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1.
Opt Express ; 27(19): 27159-27167, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674582

RESUMO

In this work, we have demonstrated a stimulated emission (SE)-based pump-probe microscopy with subharmonic fast gate synchronization, which allows over an order of magnitude improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. Critically, the alternative way of modulation is implemented with the highest possible frequency that follows the lasers' repetition rate. Its working is based on a homemade frequency divider that divides the repetition frequency (76 MHz) of the Ti:sapphire (probe) laser to half of the repetition frequency, 38 MHz, which is used to synchronously drive the pump laser and to provide the reference signal for the ensuing lock-in detection. In this way, SE can be detected with sensitivity reaching the theoretical (shot noise) limits, with a much lower time constant (0.1 ms) for faster image acquisition.

2.
Hum Cell ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667786

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor. The molecular mechanism of its occurrence and development has not yet been clarified. Current studies have found that noncoding RNAs, such as circular RNAs (circRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), play important regulatory roles in the progression of diseases. Our previous studies have shown that miR-19b is an oncogene in osteosarcoma. Further studies have shown that circ_ANKIB1 has binding sites for miR-19b, and both molecules were generally upregulated in osteosarcoma cells. RIP assay, RNA pull down, and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed that circ_ANKIB1 could directly bind to miR-19b and act as an miR-19b sponge in osteosarcoma cells. Circ_ANKIB1 promoted miR-19b expression, inhibited the expression of the downstream target gene SOCS3, and then activated the STAT3 pathway. When cotransfected with circ_ANKIB1 siRNA, and miR-19b mimics, the expression of SOCS3 and the phosphorylation level of STAT3 did not change significantly. Continuous detection of cell growth and invasion showed that the downregulation of circ_ANKIB1 or miR-19b significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, but increased the apoptotic level. When cotransfected with circ_ANKIB1 siRNA and miR-19b mimics or SOCS3 siRNA, the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion levels did not change significantly, suggesting that circ_ANKIB1 could affect the STAT3 pathway and osteosarcoma cell growth and invasion by enhancing the regulation of miR-19b on the downstream target gene SOCS3. These findings suggest that circRNAs stabilize miRNA functions, and further studies on this new function of circRNAs will provide a meaningful reference for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors and other diseases.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569380

RESUMO

Patients with metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The principal risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome is obesity, defined as a state of pathological hyperplasia or/and hypertrophy of adipose tissue. The number of mature adipocytes is determined by adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of curcumin on adipogenesis and the underlying mechanism. To examine cell toxicity of curcumin, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0-50 µM curcumin for 24, 48, or 72 h, then cell viability was measured using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The effect of curcumin on the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Curcumin-induced cell apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay and curcumin-induced caspase activation was measured by immunoblotting. The effect of curcumin on adipocyte differentiation was determined by measuring mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), expression of adipogenic transcription factors, and lipid accumulation. Results showed the viability of preadipocytes was significantly decreased by treatment with 30 µM curcumin, a concentration that caused apoptosis in preadipocytes, as assessed by the TUNEL assay, and caused activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3. A non-cytotoxic dose of curcumin (15 µM) inhibited MCE, downregulated the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, prevented differentiation medium-induced ß-catenin downregulation, and decreased the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our data show that curcumin can induce preadipocyte apoptosis and inhibit adipocyte differentiation, leading to suppression of adipogenesis.

4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 98: 104202, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have hypothesized that the pattern of health care utilization among maltreated children differ from others without the experience. However, the conclusions have not been consistent. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to examine whether the pattern of health care utilization among children 0-5 years old with maltreatment different from their counterparts without maltreatment in Taiwan. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: All children born in 2007 in Taiwan. METHOD: This is a population-based and case-controlled study. Cases are children under five years of ago with maltreatment-related diagnosis in the claims data of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan during the 2007-2013 period. For each case, there were 10 birth date-matched controls. Exposure variables include the number of injury or non-injury-related outpatients, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalization. Multivariate models were employed, with adjustment for sex, urbanization level, and comorbidities of children. RESULTS: Of children born in 2007, 382 had maltreatment-related diagnosis during the age of 0-5. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for having two or more ED visits with or without injury-related diagnosis is 3.52 (95% CI 1.75-7.07) and 2.0-0 (95% CI 1.47-2.72), respectively. Children with maltreatment also had significantly higher number of hospitalization without injury-related diagnosis and aOR for those having two more hospitalizations stands at 2.47 (95% CI 1.59-3.83). CONCLUSIONS: Children with maltreatment when 0-5 years old had higher number of ED visits with injury-related diagnosis, as well as hospitalization without injury-related diagnosis. Recognition of the health care utilization is conducive to early identification of children with risk for maltreatment.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1391, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed international variations in changes in drowning mortality rates and the quality of reporting specific information in death certificates over the past decade. METHODS: Drowning mortality data of 61 countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. We calculated the percentage change (PC) in age-standardized drowning mortality rates and percentage of drowning deaths reported with unspecified codes between 2004 and 2005 and 2014-2015. RESULTS: Of the 61 countries studied, 50 exhibited a reduction in drowning mortality rates from 2004 to 2005 to 2014-2015. Additionally, five countries-Lithuania, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, and El Salvador-with a high mortality rate in 2004-2005 (> 40 deaths per 100,000) showed improvement (PC < - 32%). By contrast, four countries-South Africa, Guyana, Morocco, and Guatemala-exhibited a more than twofold increase in mortality rates. Regarding the quality of reporting, 34 countries exhibited a decrease in the percentage of unspecified codes. Additionally, three countries-Paraguay, Serbia, and Croatia-with moderate and high percentages of unspecified codes (> 40%) exhibited a marked reduction (PC < - 60%), whereas three countries-Malaysia, Belgium, and Nicaragua-exhibited a notable increase. CONCLUSIONS: Large international variations in the extent of changes in drowning mortality rates and the quality of reporting specific information on the death certificate were observed during the study period.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the relationship between nocturnal sleep duration (NSD) and midday nap duration (MND) with body composition among Southwest Chinese adults. METHODS: Data on sleep duration of 3145 adults in Southwest China (59.4% women) were obtained between 2014 and 2015 through questionnaires. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured to calculate body composition (body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), and fat mass index (FMI)). Linear regression models were used to assess gender-specific associations between NSD and body composition. The relationship between MND with the odds of overweight and central obesity has been evaluated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: NSD has the inverse relation with males' BMI, WC, %BF and FMI after adjusting for all covariates (all P <0.0007), exclusive of females' (all P >0.4). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to the subjects in the no midday nap group, the subjects who napped 0.1-1 hour were independently associated with a less prevalence of overweight in both women (OR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.55-0.95) and men (OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.52-0.98). MND was not associated with central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Among Southwest Chinese adults, lower NSD might be related to higher BMI, WC, %BF and FMI among men. Additionally, MND is associated with overweight in adults.

7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2145-2162, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571851

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the potential mechanism underpinning the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate the role of the Roundabout signaling pathway in COPD. Methods: Three microarray datasets (GSE1650, GSE38974 and GSE76925) including 139 cases of severe COPD and 52 cases of normal smokers without carcinoma, were integrated to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using bioinformatics methods. Gene ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway of the DEGs were performed by a DAVID online tool. Finally, a cigarette smoke (CS)- induced emphysema mice model was established, the lung mRNA expression levels of genes associated with Slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) -Roundabout (ROBO) signaling pathway were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the protein level of SLIT2 was examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: A total of 315 DEGs were identified in three databases. GO and KEGG pathway analyses suggested that the inflammatory response, extracellular matrix disassembly, immune response, the apoptotic signaling pathway, ubiquitination and the Roundabout signaling pathway all together were involved in the development of COPD. The genes SLIT2 and ROBO2 were decreased in patients with COPD and these decreases were significantly negatively correlated with the disease stages of COPD. Consistently, the mRNA expression levels of SLIT2, ROBO1 and ROBO2, and the protein level of SLIT2 were revealed to be lower in the lungs of CS-induced emphysema mice compared with the air-exposed control mice. In addition, the SLIT2 protein level was negatively associated with alveolar mean linear intercept. Conclusion: Integrated bioinformatics analysis may provide novel insights into the complicated pathogenesis of COPD, and to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that the Roundabout signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD.

8.
Pharmacol Res ; : 104459, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541689

RESUMO

Gut microbiota and their metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Total Clematis triterpenoid saponins (CTSs) prepared from Clematis mandshurica Rupr. possess therapeutic benefits for arthritic diseases. However, the poor pharmacokinetic properties of CTSs have obstructed the translation of these natural agents to drugs. Here, we examined the effects of CTSs on arthritis symptoms, gut microbiota and SCFAs in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Our results showed that the arthritis index scores of CIA rats treated with CTSs were significantly lower than those of the model group. Most importantly, CTSs moderated gut microbial dysbiosis and significantly downregulated the total SCFA concentration in CIA rats. Compared to the control group, CTSs treatment have no significant side effects on the gut microbiota and SCFA metabolism in normal rats. Two differential analyses (LEfSe and DESeq2) were combined to study the details of the changes in gut microbiome, and twenty-four marker taxa at the genus level were identified via a comparison among control, model and CIA rats treated with high doses of CTSs. In particular, the mostly significantly decreased gram-negative (G-) and increased gram-positive (G+) genera in CIA rats were well restored by CTSs. The observed SCFA concentrations demonstrated that CTSs tend to maintain the balance of the gut microbiota. The data presented herein suggest that CTSs could ameliorate arthritis-associated gut microbial dysbiosis and may be potential adjuvant drugs that could provide relief from the gastrointestinal damage caused as a side effect of commonly used drugs.

9.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(5): 680-683, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the number and causes of maternal deaths after the introduction of pregnancy checkbox on the death certificate in January 2014 in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first used the cause-of-death (COD) mortality data for years 2010 through 2017 to examine the number of deaths by item of pregnancy checkbox. We then compared the distribution of the causes of maternal deaths before and after the introduction of pregnancy checkbox. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 111 women died, for whom the certifiers indicated the following in the pregnancy checkbox items: 2 (pregnant at the time of death; n = 10), 3 (died within 42 days after the termination of pregnancy; n = 64), and 4 (died between 43 days and 1 year after the termination of pregnancy; n = 37). However, in only 61 of the 111 deaths, the certifiers reported pregnancy or delivery-related diagnosis in the COD section of the death certificate-5 each for items 2 and 4 and 51 for item 3. The number of maternal deaths was 55 in 2010-2013; this number increased to 82 in 2014-2017. A decline in the percentage of maternal deaths from obstetric hemorrhage was noted from 38% (21/55) in 2010-2013 to 21% (17/82) in 2014-2017. CONCLUSION: The number of maternal deaths increased, and the distribution of causes of maternal deaths changed after the introduction of pregnancy checkbox. Additional studies are required to examine the possible misclassification of pregnancy-associated deaths indicated in the pregnancy checkbox.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 678, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515489

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may play a critical role in smoking-related chronic airway inflammation. However, the mechanism by which NETs induced by cigarette smoke initiate the adaptive immunity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of NETs induced by cigarette smoke on the myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and Th1 and Th17 cells. Additionally, we observed the inhibitory effect of erythromycin on NETs induced by cigarette smoke. We found that elevated NET levels in the sputum of COPD patients were correlated with the circulating Th1 response, mDC activation and airflow limitation. NETs induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) could activate monocyte-derived mDCs and promote Th1 and Th17 differentiation in vitro. Erythromycin effectively inhibited NET formation induced by CSE. In vivo, erythromycin decreased NETs in the airway and ameliorated emphysema with Th1 and Th17 cell down-regulation and CD40+ and CD86+ mDCs suppression in mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. These findings provide direct evidence that NETs promote the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 and play a role in the adaptive immunity of smoking-related chronic lung inflammation. Erythromycin is a potential therapeutic strategy for NETs inhibition in COPD.

11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109380, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid is one of the main treatments for interstitial lung disease (ILD). Cryptogenic-organizing pneumonia (COP) is sensitive to corticosteroid therapy, whereas idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is not. Glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) play critical roles in the sensitivity to corticosteroid therapy; however, it is unclear whether HDAC2 and/or GR-α are expressed in the lung tissues of patients with COP and/or IPF. Possible aberrant expressions of HDAC2 and GR-α in IPF and COP were investigated in the current study. METHODS: Lung tissue samples were obtained from patients with COP (n = 9), IPF (n = 8), pulmonary abscesses (n = 7), or pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors (n = 6) before corticosteroid treatment, as well as from control subjects (n = 10). The expression of GR-α, HDAC2, PI3K-δ, and NF-κBp65 in the samples was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: GR-α expression was the same in lung tissues from COP patients and control subjects, but was significantly lower in lung tissue from IPF. In addition, HDAC2 was significantly higher in lung tissues of COP patients compared to both IPF and control subjects. Furthermore, the transcription factor NF-κBp65 was significantly lower in lung tissues from both COP and control compared to IPF subjects, whereas there was no difference in NF-κBp65 when comparing tissues from COP patients to controls. HDAC2 and GR-α were negatively correlated with NF-κBp65 in COP lung tissue. CONCLUSION: HDAC2 and GR-α expression in lung tissues are potential biomarkers for predicting corticosteroid sensitivity when initially treating COP and IPF, as well as other forms of ILD.

12.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 7149-7154, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525937

RESUMO

To maximize the photovoltaic efficiency, it is highly desirable to enable the electricity conversion from low energy photons and to extract the excessive energy from hot carriers. Here we report a large photovoltage generation at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces from infrared photons with energies far below the oxide bandgaps. This effect is a result of the photoexcitation of hot carriers in metasurface electrical contacts and the subsequent thermoelectric charge separations by the interfacial two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Reaching a room-temperature responsivity of 4.4 V/W, such light-to-charge conversion can be spatially controlled and reconfigured through the patterning of 2DEG using conducting atomic force microscope. Compatible for broadband applications, our results demonstrate a new path toward efficient and programmable light sensing using oxide-based low-dimensional electron systems.

13.
Cell Death Differ ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511651

RESUMO

Centrosomal P4.1-associated protein (CPAP) is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and positively correlated with recurrence and vascular invasion. Here, we found that CPAP plays an important role in HCC malignancies. Functional characterization indicated that CPAP overexpression increases tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis ex vivo and in vivo. In addition, overexpressed CPAP contributes to sorafenib resistance. Mechanical investigation showed that the expression level of CPAP is positively correlated with activated STAT3 in HCC. CPAP acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3 by directly binding with STAT3. Interrupting the interaction between CPAP and STAT3 attenuates STAT3-mediated tumor growth and angiogenesis. Overexpression of CPAP upregulates several STAT3 target genes such as IL-8 and CD44 that are involved in angiogenesis, and CPAP mRNA expression is positively correlated with the levels of both mRNAs in HCC. Knocked-down expression of CPAP impairs IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation, target gene expression, cell migration, and invasion abilities. IL-6/STAT3-mediated angiogenesis is significantly increased by CPAP overexpression and can be blocked by decreased expression of IL-8. Our findings not only shed light on the importance of CPAP in HCC malignancies, but also provide potential therapeutic strategies for inhibiting the angiogenesis pathway and treating metastatic HCC.

14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(7): 075108, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370450

RESUMO

A portable pulsed magnetic field generator for magnetized laser plasma experiments in low vacuum environments is presented. It is based on a classical high-voltage discharge pulsed power system. A 95 kA peak current was delivered at a 65 kV discharge voltage, which generated a quasiuniform magnetic field of 12T in a Φ8 mm × 8 mm volume. A compact, sealed design was developed to avoid short-circuit breakdowns caused by an ambient low-pressure gas medium. Design improvements were made to the vacuum feedthrough, the transmission line, and the magnetic coil. The system worked well in a low vacuum environment for a laser plasma experiment using a gas target. But at intermediate ambient gas pressure, the ambient gas was ionized around the surface of the coil at first and then the ionized gas diffused inward and outward slowly, which affected the laser plasma image in the coil. Experiments and simulations indicated that the ambient gas was ionized by the induced electric field. We developed analytical models of the induced breakdown of the ambient gas to guide the experimental design of a gas target. The analysis can also be used in the experimental design of a solid target in an intense pulsed magnetic field of hundreds of tesla that the induced breakdown along solid's surface dominates the process.

15.
Immunol Res ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407157

RESUMO

Substantial discoveries suggested that exosomes released from multiple sources of stem cells can affect the biological functions of target cells. In present period, the immunosuppressive properties of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs-E) have been extensively recognized, but few studies have been reported about exosomes secreted from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs-E) in the field of medical immunity. Hence, the aim of this study is to compare the immunomodulatory capacity of BMMSCs-E and DPSCs-E. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with them respectively and the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg) was detected to increase. Subsequently, we stimulated CD4+T cells with BMMSCs-E and DPSCs-E to observe their effects on the polarizations, chemokines secretion, apoptosis, and proliferation of CD4+T cells. We found that DPSCs-E inhibited the differentiation of CD4+T cells into T helper 17 cells (Th17) and reduced the secretions of pro-inflammatory factors IL-17 and TNF-α, while promoted the polarization of CD4+T cells into Treg and increased the release of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and TGF-ß. What's more, these capabilities of DPSCs-E were stronger than those of BMMSCs-E. In addition, DPSCs-E were more effective in inducing apoptosis of CD4+T cells compared with BMMSCs-E, and DPSCs-E inhibited the proliferation of CD4+T cells, which is similar to BMMSCs-E. We draw a conclusion that DPSCs-E have stronger immune-modulating activities than BMMSCs-E, and may be a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of immunological diseases.

16.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(32): 7569-7583, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384851

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel approach to regioselective α- or γ-hydroarylation of 3-allylchromones with electron-rich arenes has been presented. Results of this study indicated that the regioselectivity was dependent on the substituent at the γ-position of the allyl group. Hydrogen or alkyl substitution favored α-hydroarylation, whereas aryl substitution favored γ-hydroarylation. This methodology provides an efficient means to achieve the α- or γ-selective hydroarylation of 3-allylchromones. Application of α-hydroarylation to perform Pd-catalyzed one-pot sequential α-hydroarylation and π-chelation-assisted olefination has also been reported.

17.
Inflamm Res ; 68(11): 957-968, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke promotes airway inflammation and emphysema accompanied by enhanced CD8+ interferon (IFN)-γ+ T(Tc1) and CD8+ interleukin (IL)-17+ T(Tc17) cell responses. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Inhibiting mTOR by rapamycin has been reported to alleviate emphysema, but the mechanism is not fully understood. We aimed to explore the effect of rapamycin on Tc1 and Tc17 cell responses induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MATERIALS: Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or room air for 24 weeks. Half of the smoke-exposed mice received rapamycin in the last 12 weeks. The severity of emphysema in those mice was evaluated by mean linear intercept (MLI), mean alveolar airspace area (MAA) and destructive index (DI). Bronchoalveolar lavage was collected and analyzed. Phosphorylated (p-) mTOR in CD8+ T cells, Tc1 and Tc17 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The relative expression of p-mTOR in lungs was determined by western blot analysis. IFN-γ and IL-17A levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. IFN-γ, mTOR and RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt mRNA levels were evaluated by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Elevated p-mTOR expression in CD8+ T cells and lung tissue was accompanied by the enhanced Tc1 and Tc17 cell responses in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Rapamycin reduced inflammatory cells in BALF and decreased MLI, DI and MAA in lungs. Rapamycin decreased p-mTOR expression, and down-regulation of mTOR and RORγt mRNA levels along with the attenuation of Tc1 and Tc17 cell responses in mice with emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: The mTOR was activated in CD8+ T cells accompanied by the enhanced Tc1 and Tc17 cell responses in cigarette smoke-related pulmonary inflammation. Rapamycin ameliorated emphysema and attenuated Tc1 and Tc17 cell responses probably caused by inhibiting mTOR in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2197-2207, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359642

RESUMO

The excessive pesticide residues and heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine seriously endanger human health and the sustainable development of Chinese medicine industry. In order to improve the quality of traditional Chinese medicine and establish a general standard for maximum residue limits(MRL) of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces, and to ensure the safety of clinical medication from its origin, MRLs were calculated based on the formula(MRL=A×W/100M) from Chinese Pharmacopeia, comparing it with the current Chinese and international standards as well as literature review, the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method(RAM) was applied to determine the categories and MRLs of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. Two questionnaires were drafted for expert panel and appropriateness analysis was carried out with the 9-point Likert scale to determine the general standard for MRLs of pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine and decoction pieces. The results showed that a total of nine experts from different fields scored the necessity of standard-setting and 206 pesticide residue limits respectively. The appropriateness scores of 206 pesticides were greater than 7, and appropriateness rate was 100%, which signifies that the expert panel has reached consensus. In summary, based on the RAM, the general standard for maximum residue limits of pesticides in pollution-free Chinese medicines and decoction pieces has reached an expert consensus. Comparing with the MRLs of medicinal plants and plant-sourced food from CAC, Europe Union, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, 206 MRLs from this general standard share 88.8% in common, 4.4% of which is higher and 6.8% lower than those international standards. This has provided a basis for standardizing the use of pesticides in pollution-free traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5219-5228, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) for whole-brain in leukoaraiosis (LA) patients suffering from cognitive decline or impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were selected by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. According to results of the clinical dementia rating and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), patients were divided into 3 groups: LA patients diagnosed as vascular mild-cognitive impairment (LA-VaMCI, n=28), LA patients diagnosed as vascular-dementia (LA-VaD, n=18), and normal individuals (NC, n=28). Executive functions were evaluated by using the Stroop test and Trail Making Test (TMT). The higher scores in TMT test mean greater impairments. Changes for the ALFF were measured by using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) technique. Correlations between ALFF and cognition scores were analyzed. RESULTS It was found that widespread differences in ALFF were present predominantly in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu) and in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). Compared with the NC group, ALFF values in PCC/PCu were significantly decreased (F=3.273, P=0.022) and ALFF values were significantly increased (F=2.864, P=0.033) in temporal regions of the LA-VaD patients. ALFF values in LA-VaMCI patients were significantly increased in ITG compared to that in the NC group (F=1.064, P=0.042) and the LA-VaD group (F=2.725, P=0.037). Impairment in executive functions were positively correlated with average ALFF of the left PCu. CONCLUSIONS This research showed that LA patients exhibited abnormal intrinsic-brain activities. Furthermore, altered ALFF was positively correlated with executive function scores.

20.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291744

RESUMO

The moderator effect of retention in care on late presenters in HIV patients has not been well evaluated. A nationwide cohort study focusing on HIV-infected patients with new engagement in care was conducted by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Retention in care was defined based on the healthcare utilization in the first year after engaging in HIV care. Then, the impact of late presentation, retention in care, and their interaction on the risk of subsequent hospitalizations due to opportunistic infections (OIs-hospitalizations) in the second year were examined. More than half (59.38%) of the total patients (n = 9112) were retained in care in the first year, 8.63% were late presenters, and 110 (1.21%) patients had subsequent hospitalization in the second year. Late presentation and non-retention were independent predictors of OIs-hospitalizations in the second year (OR: 2.58 and OR: 3.27, respectively) and the interaction between them was statistically significant (non-retention in care × late presentation, OR: 3.82). This study showed that retention in care in the first year is a moderator providing a stronger protective effect for late presenters than early presenters. Our findings call for policymakers to develop different strategies for early or late presenters.

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