Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 107
Filtrar
1.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 3033219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869776

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the choroidal vascularity index (CVI) as a prognostic factor for the visual efficacy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 92 DME eyes receiving anti-VEGF treatment, which were stratified as responders (≥5 letters gained) and nonresponders (<5 letters gained or lost). Baseline systematic features and optical coherence tomography features, including the CVI, adjusted ellipsoid zone (EZ) reflectivity, subretinal fluid (SRF), and disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL), were evaluated between the two groups. Results: The baseline CVI was significantly lower in nonresponders than in responders (0.66 ± 0.05, 0.69 ± 0.05, and 0.72 ± 0.05, p = 0.014). After adjusting for other factors, the baseline CVI, DRIL, SRF, and adjusted EZ reflectivity were significantly associated with visual outcomes (CVI: odds ratio (OR) = 0.17, p = 0.006; adjusted EZ reflectivity: OR = 0.56, p = 0.007; DRIL: OR = 6.71, p = 0.001; and SRF: OR = 0.29, p = 0.008). Conclusion: DME patients with a higher CVI, higher adjusted EZ reflectivity, the presence of SRF, and the absence of DRIL at baseline were more likely to gain >5 letters in visual acuity after anti-VEGF treatment. CVI may serve as a novel biomarker for visual response to anti-VEGF treatment in DME.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 789577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950691

RESUMO

Background: Excess selenium has been related with adverse lipid levels in previous epidemiological studies. Meanwhile, a functional variant in SEPP1 (encodes selenoprotein P), namely rs7579, has been suggested to modulate lipid metabolism. However, the interactions between selenium status and rs7579 polymorphism on lipid changes remain unclear. Objective: To examine whether the associations between plasma selenium and 3-year lipid changes is modified by rs7579 polymorphism. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1,621 individuals to examine the associations between baseline plasma selenium and 3-year lipid changes, as well as the interactions between plasma selenium and rs7579 polymorphism on lipid changes. Results: The median (interquartile range) concentration of plasma selenium was 91.68 (81.55-104.92) µg/L. Higher plasma selenium was associated with adverse 3-year lipid changes. Comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of plasma selenium concentrations, 3-year lipid changes were elevated by 8.25% (95% CI: 1.54-14.96%) for triglycerides (P = 0.016), 5.88% (3.13-8.63%) for total cholesterol (P < 0.001), 7.37% (3.07-11.67%) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0008), 6.44% (2.66-10.21%) for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0009), 4.99% (0.62-9.36%) for total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P = 0.025), and 7.00% (1.55-12.46%) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P = 0.012). In analyses stratified by rs7579 genotypes, positive associations between plasma selenium concentrations and 3-year changes in triglycerides, TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were observed among CC genotype carriers, but negative associations between plasma selenium and TC/HDL-C ratio, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were observed among TT genotype carriers. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that plasma selenium was associated with 3-year lipid changes differentially by rs7579 genotypes, and higher plasma selenium was associated with adverse lipid changes among rs7579 CC genotype carriers, but not among T allele carriers.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e049846, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myopia is the common cause of reduced uncorrected visual acuity among school-age children. It is more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. Although many myopia studies have focused on the effect of urbanisation, it remains unclear how visual experience in urban regions could affect childhood myopia. This study aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of myopia among school-age children in urban and rural settings, thereby identifying the environmental factors that affect the onset and progression of myopia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A school-based cohort study will be conducted. We will enroll all first-grade students from an urban (10 primary schools) and a rural (10 primary schools) regions of Zhaoqing city, China. Over 3-year follow-up period, students will receive detailed eye examinations annually and complete questionnaires about living habits and environment. In a 5% random subsample of the cohort, physical activity, light intensity and eye-tracking data will be obtained using wearable devices, and high-resolution macular images will be obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The primary outcome is incident myopia, defined as myopia (spherical equivalent refractive of at least -0.5D) detected during follow-up among those without myopia at baseline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (number: 2019KYPJ171). Study findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04219228.

4.
Inflamm Res ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the most frequent causes of severe vision loss. The pathogenesis of DME is still not fully understood; however, it is hypothesized to result from breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) due to retinal inflammation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. In this investigation, we discovered that Prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), an upstream regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) modulates VEGF expression and thus preserves BRB function in the mouse retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) were cultured in human endothelial serum-free growth medium and exposed to hyperglycemia. Changes in cell viability were investigated by an MTT assay. BRB function in each group was revealed by a paracellular permeability assay and trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Morphological changes in the BRB were investigated by immunofluorescence staining of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). The mRNA and protein levels of the tight junction proteins, PHD2, HIF-1α, and VEGF were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and ELISA. RESULTS: Under hyperglycemic conditions, the viability of hRMECs was decreased, and PHD2 expression was downregulated, accompanied by increased paracellular permeability and decreased trans-endothelial electrical resistance. Additionally, HIF-1α and VEGF expression levels were increased, whereas the expression levels of tight junction proteins, including occludin and ZO-1, were decreased and BRB function was compromised. The PHD2 activator R59949 (diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II), altered these pathological changes, and the PHD2 inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) resulted in the opposite effects. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that PHD2 inhibited HIF-1 activity by inhibiting HIF-1α expression in hRMECs under hyperglycemic conditions, which led to the downregulation of the expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF, and thus helped to maintain the functions of hRMECs. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that PHD2 could be a potential novel target for the treatment of DME or other diseases with a similar pathogenesis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639830

RESUMO

The physical environment plays an important role in moral cognition. Previous research has demonstrated that the physical environment affects individual moral judgment. Investigators have argued that the environment influences moral judgment through emotion and cognition, such as during metaphor processing. Following the intensification of urbanization and increases in population size, the phenomenon of a narrow environment has become more common. However, the relation between environmental spaciousness and moral judgment has not been thoroughly examined. We examined the effect of environmental spaciousness (spaciousness vs. narrowness) on moral judgments in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Results showed that participants report a higher rating score of moral judgment in more spacious environments compared with narrow environments. We further explored the roles of emotion and metaphor in the relation between environmental spaciousness and moral judgments. We found support for a partial mediation effect of emotion in the relationship between environmental spaciousness and moral judgment. The results also supported an association between the concept of spaciousness and tolerant cognition. Spacious environments may elicit positive emotions and more tolerant cognition, which in turn influences moral judgment. These results provide new evidence for the influence of the environment on moral judgments, and more attention may be warranted to incorporate this relationship in environmental design.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Metáfora , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Princípios Morais
6.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(11): 3274-3275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712809

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of Tylonycteris fulvida (Peters, 1872) was obtained using high-throughput sequencing technology. The genome is a circular molecule of 16,621 bp length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. A phylogenetic tree of 13 protein-coding genes was constructed using IQ-TREE. Our result suggests that T. fulvida cluster within Chiroptera and Fereuungulata. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. fulvida will be helpful for future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Chiroptera.

7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of CD146 and its role in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to analyse the expression and relationship of sCD146, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), sVEGFR1 and sVEGFR2 in vitreous specimens from PDR and idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IERM) or idiopathic macular hole patients. The location of CD146 in ERMs was detected by immunofluorescence. The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice model was established and the adeno-associated virus expressing a shRNA of CD146 (AAV1-shCD146-GFP) was administered via intravitreal injection. The effect of AAV1-shCD146-GFP was explored by immunofluorescence, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The levels of sCD146 in vitreous specimens from PDR patients and CD146 in retinas from OIR mice were significantly increased. Immunofluorescence showed that CD146 was co-located with CD31, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively. Intravitreal injection of AAV1-shCD146-GFP could dramatically reduce the formation of neovascularization and non-perfusion area by inhibiting VEGFR2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that CD146 was involved in the development of retinal neovascularization via VEGFR2 pathway. Anti-CD146 may be an innovative or adjuvant therapy, which provides a new direction for the treatment of PDR and other ocular neovascular diseases.

8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 706425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421563

RESUMO

Previous behavioral studies on aesthetics demonstrated that there was a close association between perceived action and aesthetic appreciation. However, few studies explored whether motor imagery would influence aesthetic experience and its neural substrates. In the current study, Chinese calligraphy was used as the stimuli to explore the relationship between the motor imagery and the aesthetic judgments of a participant using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The imaging results showed that, compared with the baseline, the activation of the brain regions [e.g., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), putamen, and insula] involved in perceptual processing, cognitive judgments, aesthetic emotional, and reward processing was observed after the participants performed motor imagery tasks. The contrast analyses within aesthetic judgments showed that the kinesthetic imagery significantly activated the middle frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, ACC, and thalamus. Generally, these areas were considered to be closely related to positive aesthetic experience and suggested that motor imagery, especially kinesthetic imagery, might be specifically associated with the aesthetic appreciation of Chinese calligraphy.

9.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate iris volume before and after pupil dilation using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) and investigate the associated factors of iris volume and iris volume change after pupil dilation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center among T2DM registered patients in the community of Guangzhou, China. Anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD 500) and pupil diameter were estimated using SS-ASOCT (CASIA; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Venous blood was taken for the measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbAlc). All biometric measurements were performed before and after pharmacologic pupil dilation. RESULTS: A total of 117 subjects were included in the analysis. The mean age (±SD) was 64.96 ± 7.75 years, and 62.4% were females. After pupil dilation, iris volume decreased in all eyes. Shorter duration of diabetes (p = 0.035), longer axial length (p < 0.001) and smaller pupil diameter (p < 0.001) were associated with larger iris volume. The change in iris volume per millimetre change in pupil diameter was 1.35mm3 /mm. Smaller baseline iris volume (p = 0.002) and higher HbA1c level (p = 0.010) were associated with smaller change in iris volume per millimetre change in pupil diameter, after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSION: Iris volume can be estimated by SS-ASOCT. Diabetic duration was associated with static anatomy of iris volume, while HbA1c level indicated the dynamic response of iris volume. It is likely that diabetic duration and HbA1c level could affect the macroscopic and microscopic composition of the iris in the diabetic population.

10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068355

RESUMO

A common diabetes-related microvascular complication is diabetic retinopathy (DR), yet associations between blood pressure (BP) and risks for DR in diabetic patients with normal BP received inadequate attention. This may lead to 'clinical inertia' in early DR prevention. We aimed to assess whether the extent to which systolic BP levels were associated with DR in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and normal BP were similar to that in those with concurrent hypertension. Data were collected from patients with T2DM attending ophthalmic check-up with primary care referral (n = 2510). BP measurements, clinical laboratory tests, and dilated fundus examination were conducted according to gold standard of diagnosis and routine clinical procedure. Of all subjects, over 40% were normotensive and one fifth were clinically diagnosed with DR. Systolic BP levels increased across DR categories of escalated severity irrespective of the coexistence of hypertension. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that an increased systolic BP was independently and significantly associated with DR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.020, p < 0.001 for hypertensives; aOR = 1.019, p = 0.018 for normotensives), after adjusting for diabetes duration, sex, lifestyles, and haemoglobin A1c levels. Regular monitoring of systolic BP should not be neglected in routine diabetes management even when BP falls within the normal range. (200 words).

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 560, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987258

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are two serious complications of diabetes. However, the association between retinal neurodegeneration in DR and renal function decline is still unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the association by measure estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We analyzed the baseline data of the Guangzhou Diabetic Eye Study. T2DM patients from communities in Guangzhou were enrolled and all participants went through ophthalmic and general examinations. The thickness of the macular GC-IPL and GCC in their right eyes were measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: One thousand three hundred and nine patients were included (mean age 64.4±7.6 years, 59.1% female), and fifty-eight (4.4%) of them had CKD. Average macular GC-IPL thickness was significantly thinner in CKD patients (96.5±9.1 µm) than non-CKD patients (101.3±9.2 µm) (P<0.01). Average macular GCC thickness was also significantly thinner in CKD patients (123.5±13.2 µm) than non-CKD patients (129.9±12.8 µm) (P<0.01). The significant thinning of macular GC-IPL and GCC thickness presented in every gird in the macula (all, P<0.05) except for central grid (P≥0.05). In the patients without DR, the eGFR was linearly correlated with the average macular GC-IPL thickness [ß=0.07 (95% CI, 0.02-0.12), P<0.01] and GCC thickness [ß=0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16), P<0.01] after adjustment for age, sex, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP) and combination of hypertension. However, no linear correlation was found between eGFR and macular GC-IPL or GCC thickness in DR patients. Conclusions: Renal function decrease is associated with the thinning of the macular GC-IPL and GCC in T2DM patients, suggesting the potential value of ganglion cell lose to detect early function decline in the kidney in diabetic patients, especially in patients without DR.

12.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal injections of conbercept versus laser photocoagulation in the treatment of diabetic macular oedema (DME). METHODS: A 12-month multicentre, randomised, double-masked, double-sham, parallel controlled, phase III trial (Sailing Study), followed by a 12-month open-label extension study. Patients with centre-involved DME were randomly assigned to receive either laser photocoagulation followed by pro re nata (PRN) sham intravitreal injections (laser/sham) or sham laser photocoagulation followed by PRN 0.5 mg conbercept intravitreal injections (sham/conbercept). Patients who entered the extension study received PRN conbercept treatment. The primary endpoint was the changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline. RESULTS: A total of 248 eyes were included in the full analysis set and 157 eyes continued in the extension study. Significant improvement in mean change in BCVA from baseline to month 12 was observed in the sham/conbercept group (8.2±9.5 letters), whereas no improvement was observed in the laser/sham group (0.3±12.0 letters). Patients in the laser/sham group showed a marked improvement in BCVA after the switch to conbercept in the extension study, and there was no difference in BCVA between the two groups at the end of the extension study. CONCLUSION: The use of a conbercept PRN intravitreal injection regimen improved the BCVA of patients with DME, and its efficacy was better than that of laser photocoagulations, and the same efficacy was observed when the eyes treated with laser alone were switched to conbercept. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02194634.

13.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(9): 2795-2805, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003361

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the lipid layer thickness (LLT) and blinking in children with or without allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and to compare those between the different types of AC. METHODS: For this case-control study, 81 children with symptomatic AC with an average age of 9.62 ± 2.67 years were enrolled and subdivided according to the subtypes of AC, including seasonal/perennial allergic conjunctivitis group and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC)/atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) group. Another 82 age-matched healthy children were enrolled as control group. All subjects underwent routine eye examination and measurements of LLT, the number of incomplete or total blinking, partial blinking rate by the LipiView interferometer over a 10-s period. Other ocular surface assessment included fluorescein tear breakup time (TBUT), lower tear meniscus height, meibomian gland loss (MGL), meibum expressibility and quality. RESULTS: Pediatric patients with AC had significant thinner LLT, shorter TBUT, decreased total blinking but increased partial blinking rate, especially in those with VKC/AKC (all P < 0.05). A significant deterioration of meibomian gland parameters was observed in AC group when compared with control subjects, demonstrated by severe upper and lower MGL, lid margin abnormalities, decreased meibum expressibility, and abnormal meibum quality, all of which were worse in the severe type of AC (all P < 0.05). Thinner LLT was significantly correlated with decreased TBUT (ß = 3.666, P < 0.001) and severity of upper MGL (ß = - 7.701, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Decreased LLT and blinking disorders in pediatric patients with AC may contribute to lipid layer deficiency in the long run, which should be considered and appropriately diagnosed for a more precise treatment.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Piscadela , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Conjuntivite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interferometria , Lipídeos , Glândulas Tarsais/diagnóstico por imagem , Lágrimas
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1481, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452308

RESUMO

Vessel train formation as a new trend has been raised in cooperative control for multiple vessels. This paper addresses formation control design for a group of unmanned surface vehicles platoon considering input delay. To account for connectivity-preserving and collision-avoiding, Barrier Lyapunov function is incorporated into the constraints design of line-of-sight range and bearing. To alleviate the computational burden, neural dynamic model is employed to simplify the control design and smooth the input signals. Besides, input control arising from time delay due to mechanisms and communication is considered in the marine vessels. Within the framework of the backstepping technique, distributed coordination is accomplished in finite time and the uniformly ultimately boundness of overall system is guaranteed via rigorous stability analysis. Finally, the simulation is performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

15.
Inflamm Res ; 70(2): 183-192, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microglia/macrophage activation is previously reported to be involved in various ocular diseases. However, the separate role of M1/M2 phenotype microglia/macrophage in the pathological process of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) remains unknown. In this research, we explored the role and regulatory mechanism of M1/M2 microglia/macrophage in OIR in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated the time phase of M1/M2 shifting of microglia/macrophage during the natural process of OIR, which is very essential for further investigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6j pups were exposed to hyperoxia environment from postnatal 7(P7) to P12 then returned to normoxia. The mice were then euthanized, and the eyes were harvested at a series of time points for further investigation. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia/macrophage activity was presented by immunofluorescent staining and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The NF-κb-STAT3 signaling and IL-4-STAT6-PPAR-γ signaling pathway activity was examined by western blot analysis. RESULTS: The microglia/macrophage were activated when the OIR model was set up after P12. The M1 microglia/macrophage activation was found in neovascularization (NV) tufts in both central and peripheral retina, which started from P12 when the mice were returned to normoxia environment and peaked at P17. During this period of time, the NF-κb-STAT3 signaling pathway was activated, resulting in the upregulated M1 phenotype microglia/macrophage polarization, along with the enhanced inflammatory cytokine expression including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1ß. Consequently, the NV tufts were observed from P12 and the volume continued to increase until P17. However, the M2 phenotype microglia/macrophage activity took over during the late phase of OIR started from P17. The IL-4-STAT6-PPAR-γ signaling activity was upregulated from P17 and peaked at P20, inducing M2 phenotype microglia polarization, which consequently led to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and spontaneous regression of NV tufts. CONCLUSIONS: Microglia/macrophage participate actively in the natural process of OIR in mice, and two phenotypes exert different functions. Treatment modulating microglia/macrophage polarize toward M2 phenotype might be a novel and promising method for ocular neovascular diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), and diabetic retinopathy (DR).


Assuntos
Macrófagos/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Doenças Retinianas/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Oxigênio , PPAR gama/imunologia , Fenótipo , Retina/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Pineal Res ; 71(1): e12716, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426650

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity is a vision-threatening disease associated with retinal hypoxia-ischemia, leading to the death of retinal neurons and chronic neuronal degeneration. During this study, we used the oxygen-induced retinopathy mice model to mimic retinal hypoxia-ischemia phenotypes to investigate further the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on neonatal retinal neurons. Melatonin helped maintain relatively normal inner retinal architecture and thickness and preserve inner retinal neuron populations in avascular areas by rescuing retinal ganglion and bipolar cells, and horizontal and amacrine neurons, from apoptosis. Meanwhile, melatonin recovered visual dysfunction, as reflected by the improved amplitudes and implicit times of a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potentials. Additionally, elevated cleaved caspase-3 and Bax protein levels and reduced Bcl-2 protein levels in response to hypoxia-ischemia were diminished after melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin increased BDNF and downstream phospho-TrkB/Akt/ERK/CREB levels. ANA-12, a TrkB receptor antagonist, antagonized these melatonin actions and reduced melatonin-induced neuroprotection. Furthermore, melatonin rescued the reduction in melatonin receptor expression. This study suggests that melatonin exerted anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects in inner retinal neurons after hypoxia-ischemia, at least partly due to modulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway.

17.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 3462-3469, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Iron is an essential trace element to almost all organism, and the delicate balance between host defend system and viral proliferation plays an important role in infective conditions. While the association of the iron metabolism with the prognosis of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations of systemic iron metabolism parameters with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 158 confirmed COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China (27 January to 5 April, 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory examinations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of iron parameter levels with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 60 (38%) severe cases in 158 COVID-19 patients. The median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54-73) and the median length of hospital stay was 28 days (IQR: 17-40). After adjusting for age, sex, IL-6, and pre-existing comorbidities, all iron parameters were associated with the severity of COVID-19 with adjusted risk ratio of 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.83], 4.38 [95% CI: 1.86-10.33], 0.19 [95% CI: 0.08-0.48], and 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10-0.58] for serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron-binding capacity, respectively. These iron indices were also related to the risk of ARDS, coagulopathy, acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and high cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low serum iron status likely suffered from severe condition and multiple-organ injury in COVID-19. The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transferrina/metabolismo , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Retina ; 41(7): 1496-1501, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze clinical characteristics in eyes with myopic traction maculopathy (MTM). METHODS: Nine hundred and ninety-one patients (1,334 eyes) with MTM, who visited Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from January 2014 to December 2019, were involved. Myopic traction maculopathy was classified into six grades according to the new classification system: no macular schisis (T0), inner or outer foveoschisis (FS) (T1); inner and outer FS (T2), foveal detachment (T3), full-thickness macular hole (T4), and macular hole retinal detachment (T5). RESULTS: Seven hundred and seventy-eight (58.32%) eyes were in T0, 157 (11.77%) in T1, 177 (13.27%) in T2, 129 (9.67%) in T3, 45 (3.37%) in T4, and 48 (3.67%) in T5. With the severity of MTM, age increased and the best-corrected visual acuity became worse (P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were found on spherical equivalent refraction or axial length among different grades of MTM (P > 0.05). Moreover, significant differences on best-corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent refraction, axial length, and staphyloma rate existed between eyes with inner FS and eyes with outer FS (P < 0.01), but not between eyes with outer FS and eyes with both inner FS and outer FS (P > 0.05). Besides, significant differences were found on spherical equivalent refraction, axial length, and staphyloma rate between full-thickness macular hole with and without macular schisis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Spherical equivalent refraction and axial length were not correlated with the severity of MTM in this cohort. It might be preferable to categorize eyes with outer FS and eyes with both inner FS and outer FS as a same grade. Potential difference in the pathogenesis between full-thickness macular hole with and without macular schisis might exist.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 761550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977068

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the error rate of segmentation in the automatic measurement of anterior chamber volume (ACV) and iris volume (IV) by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) in narrow-angle and wide-angle eyes. Methods: In this study, fifty eyes from 25 narrow-angle subjects and fifty eyes from 25 wide-angle subjects were enrolled. SS-ASOCT examinations were performed and each SS-ASOCT scan was reviewed, and segmentation errors in the automatic measurement of ACV and IV were classified and manually corrected. Error rates were compared between the narrow-angle and the wide-angle groups, and ACV and IV before and after manual correction were compared. Results: A total of 12,800 SS-ASOCT scans were reviewed. Segmentation error rates of angle recess, iris root, posterior surface of the iris, pupil margin, and anterior surface of the lens were 84.06, 93.30, 13.15, 59.21, and 25.27%, respectively. Segmentation errors of angle recess, iris root, posterior surface of the iris, and pupil margin occurred more frequently in narrow-angle eyes, while more segmentation errors of the anterior surface of the lens were found in wide-angle eyes (all P < 0.001). ACV decreased and IV increased significantly after manual correction of segmentation errors in both groups (all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Segmentation errors were prevalent in the volumetric measurement by SS-ASOCT, particularly in narrow-angle eyes, leading to mismeasurement of ACV and IV.

20.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143376

RESUMO

Tannase plays a crucial role in many fields, such as the pharmaceutical industry, beverage processing, and brewing. Although many tannases derived from bacteria and fungi have been thoroughly studied, those with good pH stabilities are still less reported. In this work, a mangrove-derived yeast strain Rhodosporidium diobovatum Q95, capable of efficiently degrading tannin, was screened to induce tannase, which exhibited an activity of up to 26.4 U/mL after 48 h cultivation in the presence of 15 g/L tannic acid. The tannase coding gene TANRD was cloned and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica. The activity of recombinant tannase (named TanRd) was as high as 27.3 U/mL. TanRd was purified by chromatography and analysed by SDS-PAGE, showing a molecular weight of 75.1 kDa. The specific activity of TanRd towards tannic acid was 676.4 U/mg. Its highest activity was obtained at 40 °C, with more than 70% of the activity observed at 25-60 °C. Furthermore, it possessed at least 60% of the activity in a broad pH range of 2.5-6.5. Notably, TanRd was excellently stable at a pH range from 3.0 to 8.0; over 65% of its maximum activity remained after incubation. Besides, the broad substrate specificity of TanRd to esters of gallic acid has attracted wide attention. In view of the above, tannase resources were developed from mangrove-derived yeasts for the first time in this study. This tannase can become a promising material in tannin biodegradation and gallic acid production.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/enzimologia , Taninos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , Rhodotorula/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura , Áreas Alagadas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...