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1.
ACS Nano ; 15(3): 3754-3807, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650433

RESUMO

X-ray-based analytics are routinely applied in many fields, including physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering. The full potential of such techniques in the life sciences and medicine, however, has not yet been fully exploited. We highlight current and upcoming advances in this direction. We describe different X-ray-based methodologies (including those performed at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free-electron lasers) and their potentials for application to investigate the nano-bio interface. The discussion is predominantly guided by asking how such methods could better help to understand and to improve nanoparticle-based drug delivery, though the concepts also apply to nano-bio interactions in general. We discuss current limitations and how they might be overcome, particularly for future use in vivo.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749240

RESUMO

The combination of photothermal therapy (PTT) and gene therapy (GT) shows great potential to achieve synergistic anti-tumor activity. However, the lack of a controlled release of genes from carriers remains a severe hindrance. Herein, peptide lipid (PL) and sucrose laurate (SL) were used to coat single-walled carbon nanotubes (SCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) to form bifunctional delivery systems (denoted SCNT-PS and MCNT-PS, respectively) with excellent temperature-sensitivity and photothermal performance. CNT/siRNA suppressed tumor growth by silencing survivin expression while exhibiting photothermal effects under near-infrared (NIR) light. SCNT-PS/siRNA showed very high anti-tumor activity, resulting in the complete inhibition of some tumors. It was highly efficient for systemic delivery to tumor sites and to facilitate siRNA release owing to the phase transition of the temperature-sensitive lipids, due to PL and SL coating. Thus, SCNT-PS/siRNA is a promising anti-tumor nanocarrier for combined PTT and GT.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(12): 5201-5210, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687204

RESUMO

Nanoparticles show great potential for drug delivery systems in cancer treatment and diagnosis, which mainly rely on the interaction between nanoparticles and living cells. However, there is still a lack of accurate and large field-of-view imaging techniques to reveal the aggregation and distribution behavior of nanoparticles in whole cancer cells without being destroyed. Here, we demonstrated quantitative imaging of unstained and intact mouse breast cancer cells (4T1) containing 50 nm gold nanoparticles (Au@citrate NPs) using an X-ray scanning coherent diffraction imaging (ptychography) technique in a large field-of-view. A two-dimensional spatial resolution of 17 nm was achieved on the 4T1 cell. We combine X-ray ptychography and equally sloped tomography (EST) to perform three-dimensional structural mapping, distribution, and aggregation behavior of Au@citrate NPs in cancer cells. By taking full advantage of the large field-of-view, high-resolution, and quantitative imaging technique, the single intracellular Au@citrate NPs are observed and the amount of Au@citrate NPs in aggregations can be accurately quantified. In addition, the morphological changes of lysosomes containing Au@citrate NPs can be observed in the high-contrast mass density images. This study provides an approach for exploring quantitative analysis and physiological delivery of nanomaterials in intact cancer cells at nanoscale resolution, which may greatly benefit the interdisciplinary research of material science, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(13)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771859

RESUMO

Various cancers treated with cisplatin almost invariably develop drug resistance that is frequently caused by substantial DNA repair. We searched for acquired vulnerabilities of cisplatin-resistant cancers to identify undiscovered therapy. We herein found that cisplatin resistance of cancer cells comes at a fitness cost of increased intracellular hypoxia. Then, we conceived an inspired strategy to combat the tumor drug resistance by exploiting the increased intracellular hypoxia that occurs as the cells develop drug resistance. Here, we constructed a hypoxia-amplifying DNA repair-inhibiting liposomal nanomedicine (denoted as HYDRI NM), which is formulated from a platinum(IV) prodrug as a building block and payloads of glucose oxidase (GOx) and hypoxia-activatable tirapazamine (TPZ). In studies on clinically relevant models, including patient-derived organoids and patient-derived xenograft tumors, the HYDRI NM is able to effectively suppress the growth of cisplatin-resistant tumors. Thus, this study provides clinical proof of concept for the therapy identified here.

5.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596656

RESUMO

Efficient endosomal escape is the most essential but challenging issue for siRNA drug development. Herein, a series of quaternary ammonium-based amphiphilic triblock polymers harnessing an elaborately tailored pH-sensitive hydrophobic core were synthesized and screened. Upon incubating in an endosomal pH environment (pH 6.5-6.8), mPEG45-P(DPA50-co-DMAEMA56)-PT53 (PDDT, the optimized polymer) nanomicelles (PDDT-Ms) and PDDT-Ms/siRNA polyplexes rapidly disassembled, leading to promoted cytosolic release of internalized siRNA and enhanced silencing activity evident from comprehensive analysis of the colocalization and gene silencing using a lysosomotropic agent (chloroquine) and an endosomal trafficking inhibitor (bafilomycin A1). In addition, PDDT-Ms/siPLK1 dramatically repressed tumor growth in both HepG2-xenograft and highly malignant patient-derived xenograft models. PDDT-Ms-armed siPD-L1 efficiently blocked the interaction of PD-L1 and PD-1 and restored immunological surveillance in CT-26-xenograft murine model. PDDT-Ms/siRNA exhibited ideal safety profiles in these assays. This study provides guidelines for rational design and optimization of block polymers for efficient endosomal escape of internalized siRNA and cancer therapy.

6.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2920-2932, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523631

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and metastasis after microwave ablation (MWA) are challenges in the clinic. This study showed that mannose-derived carbon dots (Man-CDs) could effectively capture several "danger signals" (DS) after MWA treatment and then deliver DS specifically to dendritic cells (DCs). This improved delivery of DS to DCs enhanced the processing and presentation of tumor-associated antigens by DCs. The results demonstrated that intratumoral injection of Man-CDs after MWA therapy elicited a potent tumor-specific immune response and finally led to the effective suppression of both primary and distant tumors. MWA + Man-CD treatment could efficiently reject tumor cell rechallenge in vivo. This study demonstrated that Man-CD nanoparticles are effective adjuvants that can improve MWA therapy by eliciting a tumor-specific immune response.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(5): 2413-2422, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507066

RESUMO

The development of activatable photosensitizers to allow for the reversible control of singlet oxygen (1O2) production for photodynamic therapy (PDT) faces great challenges. Fortunately, the flourishing field of supramolecular biotechnology provides more effective strategies for activatable PDT systems. Here, we developed a new reversible PDT on a switch that controls the 1O2 generation of self-assembled albumin nanotheranostics in vitro and in vivo. A new molecular design principle of aggregation-induced self-quenching photochromism and albumin on-photoswitching was demonstrated using a new asymmetric, synthetic diarylethene moiety DIA. The photosensitizer porphyrin and DIA were incorporated as building blocks in a glutaraldehyde-induced covalent albumin cross-linking nanoplatform, HSA-DIA-porphyrin nanoparticles (NPs). More importantly, the excellent photoswitching property of DIA enables the resultant nanoplatform to act as a facile, switchable strategy for photodynamic-immunotherapy.

8.
Biomaterials ; 269: 120654, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434712

RESUMO

A variety of therapies have been developed and used for the treatment of colon cancer, however, the high mortality rate remains high and more effective strategies are still in urgent needs. In this study, an immunotherapy approach that is composed of innate immune activator Astragaloside III (As) and the photodynamic therapy (PDT) reagent chlorine e6 (Ce6) ((As + Ce6)@MSNs-PEG), was developed for colon cancer treatment. We showed that (As + Ce6)@MSNs-PEG could effectively activate NK cells and inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. It could also effectively reach tumor sites, induce infiltration of immune cells into the tumor, and enhance the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells in vivo. Without obvious side effects, (As + Ce6)@MSNs-PEG treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice. Further results revealed that treatment of (As + Ce6)@MSNs-PEG led to enhanced IFN secretion by immune cells and increased T-box transcription factor (T-bet), which is highly expressed by T cells. Therefore, (As + Ce6)@MSNs-PEG may serve as an effective and safe platform for combinatory use with nano-herb medicine and PDT to provide a new therapy for colon cancer treatment.

9.
Biomaterials ; 265: 120456, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099066

RESUMO

External stimuli-responsive nanomedicine with desirable repetitive on-demand drug release character is postulated to greatly accommodate patients' flexible medication regime. To this object, light-activatable liposomes (Pt/Ce6-LP) integrated with both a Ce6 photodynamic component and a tetravalent platinum prodrug (Pt(IV)) chemotherapeutic component are engineered. This multifunctional system was rationally designed using unsaturated phospholipid to achieve repetitive on-demand drug release under discontinuous light irradiation, thus performing chemo-photodynamic therapy effect and immunopotentiation in hypoxic tumor. Furthermore, glutathione (GSH) consumption during transformation from Pt(IV) prodrug to Pt(II) can avoid depletion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Note this positive feedback loop appears to remodel the redox balance of H2O2 and GSH in tumors, alleviating the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. The alleviated hypoxia is found to be critical to the enhancement of PDT efficacy, reversal of cisplatin resistance in tumors, and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to the immunocompetent M1-phynotype. Pt/Ce6-LP with light radiation demonstrates significant antitumor effect and persistent post-medication inhibition in patient-derived tumor xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

11.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236885

RESUMO

Hypoxia can increase the resistance of tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the dense extracellular matrix, high interstitial fluid pressure, and irregular blood supply often serve as physical barriers to inhibit penetration of drugs or nanodrugs across tumor blood microvessels into hypoxic regions. Therefore, it is of great significance and highly desirable to improve the efficiency of hypoxia-targeted therapy. In this work, living photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are utilized as hypoxia-targeted carriers for hypoxic tumor therapy due to their near-infrared (NIR) chemotaxis and their physiological characteristics as facultative aerobes. More interestingly, we discovered that PSB can serve as a kind of photothermal agent to generate heat through nonradiative relaxation pathways due to their strong photoabsorption in the NIR region. Therefore, PSB integrate the properties of hypoxia targeting and photothermal therapeutic agents in an "all-in-one" manner, and no postmodification is needed to achieve hypoxia-targeted cancer therapy. Moreover, as natural bacteria, noncytotoxic PSB were found to enhance immune response that induced the infiltration of cytotoxicity T lymphocyte. Our results indicate PSB specifically accumulate in hypoxic tumor regions, and they show a high efficiency in the elimination of cancer cells. This proof of concept may provide a smart therapeutic system in the field of hypoxia-targeted photothermal therapeutic platforms.

12.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 14831-14845, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084319

RESUMO

DNA alkylating agents generally kill tumor cells by covalently binding with DNA to form interstrand or intrastrand cross-links. However, in the case of cisplatin, only a few DNA adducts (<1%) are highly toxic irreparable interstrand cross-links. Furthermore, cisplatin is rapidly detoxified by high levels of intracellular thiols such as glutathione (GSH). Since the discovery of its mechanism of action, people have been looking for ways to directly and efficiently remove intracellular GSH and increase interstrand cross-links to improve drug efficacy and overcome resistance, but there has been little breakthrough. Herein, we hypothesized that the anticancer efficiency of cisplatin can be enhanced through iodo-thiol click chemistry mediated GSH depletion and increased formation of DNA interstrand cross-links via mild hyperthermia triggered by near-infrared (NIR) light. This was achieved by preparing an amphiphilic polymer with platinum(IV) (Pt(IV)) prodrugs and pendant iodine atoms (iodides). The polymer was further used to encapsulate IR780 and assembled into Pt-I-IR780 nanoparticles. Induction of mild hyperthermia (43 °C) at the tumor site by NIR light irradiation had three effects: (1) it accelerated the GSH-mediated reduction of Pt(IV) in the polymer main chain to platinum(II) (Pt(II)); (2) it boosted the iodo-thiol substitution click reaction between GSH and iodide, thereby attenuating the GSH-mediated detoxification of cisplatin; (3) it increased the proportion of highly toxic and irreparable Pt-DNA interstrand cross-links. Therefore, we find that mild hyperthermia induced via NIR irradiation can enhance the killing of cancer cells and reduce the tumor burden, thus delivering efficient chemotherapy.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(12): 1053-1064, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106640

RESUMO

Cancer vaccines hold great promise for improved cancer treatment. However, endosomal trapping and low immunogenicity of tumour antigens usually limit the efficiency of vaccination strategies. Here, we present a proton-driven nanotransformer-based vaccine, comprising a polymer-peptide conjugate-based nanotransformer and loaded antigenic peptide. The nanotransformer-based vaccine induces a strong immune response without substantial systemic toxicity. In the acidic endosomal environment, the nanotransformer-based vaccine undergoes a dramatic morphological change from nanospheres (about 100 nanometres in diameter) into nanosheets (several micrometres in length or width), which mechanically disrupts the endosomal membrane and directly delivers the antigenic peptide into the cytoplasm. The re-assembled nanosheets also boost tumour immunity via activation of specific inflammation pathways. The nanotransformer-based vaccine effectively inhibits tumour growth in the B16F10-OVA and human papilloma virus-E6/E7 tumour models in mice. Moreover, combining the nanotransformer-based vaccine with anti-PD-L1 antibodies results in over 83 days of survival and in about half of the mice produces complete tumour regression in the B16F10 model. This proton-driven transformable nanovaccine offers a robust and safe strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

14.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13681-13690, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926626

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical evaluations of nanomedicines are of great significance for their further launch into industry and clinic. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging plays essential roles in preclinical drug development by providing important insights into the biodistributions of drugs in vivo with deep tissue penetration and high spatiotemporal resolution. However, NIR-II fluorescence imaging has rarely been exploited for in vivo real-time pharmaceutical evaluations of nanomedicine. Herein, we developed a highly emissive NIR-II luminophore to establish a versatile nanoplatform to noninvasively monitor the in vivo metabolism of nanomedicines bound various polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligands in a real-time manner. An alternative D-A-D conjugated oligomer (DTTB) was synthesized to achieve NIR-II emission peaked at ∼1050 nm with high fluorescence QYs of 13.4% and a large absorption coefficient. By anchoring with the DTTB molecule, intrinsically fluorescent micelles were fabricated and bound with PEG ligands at various chain lengths. In vivo NIR-II fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging results revealed that an appropriate PEG chain length could effectively contribute to the longer blood circulation and better tumor targeting. In vivo therapeutic experiments also confirmed the optimized nanomedicines have efficient photothermal elimination of tumors and good biosafety. This work offered an alternative highly fluorescent NIR-II material and demonstrated a promising approach for real-time pharmaceutical evaluation of nanomedicine in vivo.

15.
Adv Mater ; 32(43): e2004766, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964540

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major problem in cancer treatment. Herein, the design of a dual-responsive Pt(IV)/Ru(II) bimetallic polymer (PolyPt/Ru) to treat cisplatin-resistant tumors in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is reported. PolyPt/Ru is an amphiphilic ABA-type triblock copolymer. The hydrophilic A blocks consist of biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The hydrophobic B block contains reduction-responsive Pt(IV) and red-light-responsive Ru(II) moieties. PolyPt/Ru self-assembles into nanoparticles that are efficiently taken up by cisplatin-resistant cancer cells. Irradiation of cancer cells containing PolyPt/Ru nanoparticles with red light generates 1 O2 , induces polymer degradation, and triggers the release of the Ru(II) anticancer agent. Meanwhile, the anticancer drug, cisplatin, is released in the intracellular environment via reduction of the Pt(IV) moieties. The released Ru(II) anticancer agent, cisplatin, and the generated 1 O2 have different anticancer mechanisms; their synergistic effects inhibit the growth of drug-resistant cancer cells. Furthermore, PolyPt/Ru nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth in a PDX mouse model because they circulate in the bloodstream, accumulate at tumor sites, exhibit good biocompatibility, and do not cause side effects. The results demonstrate that the development of stimuli-responsive multi-metallic polymers provides a new strategy to overcome drug resistance.

16.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 12652-12667, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986406

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid materials have drawn increasing attention as photothermal agents in tumor therapy due to the advantages of green synthesis, high loading efficiency of hydrophobic drugs, facile incorporation of theranostic iron, and excellent photothermal efficiency without inert components or additives. Herein, we proposed a strategy for biomimetic engineering-mediated enhancement of photothermal performance in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This strategy is based on the specific characteristics of organic-inorganic hybrid materials and endows these materials with homologous targeting ability and photothermal stability in the TME. The hybrid materials perform the functions of cancer cells to target homolytic tumors (acting as "artificial nanotargeted cells (ANTC)"). Inspired by the pH-dependent disassembly behaviors of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion (FeIII) and subsequent attenuation of photothermal performance, cancer cell membranes were self-deposited onto the surfaces of protoporphyrin-encapsulated TA and FeIII nanoparticles to achieve ANTC with TME-stable photothermal performance and tumor-specific phototherapy. The resulting ANTC can be used as contrast agents for concurrent photoacoustic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and photothermal imaging to guide the treatment. Importantly, the high loading efficiency of protoporphyrin enables the initiation of photodynamic therapy to enhance photothermal therapeutic efficiency, providing antitumor function with minimal side effects.

17.
J Control Release ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866590

RESUMO

Due to the poor physicochemical properties of drugs and multi-stage biological barriers in vivo, drugs at action site cannot reach up to sufficient concentration to acquire expected therapeutic outcomes, which may conversely lead to side effects to normal tissues and organs. In recent years, nanoscale drug delivery systems (NDDS) have developed rapidly to effectively deliver drugs to target site. In addition to avoiding drug degradation and preserving drug physicochemical properties, NDDS with controllable drug behaviors on tissues, cells, and organelles can be applied to break through multi-stage barriers and manipulate drug metabolism. But poor knowledge of various biological barriers still hinders the development of NDDS. Hence, this review is to dissect the vital influence of biological barriers in pharmaceutical research and introduce strategies for manipulating drug behaviors by crossing multi-stage biological barriers. Moreover, setbacks faced in the development of nanotechnology-based formulations are analyzed, which brings systematic thinking in the field of drug delivery. By addressing these barriers and understanding the principles behind, the current review provides a new insight into the rational design of NDDS and promotes the development of nanomedicine.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(31): 34667-34677, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610896

RESUMO

Efficient drug delivery into tumor cells while bypassing many biological barriers is still a challenge for cancer therapy. By taking advantage of the palladium (Pd)-mediated in situ activation of a prodrug and the glucose oxidase (GOD)-based ß-d-glucose oxidation reaction, we developed a multisynergistic cancer therapeutic platform that combined doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chemotherapy with GOD-mediated cancer-orchestrated oxidation therapy and cancer starvation therapy. In the present work, we first synthesized DOX prodrugs (pDOXs) and temporarily assembled them with ß-cyclodextrins to reduce their toxic side effects. Then, a nanoreactor was constructed by synthesizing Pd0 nanoparticles in situ within the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the conversion of pDOX into the active anticancer drug. Furthermore, GOD was introduced to decrease the pH of the tumor microenvironment and induce cancer-orchestrated oxidation/starvation therapy by catalyzing ß-d-glucose oxidation to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid. Our study provides a new strategy that employs a cascade chemical reaction to achieve combined orchestrated oxidation/starvation/chemotherapy for the synergistic killing of cancer cells and the suppression of tumor growth.

19.
Bioact Mater ; 5(4): 1053-1061, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691013

RESUMO

mRNA is a novel class of therapeutic modality that holds great promise in vaccination, protein replacement therapy, cancer immunotherapy, immune cell engineering etc. However, optimization of mRNA molecules and efficient in vivo delivery are quite important but challenging for its broad application. Here we present an ionizable lipid nanoparticle (iLNP) based on iBL0713 lipid for in vitro and in vivo expression of desired proteins using codon-optimized mRNAs. mRNAs encoding luciferase or erythropoietin (EPO) were prepared by in vitro transcription and formulated with proposed iLNP, to form iLP171/mRNA formulations. It was revealed that both luciferase and EPO proteins were successfully expressed by human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatocytes. The maximum amount of protein expression was found at 6 h post-administration. The expression efficiency of EPO with codon-optimized mRNA was significantly higher than that of unoptimized mRNA. Moreover, no toxicity or immunogenicity was observed for these mRNA formulations. Therefore, our study provides a useful and promising platform for mRNA therapeutic development.

20.
Biomaterials ; 256: 120184, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592982

RESUMO

19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F MRI), a kind of non-invasive and non-radioactive diagnostic technique with no endogenous background signals, opens up new research avenues for accurate molecular imaging studies. However, 19F MRI is manily limited by the performance of contrast agents. Here, for the first time, we presented the zwitterionic fluorinated polymer and nanogel as new types of superhydrophilic, sensitive and ultra-stable 19F MRI contrast agents. The superhydrophilicity of carboxybetaine zwitterionic structure completely overcame the hydrophobic aggregation-induced signal attenuation associated with amphiphilic fluorinated polymer-based nanoprobes. In addition, the superhydrophilic contrast agent exhibited distinct advantages, including high 19F-content (19.1 wt%), superior resistance to protein adsorption, constant MR properties and 19F MRS-based quantitative determination in complex biological fluids, and intense 19F MRI signals in the whole-body images after intravenous injection. In combination with angiogenesis targeting ligand, the superhydrophilic contrast agent was applied for the unambiguous detection of tumor. Importantly, computational algorithm was established for the directly quantitative determination of bioavailability and tumor-to-whole body ratio (TBR) from the in vivo19F MRI dataset, providing real-time information with non-invasive manner. Finally, crosslinked nanogels were developed with significantly prolonged systemic circulation, of which intense 19F MRI signals nonspecifically distributed in the aortaventralis and blood-rich organs, instead of being trapped steadily in liver as with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic perfluocarbon nanoemulsions. Overall, this kind of superhydrophilic, zwitterionic fluorinated polymer and nanogel could be defined as a new generation of high-performance 19F MRI contrast agents, which hold great potential for image-based unambiguous disease detection and computational quantification.

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