease from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardised stroke, ischaemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and liver cancer were the five leading causes of YLLs in 2017. Musculoskeletal disorders, mental health disorders, and sense organ diseases were the three leading causes of YLDs in 2017, and high systolic blood pressure, smoking, high-sodium diet, and ambient particulate matter pollution were among the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths and DALYs. All provinces had higher than expected DALYs per 100 000 population for liver cancer, with the observed to expected ratio ranging from 2·04 to 6·88. The all-cause age-standardised DALYs per 100 000 population were lower than expected in all provinces in 2017, and among the top 20 level 3 causes were lower than expected for ischaemic heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, headache disorder, and low back pain. The largest percentage change at the national level in age-standardised SEVs among the top ten leading risk factors was in high body-mass index (185%, 95% UI 113·1 to 247·7]), followed by ambient particulate matter pollution (88·5%, 66·4 to 116·4). INTERPRETATION: China has made substantial progress in reducing the burden of many diseases and disabilities. Strategies targeting chronic diseases, particularly in the elderly, should be prioritised in the expanding Chinese health-care system. FUNDING: China National Key Research and Development Program and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(7): 540-548, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have used nationally representative data to describe dietary trends and the related cardiometabolic mortality burden in China. Thus, we aimed to characterise the trends in disease-related dietary factors as well as their associated disease burden among Chinese adults from 1982 to 2012. METHODS: For this cross-sectional population-based study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of 204 802 adults aged 20 years or older, using data from the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-12 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS). We did a comparative risk assessment, in which the effects of suboptimal intakes of 12 dietary factors, individually and collectively, on cardiometabolic mortality were estimated by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) to estimate the proportional reduction in cardiometabolic deaths that would occur if exposure to each dietary risk factor was reduced to an alternative optimal level. FINDINGS: The overall PAF of mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that was associated with suboptimal dietary quality was 62·2% in 1982, 57·9% in 1992, 56·2% in 2002, and 51·0% in 2010-12, which accounted for 21·6% of total mortality in China in 1982, 16·6% in 1992, 17·6% in 2002, and 20·8% in 2010-12. The estimated number of cardiometabolic deaths associated with suboptimal dietary intakes was 1·07 million in 1982, 0·93 million in 1992, 1·18 million in 2002, and 1·51 million in 2010-12. Of all 12 dietary factors examined, high sodium intake (17·3%), low fruit consumption (11·5%), and low marine omega-3 fatty acids (9·7%) were associated with the largest numbers of estimated cardiometabolic deaths in 2010-12. INTERPRETATION: We observed an improvement in several dietary factors in China in the past few decades. However, current intakes of these dietary factors remain suboptimal. Poor diet quality is estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in China. FUNDING: Ministry of Health, China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, China.

5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(3): 345-351, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of salt reduction among adults in four counties of Shandong and Jiangsu Provinces, and analyze the relevant influencing factors. METHODS: In 2013, multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select the adults(aged 18-69) in Gaomi City of Weifang City and Fushan Distract of Yantai City, Shandong Province, and Xinyi City of Xuzhou City and Ganyu County of Lianyungang City, Jiangsu Province. A total of 9573 subjects were included. Knowledge, attitude and practice of anti-hypertension by low salt was collected using questionnaire and physical examination was conducted. Then the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of salt reduction was calculated, and multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors. RESULTS: A total of 3214 people had hypertension(33.57%), and the proportion of overweight and obesity was 36.20% and 19.48%, respectively. The awareness rate of salt reduction knowledge was between 22.50% and 51.35%; the attitude of salt reduction was between 82.24% and 93.01%, and the rate of salt reduction was between 10.86% and 46.16%. According to Logistic analysis, the degree of education had the greatest impact on knowledge(junior high school vs. elementary school and below: OR=2.30, 95%CI 2.06-2.57, high school and above vs. elementary school and below: OR=5.00, 95%CI 4.35-5.76). The knowledge level had the greatest impact on attitude(OR=3.10, 95%CI 2.80-3.43) and practice(OR=4.66, 95%CI 4.29-5.07). Those aged 45-69 years old had lower knowledge level(OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.58-0.71) but higher practice(OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.09-1.29). The knowledge(OR=3.66, 95%CI 3.34-4.01) and attitude(OR=1.84, 95%CI 1.69-2.02) of salt reduction among residents in Shandong were higher than those in Jiangsu. CONCLUSION: The awareness rate of knowledge is lower, the attitude support rate is higher, and the practice rate is lower among residents in Shandong and Jiangsu Provinces. More attention should be paid to the practical application of salt reduction.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Cidades , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 281, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies in China have examined personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure using polysulfone dosimetry. METHODS: In this study, 93 mother and adolescent child pairs (N = 186) from two locations in China, one rural (higher latitude) and one urban (lower latitude), completed 3 days of personal UVR dosimetry and a sun/clothing diary, as part of a larger pilot study. RESULTS: The average daily ambient UVR in each location as measured by dosimetry was 20.24 Minimal Erythemal Doses (MED) in the rural location and 20.53 MED in the urban location. Rural mothers had more average daily time outdoors than urban mothers (5.5 h, compared with 1.5 h, in urban mothers) and a much higher daily average personal UVR exposure (4.50 MED, compared with 0.78 MED in urban mothers). Amongst adolescents, rural males had the highest average daily personal UVR exposure, followed by rural females, urban females and urban males (average 2.16, 1.05, 0.81, and 0.48 MED, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on small numbers, our findings show the importance of geographic location, age, work/school responsibilities, and sex of the adolescents in determining personal UVR exposure in China. These results suggest that latitude of residence may not be a good proxy for personal UVR exposure in all circumstances.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta , Adolescente , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Projetos Piloto , Radiometria , População Rural
7.
Am J Public Health ; 108(12): 1592-1598, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the 20 most important and most preventable health problems that should be addressed in the next 20 years in China. METHODS: In 2015, we applied a modified electronic Delphi technique to reach consensus from a panel of top Chinese health experts (n = 70), who were requested to identify 20 health problems that, in their judgment, were most important and preventable. We also compared the results with evidences from epidemiological studies on disease-specific mortalities and disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS: Consensus was reached after the second-round survey. The final agreed-upon 20 most important and most preventable health problems included 9 noncommunicable diseases, 4 communicable diseases, 2 unhealthy behaviors, and 2 forms of environmental pollution, plus depression, road injury, and contamination of food with pesticides, antibiotics, and hormone residues. The results are supported by relevant epidemiological studies in China. CONCLUSIONS: The 20 most important and most preventable health problems in China for the next 20 years, agreed upon by a panel of top Chinese health experts, should be taken into consideration in national policymaking.

8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 47(3): 476-481, 2018 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive quantitative analysis about the association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP 2E1 and susceptibility to Chinese gastric cancer in order to offer evidence-based evidence for the etiology of gastric cancer. METHODS: Using the keywords and entry terms of cytochrom P450 2E1, cytochrome P450, CYP 2E1, stomach neoplasms, individual susceptibility, gene polymorphism, risk factors in English and Chinese, we searched medical literature databases, such as Pub Med, Embase, CBM, VIP, CNKI, China Info, published from January 1 th, 1997 to December 31 th, 2016, the Chines population was selected as the research object. Metaanalysis was performed using Stata 14. 0 in literature that selected quality studies of original literatures of more than 6 stars. RESULTS: There were 10 high-quality original articles covering high, middle and low incidence areas of gastric cancer in our country, with 832 cases and 1018 controls were included, which fit the HWE test. The population with CYP 2E1 C1C2 genotype have a lower risk of developing gastric cancer than the population with CYP 2E1 C1C1 genotype( OR = 0. 650, P < 0. 001, 95% CI 0. 515-0. 821); Subgroup-analysis result reveals that, in smaller sample size population with CYP 2E1 C1C1 genotype have a gastric cancer risk of 2. 02 times the risk of having gastric cancer with CYP 2E1 C1C2 and C2C2 genotypes( P < 0. 001, 95% CI 1. 55-2. 64), in bigger sample size population with CYP 2E1 C1C1 genotype have a gastric cancer risk of0. 93 times the risk of having gastric cancer with CYP 2E1 C1C2 and C2C2 genotypes( P = 0. 586, 95% CI 0. 71-1. 22), in overall sample size population with CYP 2E1 C1C1 genotype have a gastric cancer risk of 1. 50 times the risk of having gastric cancer with CYP 2E1 C1C2 and C2C2 genotypes( P = 0. 006, 95% CI 1. 12-2. 00). CONCLUSION: The size of the sample is an important factor affecting the result. The small sample size of the study tends to get positive result. Whether CYP 2E1 C1C1 genotype of the population is a risk factor for gastric cancer remains to be further studied.

9.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e022394, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of long-term prospective follow-up and ascertainment of cancer in offspring and mothers from the 1993-1995 Chinese Community Intervention Program that provided folic acid supplements before and during early pregnancy to reduce neural tube defects. DESIGN: Feasibility pilot study for a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Families residing during 2012-2013 in one rural and one urban county from 21 counties in 3 provinces in China included in the Community Intervention Program campaign. PARTICIPANTS: The feasibility study targeted 560 families, including 280 from the rural and 280 from the urban county included in the large original study; about half of mothers in each group had taken and half had not taken folic acid supplements. INTERVENTION: The planned new study is observational. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: incidence of paediatric cancers in offspring; secondary: other chronic diseases in offspring and chronic diseases in mothers RESULTS: Only 3.4% of pilot study families could not be found, 3.9% had moved out of the study area and 8.8% refused to participate. Interviews were completed by 82% of mothers, 79% of fathers and 83% of offspring in the 560 families. Almost all mothers and offspring who were interviewed also participated in anthropometric measurements. We found notable urban-rural differences in sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the parents, but fewer differences among the offspring. In eight catchment area hospitals, we identified a broad range of paediatric cancers diagnosed during 1994-2013, although paediatric brain tumours, lymphomas and rarer cancers were likely under-represented. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 20 years after the original Community Intervention Program, the pilot study achieved high levels of follow-up and family member interview participation, and identified substantial numbers of paediatric malignancies during 1994-2013 in catchment area hospitals. Next steps and strategies for overcoming limitations are described.

10.
Cancer Biol Med ; 15(2): 171-177, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951341

RESUMO

Objective: Extranodal extension in cervical lymph nodes is an important risk factor for the progression and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the common and characteristic preoperative ultrasonography features that are associated with the pathologic extranodal extension of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively assessed and compared clinicopathologic and ultrasound features between 60 papillary thyroid cancer patients with extranodal extension and 120 control patients with papillary thyroid cancer without extranodal extension. Results: With respect to the pathological N stage and clinicopathologic features, N1b stage papillary thyroid carcinomas were more frequently found in patients who were extranodal extension-positive, in comparison with those who were extranodal extension-negative (78.3% vs. 63.3%, P=0.043). Extranodal extension was detected most frequently in level VI cervical lymph nodes (48.7%). In our univariate analysis of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, cervical lymph nodes with extranodal extension showed higher incidences of node matting, microcalcification, cystic area, aspect ratio <2, and larger diameter than those without extranodal extension (all P<0.05). Our multivariate analysis demonstrated that node matting and cystic area were independent risk factors for the presence of extranodal extension [odds ratio (OR): 4.751, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.212~18.626, P=0.025; OR: 2.707, 95% CI: 1.127~6.502, P=0.026]. Conclusions: Common ultrasound features may indicate the presence of extranodal extension in patients with metastatic cervical lymph nodes of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(16): e0484, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668627

RESUMO

The potential impact of increasing test-and-treat coverage on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear in China. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic compartmental model at a population level to estimate the long-term effect of this strategy.Based on the natural history of HBV infection and 3 serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we proposed an age- and time-dependent discrete model to predict the number of new HBV infection, the number of chronic HBV infection, and the number of HBV-related deaths for the time from 2018 to 2050 under 5 different test-and-treat coverage and compared them with current intervention policy.Compared with current policy, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 100% since 2018, the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 26.60%, 24.88%, 26.55%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 44.93%, 43.29%, 43.67%, respectively. In contrast, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased by 10% every year since 2018, then the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 21.81%, 20.10%, 21.40%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 41.53%, 39.89%, 40.32%, respectively. In particular, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 75% since 2018, then the annual number of HBV-related deaths would begin to decrease from 2018. If the test-and-treat coverage was increased to above 25% since 2018, then the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence for population aged 1 to 59 years in China would be reduced to below 2% in 2035. Our model also showed that in 2035, the numbers of chronic HBV infection and HBV-related deaths in 65 to 69 age group would be reduced the most (about 1.6 million and 13 thousand, respectively).Increasing test-and-treat coverage would significantly reduce HBV infection in China, especially in the middle-aged people and older people. The earlier the treatment and the longer the time, the more significant the reduction. Implementation of test-and-treat strategy is highly effective in controlling hepatitis B in China.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Programas de Imunização , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Feminino , Previsões , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/terapia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Prevalência , Tempo
13.
Food Chem ; 256: 133-139, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606429

RESUMO

A simple, accurate and specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of sesamol, sesamin, asarinin and sesamolin in Monascus aged vinegar. The effects of acid hydrolysis and four heating treatments on the components content in Monascus aged vinegar were discussed. The results showed that the isomerisation of sesamin to asarinin, and decomposition of sesamolin to sesamol significantly increased, regardless of heating or acid hydrolysis. Thermal processes and acid hydrolysis increased the content of sesamol and asarinin, respectively, but severe thermal processes resulted in the loss of total sesame lignans. Sesamol and asarinin reached the highest (2.720 ±â€¯0.202 µg/mL and 2.064 ±â€¯0.075 µg/mL) for autoclaving (125 °C, 15 min) and acid hydrolysis (25 °C, 15 min, nature pH), respectively. Therefore, autoclaving and acid hydrolysis were considered as the optimal way to obtain higher content of sesamol and asarinin.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lignanas/análise , Lignanas/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Sesamum/química
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 119: 417-424, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274897

RESUMO

The Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, a traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases and attenuate oxidative stress. The main bioactive compounds including tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), polyphenols, ferulic acid have been reported to be responsible for these effects. This study was to evaluate the influence of Ligusticum chuanxiong extraction (LCE) in mimic gastrointestinal tract on antioxidant activity. The effects of gastric digestion group metabolic liquid on free radical scavenging followed as DPPH > ·O2- > ·OH, while the clearance effects of intestine digestion group expressed as ·O2-> ·OH > DPPH. Furthermore, the digested extraction promoted lower cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) with dose-response correlations. Gastrointestinal digestion increased the release of bound ferulic acids and polyphenols. Content of ferulic acid in gastric and intestinal metabolic solution increased from 6.07 mg/g to 9.33 mg/g and 14.17 mg/g. The free phenolic before and after digestion were 177.38 mg/g, 179.69 mg/g and 194.99 mg/g, respectively. The simulated gastrointestinal digestion of LCE promoted a significant increase in the free phenolic acids content, antioxidant activity and CAA.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Digestão , Etanol/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Ligusticum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Padrões de Referência
15.
Exp Ther Med ; 14(3): 1919-1928, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962104

RESUMO

Post-stroke memory dysfunction (PMD) is one of the most common forms of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. However, only a limited number of studies have directly investigated the neural mechanisms associated with memory decline. The aim of the present study was to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization of the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network of patients with PMD. A total of 27 patients with PMD who experienced a stroke in the right hemisphere were enrolled in the current study, along with 27 healthy control subjects matched by age, sex, and educational level. A behavioral examination and functional magnetic resonance imaging scan were performed. The data were analyzed using an independent component analysis method. The results revealed a significantly increased functional connectivity between the DMN and prefrontal cortex (left middle/inferior frontal and left precentral gyri), temporal regions (left superior temporal gyrus), and bilateral and posterior cingulate gyri/precuneus (P<0.001). There was also a significantly decreased functional connectivity between the DMN and right middle temporal gyrus, left uvula, and right inferior parietal lobule, and between the dorsal attention network and prefrontal cortex (left precentral/inferior and right inferior/middle frontal gyri), right inferior parietal gyrus, and right insula (P<0.001). These results suggest that the stroke affected both the lesioned and contralesional hemispheres. The prefrontal cortex, temporal regions, insula, and posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus serve a crucial role in memory processing.

16.
J Infect Dis ; 216(3): 327-335, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859430

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B vaccine is an effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus infection. Whether chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection decreases humoral and cell-mediated immunity responses to hepatitis B vaccination is still controversial. Methods: Patients with chronic HCV infection who were not in treatment and healthy controls, matched at a 1:2 ratio for community, sex, and age (within 5 years), were identified from a community-based screening. All participants received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen was tested 1 month after the third vaccine dose and was compared between 2 groups. Spot-forming cells (SFCs) of interferon γ and interleukin 2, 4, 5, and 6 were counted by means of enzyme-linked immunospot, and SFC counts were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The rates of nonresponse and low, normal, and high response were 3.80%, 10.13%, 45.57%, and 40.50% respectively, in the HCV group, and the corresponding rates in the healthy control group were 1.26%, 10.13%, 39.24%, and 49.37% (all P > .05). There were no significant differences in SFC counts between the 2 groups for interferon γ or interleukin 2, 4, or 5 (all P > .05). Conclusions: This study provided preliminary evidence of the good immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis B vaccination among patients in China with chronic hepatitis C who are not in treatment. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT 02898922.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 16(10): 1045-1052, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the immunogenicity, antibody persistence, and safety of the 60 µg hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients in China. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled trial including 352 hemodialysis patients who were centrally randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to receive a 20 µg (IM20 group) or 60 µg (IM60 group) recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. RESULTS: The vaccine-elicited antibody responses peaked at month 7, and declined at month 12. At month 7, the IM60 group had stronger GMC of anti-HBs, and a higher proportion of seroconversion and high-level response than the IM20 group did (P < 0.05). Better immune responses were observed in the IM60 group, especially for those aged or in the high-frequency hemodialysis population. CONCLUSION: The high dose 60 µg recombinant hepatitis B vaccines elicited stronger immune responses than the 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine did among hemodialysis patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02963714.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/biossíntese , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 105(Pt 1): 1079-1087, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746885

RESUMO

There is still an enormous demand for designing materials to the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and dopamine-based injectable polysaccharide hydrogels as localized drug delivery system have huge potential. Here, we developed a facile approach to prepare dopamine-based and polydopamine crosslinked injectable hydrogels by simply oxidizing a mixture of quaternized chitosan, gelatin and dopamine under physiological conditions. These injectable hydrogels showed stable mechanical strength by rheometer and exhibited good degradability evaluated by in vitro degradation test. The chemical structure and morphology of the hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. Dopamine as a drug for treating Parkinson's disease and metronidazole as an anti-inflammatory drug were encapsulated in the hydrogel. The release profiles indicated that the injectable hydrogels have great capacity as a carrier for long-term localized release system for dopamine and metronidazole. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays using mouse L929 fibroblast cells. This work provides a new and facile approach to prepare dopamine-based injectable materials which can be used as long-term injectable sustained release system for dopamine as well as anti-inflammatory drug for Parkinson's treatment.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Dopamina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Gelatina/química , Hidrogéis/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Injeções , Teste de Materiais , Porosidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2912, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588249

RESUMO

The age-specific seroclearance pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections of China remains unclear. In this study, based on three national serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we propose an age- and time-dependent discrete model and use the method of non-linear least squares to estimate the age-specific annual rate of HBsAg seroclearance. We found that the HBsAg seroclearance in chronic HBV infections of China aged 1-59 years occurred at an average annual rate of 1.80% (95% CI, 1.54-2.06%) from 1993 to 2006. The HBsAg seroclearance occurred predominantly in the early childhood, 20-24 and 35-39 year age groups. Moreover, our model estimated that HBsAg seroclearance resulted in 23.38% of the decrease of total HBsAg prevalence for population aged 1-59 years in 2006. It also prevented 9.30% of new HBV infections (about 7.43 million people) and 9.95% of HBV-related deaths (about 0.25 million people) from 1993 to 2006. This study develops a new and efficient method to estimate the age-specific incidence of HBsAg seroclearance at a population-level and evaluate its effect.

20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(5): 765-772, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418296

RESUMO

China's hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention policy has been evaluated through nationally representative serologic surveys conducted in 1992 and 2006. We report results of a 2014 serologic survey and reanalysis of the 1992 and 2006 surveys in the context of program policy. The 2014 survey used a 2-stage sample strategy in which townships were selected from 160 longstanding, nationally representative, county-level disease surveillance points, and persons 1-29 years of age were invited to participate. The 2014 sample size was 31,713; the response rate was 83.3%. Compared with the 1992 pre-recombinant vaccine survey, HBV surface antigen prevalence declined 46% by 2006 and by 52% by 2014. Among children <5 years of age, the decline was 97%. China's HBV prevention program, targeted toward interrupting perinatal transmission, has been highly successful and increasingly effective. However, this progress must be sustained for decades to come, and elimination of HBV transmission will require augmented strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/história , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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