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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The value of using PET/CT for staging of stage I-II NPC remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to investigate the survival benefit of PET/CT for staging of early-stage NPC before radical therapy. METHODS: A total of 1003 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC of stages I-II were consecutively enrolled. Among them, 218 patients underwent both PET/CT and conventional workup ([CWU], head-and-neck MRI, chest radiograph, liver ultrasound, bone scintigraphy) before treatment. The remaining 785 patients only underwent CWU. The standard of truth (SOT) for lymph node metastasis was defined by the change of size according to follow-up MRI. The diagnostic efficacies were compared in 218 patients who underwent both PET/CT and CWU. After covariate adjustment using propensity scoring, a cohort of 872 patients (218 with and 654 without pre-treatment PET/CT) was included. The primary outcome was overall survival based on intention to treat. RESULTS: Retropharyngeal lymph nodes were metastatic based on follow-up MRI in 79 cases. PET/CT was significantly less sensitive than MRI in detecting retropharyngeal lymph node lesions (72.2% [62.3-82.1] vs. 91.1% [84.8-97.4], p = 0.004). Neck lymph nodes were metastatic in 89 cases and PET/CT was more sensitive than MRI (96.6% [92.8-100.0] vs. 76.4% [67.6-85.2], p < 0.001). In the survival analyses, there was no association between pre-treatment PET/CT use and improved overall survival, progression-free survival, local relapse-free survival, regional relapse-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed PET/CT is of little value for staging of stage I-II NPC patients at initial imaging. KEY POINTS: • PET/CT was more sensitive than MRI in detecting neck lymph node lesions whereas it was significantly less sensitive than MRI in detecting retropharyngeal lymph node lesions. • No association existed between pre-treatment PET/CT use and improved survival in stage I-II NPC patients.

2.
Oncogenesis ; 10(1): 4, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419984

RESUMO

Exploring novel anticancer drugs to optimize the efficacy may provide a benefit for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Disulfiram (DSF), as an antialcoholism drug, is metabolized into diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex (CuET) in vivo, which has been reported to exert the anticancer effects on various tumors in preclinical studies. However, little is known about whether CuET plays an anti-cancer role in CRC. In this study, we found that CuET had a marked effect on suppressing CRC progression both in vitro and in vivo by reducing glucose metabolism. Mechanistically, using RNA-seq analysis, we identified ALDH1A3 as a target gene of CuET, which promoted cell viability and the capacity of clonal formation and inhibited apoptosis in CRC cells. MicroRNA (miR)-16-5p and 15b-5p were shown to synergistically regulate ALDH1A3, which was negatively correlated with both of them and inversely correlated with the survival of CRC patients. Notably, using co-immunoprecipitation followed with mass spectrometry assays, we identified PKM2 as a direct downstream effector of ALDH1A3 that stabilized PKM2 by reducing ubiquitination. Taken together, we disclose that CuET treatment plays an active role in inhibiting CRC progression via miR-16-5p and 15b-5p/ALDH1A3/PKM2 axis-mediated aerobic glycolysis pathway.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish an effective nomogram to predict primary distant metastasis (DM) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to guide the application of PET/CT. METHODS: In total, 3591 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC were consecutively enrolled. The nomogram was constructed based on 1922 patients treated between 2007 and 2014. Multivariate logistical regression was applied to identify the independent risk factors of DM. The predictive value of the nomogram was evaluated using the concordance index (C-index), calibration curve, probability density functions (PDFs), and clinical utility curve (CUC). The results were validated in 1669 patients enrolled from 2015 to 2016. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was applied to compare performances of the nomogram with other clinical factors. The best cut-off value of the nomogram chosen for clinical application was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 355 patients showed primary DM among 3591 patients, yielding an incidence rate of 9.9%. Sex, N stage, EBV DNA level, lactate dehydrogenase level, and hemoglobin level were independent predictive factors for primary DM. C-indices in the training and validation cohort were 0.796 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83) and 0.779 (95% CI, 0.74-0.81), respectively. The NRI indices demonstrated that this model had better predictive performance than plasma EBV DNA level and N stage. We advocate for a threshold probability of 3.5% for guiding the application of PET/CT depending on the clinical utility analyses. CONCLUSION: This nomogram is a useful tool to predict primary DM of NPC and guide the clinical application of PET/CT individually at the initial staging.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e038503, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No recent large studies have described the distribution of vitamin D status in the UK. Understanding the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency is important to inform targeted public health recommendations. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of factors associated with serum vitamin D status in a large national cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The UK Biobank, a prospective cohort study following the health and well-being of middle-aged and older adults recruited between 2006 and 2010. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 449 943 participants aged 40-69 years with measured serum vitamin D status were eligible for the analysis. Participants completed a questionnaire about sex, age, ethnic background, vitamin D supplementation, smoking, drinking and socioeconomic status. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We investigated the distribution of serum vitamin D status and the association between demographic factors and vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <25 nmol/L. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between demographic factors and vitamin D status. RESULTS: Asian (n=4297/8000, 53.7%) and black (n=2459/7046, 34.9%) participants had a higher proportion of vitamin D deficiency than white participants (n=50 920/422 907, 12%). During spring and winter, the proportion of vitamin D deficiency was higher across the UK and higher in the north than in the south. Male sex, abnormal body mass index, non-white ethnic backgrounds, smoking and being more socioeconomically deprived were associated with higher odds of vitamin D deficiency. Increasing age, taking vitamin D supplements and drinking alcohol were associated with lower odds of deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status varied among different ethnic groups and by season and geographical area within the UK. Taking supplements was associated with a lower risk of vitamin D deficiency. These findings support the vitamin D supplementation recommendations of Public Health England.

5.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20248874

RESUMO

BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly transmitted by droplets and close contact, has caused a pandemic worldwide as of November 2020. According to the current case reports and cohort studies, the symptoms of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were similar to normal adults and may cause a series of adverse consequences of pregnancy (placental abruption, fetal distress, epilepsy during pregnancy, etc.). However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to the fetus through the placental barrier is still a focus of debate. MethodsIn this study, in order to find out whether SARS-CoV-2 infect fetus through placental barrier, we performed qualitative detection of virus structural protein (spike protein and nucleoprotein) and targeted receptor protein (ACE2, CD147 and GRP78) expression on the placental tissue of seven pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 through immunohistochemistry. Amniotic fluid, neonatal throat, anal swab and breastmilk samples were collected immediately in the operating room for verification after delivery, which were all tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ResultsThe result showed that CD147 was expressed on the basal side of the chorionic trophoblast cell membrane and ACE2 was expressed on the maternal side, while GRP78 was strongly expressed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The RT-PCR results of Amniotic fluid, neonatal throat, anal swab and breastmilk samples were all negative. ConclusionsWe believed that despite the detection of viral structural proteins in the placenta, SARS-CoV-2 cannot be transmitted to infants due to the presence of the placental barrier. SummaryOur results showed that, excluding environmental pollution after birth and vaginal infection during childbirth, SARS-CoV-2 was less likely to be transmitted vertically in utero.

6.
Brain Struct Funct ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481104

RESUMO

Several fMRI studies have shown that the superior cerebellum exhibits load-dependent activations during encoding of letters in a Sternberg verbal working memory (VWM) task. It has been hypothesized that the cerebellum regulates the acquisition of sensory data across all modalities, and thus, that VWM load activations may reflect high- vs low-load differences in sensory acquisition demands. Therefore, increased difficulty in sensory data acquisition should elicit greater activation in the cerebellum. The present fMRI study manipulated sensory acquisition in VWM by presenting visually degraded and non-degraded stimuli with high and low memory loads, thereby identifying load-dependent regions of interest in the cerebellum, and then testing if these regions showed greater activation for degraded stimuli. Results yielded partial support for the sensory acquisition hypothesis in a load-dependent region of the vermis, which showed significantly greater activation for degraded relative to non-degraded stimuli. Because eye movements did not differ for these stimulus types, and degradation-related activations were present after co-varying eye movements, this activation appears to be related to perceptual rather than oculomotor demands. In contrast to the vermis, load-sensitive regions of the cerebellar hemispheres did not show increased activation for degraded stimuli. These findings point to an overall function of association-based prediction that may underlie general cerebellar function, with perceptual prediction of stimuli from partial representations occurring in the vermis, and articulatory prediction occurring in the hemispheres.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2245: 195-213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315204

RESUMO

Chondrocytes, the only cells in articular cartilage, are metabolically active and responsible for the turnover of extracellular matrix and maintenance of the tissue homeostasis. Changes in chondrocyte function can cause degradation of the matrix and loss of articular cartilage integrity, leading to development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). These changes are exemplified by accumulated mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. Because mitochondria are the critical organelles to produce energy and play a key role in cellular processes, the approaches to assess mitochondrial function under both physiological and pathological conditions enable us to uncover the mechanisms on how dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrocytes mediates signaling pathways that are involved in disturbance of cartilage homeostasis. In this chapter, we describe the methods to evaluate mitochondrial biogenesis, activity and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity in chondrocytes.

8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 394-402, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372492

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the commonly found heavy metal contaminants in soil and has a toxic effect on plants and humans. Understanding the Cd resistance of soil microorganisms under different fertilization regimes can provide a theoretical basis for controlling heavy metal pollution by organic fertilizers. In order to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the Cd resistance level of soil microorganisms, paddy soil samples were taken in Changzhou, Shanggao, and Fuzhou. A functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) was used to investigate the distribution of microbial Cd resistance genes. The results indicated that the content of available Cd in soil with organic fertilizer[(1.08±0.70) mg·kg-1] was significantly lower than that in soils with inorganic fertilizer[(3.75±1.22) mg·kg-1](P<0.05). A total of 639 Cd resistance genes were detected. The abundance of microbial Cd resistance gene in soil with organic fertilizer was higher than that of inorganic soil. The content of available Cd, moisture content, pH, and ammonium nitrogen were important environmental factors affecting the distribution of Cd resistant microorganisms. Analysis of the molecular ecological network of Cd resistant microorganisms showed that pH, moisture content, and the effective state of the Cd content were the main factors affecting the potential interaction of functional microorganisms with inorganic fertilizer, and the main factors were total potassium and moisture content with organic fertilizer. Compared with inorganic fertilizers, the application of organic fertilizers can improve the Cd resistance level of microorganisms in soil and promote positive relationships among Cd resistant soil microorganisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143943, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340855

RESUMO

The emerging contaminants gallium (Ga) and indium (In) are extensively used in advanced industries and are considered as toxic to humans. Limited information is available on the dynamics of Ga and In in soil-upland crop systems. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Ga and In on the growth and uptake of Ga and In by wheat plants grown in Ga- and In-contaminated soils. The wheat seedlings were planted in soils of different properties spiked with various Ga and In concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1). The plant-available Ga, In, and Al in the soils were extracted by 0.02 M CaCl2, and their concentrations in plant tissues of wheat seedlings and plant biomass were determined after harvesting. The results indicated that the Al toxicity of wheat seedlings increased with Ga and In concentrations in acidic soils. Indium phytotoxicity was found in both neutral and acidic soils. Plant analysis results indicated that the concentration of Ga and In in roots was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in the shoots of wheat seedlings, and the capability for Ga translocation from roots to shoots was higher than for In. The results of this study suggest that the dynamics of Ga and In in soil-upland crop systems is strongly dependent on the soil properties, such as pH and Al availability.


Assuntos
Gálio , Poluentes do Solo , Gálio/toxicidade , Humanos , Índio/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plântula/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum
10.
Front Oncol ; 10: 548692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262940

RESUMO

Background: The American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th classification states that colorectal cancer (CRC) is classified as N1c stage when regional lymph nodes (LNs) are negative and tumor deposits (TDs) are positive. However, how to classify TDs when regional LNs are positive remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of combining positive LNs and positive TDs to develop a modified pathological N (mpN) stage for CRC. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 9,198 patients with stage III CRC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program who underwent surgery (6,440 in the training cohort and 2,758 the validation cohort). The combination of positive LNs and TD status was defined as mpN stage. Overall survival (OS) according to mpN and pathological N (pN) stages was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The area under the curves (AUCs) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC) were applied to assess the predictive discrimination abilities and goodness-of-fit of the model. The clinical benefits were measured using decision curve analyses. The validation cohort was used to validate the results. Results: AUC analysis showed that the prognostic discrimination of mpN stage (AUC = 0.628, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.616-0.640) was better than that of pN stage (AUC = 0.618, 95% CI, 0.606-0.630, p = 0.006) for OS. The AIC demonstrated that mpN stage (AIC = 30,217) also showed superior model-fitting compared with pN stage (AIC = 30,257) and decision curve analyses revealed that mpN stage had better clinical benefits than pN stage. Similar results were found in the validation cohort. Conclusions: Among patients with CRC and LN metastasis, mpN stage might be superior to pN stage for assessing prognosis and survival, suggesting that TD status should be included in the pN stage.

11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 584430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330326

RESUMO

While machine learning approaches to analyzing Alzheimer disease connectome neuroimaging data have been studied, many have limited ability to provide insight in individual patterns of disease and lack the ability to provide actionable information about where in the brain a specific patient's disease is located. We studied a cohort of patients with Alzheimer disease who underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tractography imaging. These images were processed, and a structural and functional connectivity matrix was generated using the HCP cortical and subcortical atlas. By generating a machine learning model, individual-level structural and functional anomalies detection and characterization were explored in this study. Our study found that structural disease burden in Alzheimer's patients is mainly focused in the subcortical structures and the Default mode network (DMN). Interestingly, functional anomalies were less consistent between individuals and less common in general in these patients. More intriguing was that some structural anomalies were noted in all patients in the study, namely a reduction in fibers involving parcellations in the right anterior cingulate. Alternately, the functional consequences of connectivity loss were cortical and variable. Integrated structural/functional connectomics might provide a useful tool for assessing AD progression, while few concerns have been made for analyzing the mismatch between these two. We performed a preliminary exploration into a set of Alzheimer disease data, intending to improve a personalized approach to understanding individual connectomes in an actionable manner. Specifically, we found that there were consistent patterns of white matter fiber loss, mainly focused around the DMN and deep subcortical structures, which were present in nearly all patients with clinical AD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows abnormal functional connectivity different within the patients, which may be used as the individual target for further therapeutic strategies making, like non-invasive stimulation technology.

12.
J Integr Neurosci ; 19(4): 679-685, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378842

RESUMO

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common neurological complication, characterized by impaired learning and memory, that occurs after anesthesia and surgery, especially in elderly patients. The traditional Chinese medicine baicalin is known to have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we have investigated whether baicalin can improve postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats after splenectomy. A total of 60 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided, equally, into the splenectomy, sham operation (Sham), low-dose baicalin (Baicalin A), medium-dose baicalin (Baicalin B), and high-dose baicalin (Baicalin C) groups. Splenectomy was performed under anesthesia in all groups except for the Sham group, in which an appropriate concentration of saline was administered. The effects of baicalin on learning and memory were examined by the Y-maze behavioral experiments. Although splenectomy had a negative effect on cognitive function in the acute phase, all the rats spontaneously recovered on a postoperative day seven. Nonetheless, in the acute phase, the medium and high doses of baicalin slightly alleviated these effects of the procedure. The protein expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1ß was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Their levels were elevated in the acute phase but were returned to normal with the medium and high dose of baicalin. Real-time PCR analysis of the mRNA expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor TNF-α, which is known to be involved in long-term potentiation, revealed that baicalin promoted its transcription. Thus, the findings indicate that baicalin may improve postoperative cognitive memory dysfunction in postoperative cognitive dysfunction in rats via anti-inflammatory mechanisms and pathways that involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit.

13.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(10): 934-937, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382227

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs consisting of approximately 19-23 nucleotides and involved in many pathological and physiological processes by regulating post-transcriptional gene expressions. ED is one of the common male sexual dysfunctions seriously affecting the patient's quality of life, for which there is currently a lack of effective treatments clinically. More and more experiments have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the pathological process of different types of ED. This article presents an overview of the progress in the studies of the pathogenic role of miRNAs in ED.

14.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 93: 104310, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with dementia (PwD) are at greater risk for various adverse health outcomes, and the best care model remains to be determined. This study aimed to compare the physical and neurocognitive performance of PwD in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) and residential dementia care units. METHODS: This was a case-control study comparing outcomes between care recipients of PACE services (PC group) and residential dementia care (RC group). Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, physical function, cognitive function, mood status, and behavioral and psychotic symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) were assessed every 3-6 months in both groups, while frailty status and Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) performance were assessed every 6 months in the PC group only. RESULTS: Overall, 96 participants (PC group: 25, RC group: 71; mean age: 86.4 ± 6.8 years) were enrolled with the median follow-up period of 43.6 weeks. Lower incidence of hospital admissions was noted in the PC group (0.52 ± 1.12 vs 1.38 ± 2.49 admissions/1,000 person-days, p=0.023), even though the PC group had higher multimorbidity and more severe BPSDs. During the study period, the PC group showed a significant improvement in body mass index, less physical dependence, better cognitive performance and reduced depressive mood. In addition, the PC group showed improvement in frailty, leisure hour activities, and TUGT results. However, participants in the PC group were more likely to experience BPSD deterioration (ß coeff.: 0.193, 95% CI: 0.121- 0.265). CONCLUSION: The PACE services significantly reduced unexpected hospital admissions of PwD, facilitated the maintenance of physical independence, and improved cognitive performance and mood status. Further randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the most appropriate care model for PwD.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals often require gender-affirming interventions, such as endogenous sex hormone inhibition or gender affirming hormone therapy while there is discordance between their body and gender identity. However, a recent study found that the incidence of cardiovascular events is higher in transgender patients receiving cross-sex hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic effects of an altered sex hormone profile. METHODS: This retrospective study, conducted in a referral center in Northern Taiwan, analyzed metabolic changes over time in 65 trans masculine and 45 trans feminine persons. The transgender individuals were examined at four time points: before the gender affirming hormone therapy, as well as three, six, and twelve months following treatment. RESULTS: Compared to baseline measurements, the trans masculine patients showed significant increases in body mass index (22.6±0.3 vs. 23.3±0.4 kg/m2; p<0.001; t=3M), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (124.3±3.7 vs. 131.3±3.9 mg/dL; p=0.03; t=12M), creatinine (0.75±0.01 vs. 0.83±0.14 mg/dL; p<0.001; t=12M), and hemoglobin (13.5±0.7 vs. 15.2±0.2 g/dL; p<0.001; t=12M), as well as decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (57±2.1 vs. 51±2.0 mg/dL; p<0.001; t=12M). The trans feminine patients had reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (104.2±3.2 vs. 100.8±3.5 mg/dL; p=0.05; t=3M), hemoglobin (14.0±0.1 vs. 13.5±0.1 g/dL; p=0.008; t=12M), and creatinine (0.82±0.01 vs. 0.79±0.14 mg/dL; p<0.001; t=3M) compared to baseline data. In addition, most of these metabolic effects persisted during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: This observational, retrospective study revealed that gender affirming hormone therapy increased the relative cardiovascular risk in trans masculine individuals.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255612

RESUMO

Leaf area index (LAI) is used to predict crop yield, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide new ways to monitor LAI. In this study, we used a fixed-wing UAV with multispectral cameras for remote sensing monitoring. We conducted field experiments with two peanut varieties at different planting densities to estimate LAI from multispectral images and establish a high-precision LAI prediction model. We used eight vegetation indices (VIs) and developed simple regression and artificial neural network (BPN) models for LAI and spectral VIs. The empirical model was calibrated to estimate peanut LAI, and the best model was selected from the coefficient of determination and root mean square error. The red (660 nm) and near-infrared (790 nm) bands effectively predicted peanut LAI, and LAI increased with planting density. The predictive accuracy of the multiple regression model was higher than that of the single linear regression models, and the correlations between Modified Red-Edge Simple Ratio Index (MSR), Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and LAI were higher than the other indices. The combined VI BPN model was more accurate than the single VI BPN model, and the BPN model accuracy was higher. Planting density affects peanut LAI, and reflectance-based vegetation indices can help predict LAI.

17.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a devastating complication secondary to the radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. The nutritional status of ORN patients is compromised, but remains rarely studied. We aimed to evaluate the overall nutritional status of patients with ORN and explore the risk factors behind poor nutrition. METHODS: This is a single-institution cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with ORN were consecutively recruited in a tertiary teaching hospital from July 2017 to August 2019. Multiple laboratory markers and physical indicators were examined to profile their nutritional status. The potential risk factors of poor nutrition were explored by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with ORN were recruited. Among them, almost all patients (95.3%) had at least one laboratory marker lower than the normal physiological range. A total of 40 (37.5%) patients were categorized as undernutrition, who had lower serum albumin (mean difference: 1.8 ± 0.8 g/L; p = .02), prealbumin (mean difference: 26.8 ± 10.8 mg/L; p = .02), and BMI (3.8 ± 0.4 kg/m2 ; p < .0001) compared to patients of normal nutrition. Notably, the multivariate logistic regression indicated that patients with semi-liquid diet had 14.41 (95% CI: 3.03-68.54, p = .001) times; patients with liquid diet had 5.70 (95% CI: 1.55-20.98, p = .009) times more likely to be in undernutrition, as compared to patients with regular diets. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study characterizing the poor nutritional status in ORN patients. Patients having semi-liquid or liquid diets tended to have poorer nutritional status. The nutritional status of ORN patients should be underlined for professional nutritional supports so as to enhance their quality of life. More studies are warranted.

18.
Artif Organs ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of artificial liver blood purification treatment on the survival of severe/critical patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 101 severe and critical patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in this open, case-control, multicentre, prospective study. According to the patients' and their families' willingness, they were divided into two groups. One was named the treatment group, in which the patients received artificial liver therapy plus comprehensive treatment, while the other was named the control group, in which the patients received only comprehensive treatment. Clinical data and laboratory examinations, as well as the 28-day mortality rate, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: This study involved 101 severe/critical patients with COVID-19, among which 50 were in the treatment group and 51 were in the control group. Baseline data comparisons on average age, sex, pre-treatment morbidity, initial symptoms, vital signs, pneumonia severity index (PSI) score, blood routine examination and biochemistry indices et al. showed no difference between the two groups. Cytokine storm was detected, with a significant increase of serum IL-6 level. The serum IL-6 level decreased from 119.94 pg/mL to 20.49 pg/mL in the treatment group and increased from 40.42 pg/mL to 50.81 pg/mL in the control group (p<0.05), indicating that artificial liver therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6. The median duration of viral nucleic acid persistence was 19 days in the treatment group (ranging from 6-67 days) and 17 days in the control group (ranging from 3-68 days), no significant difference was observed (p=0.36). As of 28-day follow-up,17 patients in the treatment group experienced a median weaning time of 24 days, while 11 patients in the control group experienced a median weaning time of 35 days, with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.33). The 28-day mortality rates were 16% (8/50) in the treatment group and 50.98% (26/51) in the control group, with a significant difference (z=3.70, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Cytokine storm is a key factor in the intensification of COVID-19 pneumonia. The artificial liver therapy blocks the cytokine storm by clearing inflammatory mediators, thus preventing severe cases from progressing to critically ill stages and markedly reducing short-term mortality.

19.
Front Oncol ; 10: 543646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194602

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the optimal treatment pattern in patients with de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We assessed 502 consecutive and unselected de novo metastatic NPC patients in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) from November 2006 to October 2016 in our study. All patients were treated with palliative chemotherapy (PCT) and 308 patients received locoregional radiotherapy (LRRT) subsequently. Our primary study endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: The patients treated with LRRT were associated with improved survival on univariate analysis (3-year OS rate 63.7% vs. 31.8%, P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR 0.52, 95%CI 0.40-0.68, P < 0.001). The overall survival benefit of more than 4 PCT cycles was significant in female (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, P = 0.016) and patients with multiple metastatic sites (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26-0.66, P < 0.001). The application of concurrent chemotherapy (CCT) was not associated with better survival among patients receiving LRRT (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.92-1.86, P = 0.141). Conclusion: LRRT prolonged survival in de novo metastatic NPC. For patients treated with multiple metastatic sites, more than 4 cycles of PCT is necessary. CCT does not improve survival in de novo metastatic NPC patients.

20.
Environ Res ; : 110383, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137313

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of the environmental fate of Pb depends on the understanding of Pb coordination to mineral surfaces. Here, the proton and Pb adsorption and speciation on hematite nanocrystals with different exposed crystallographic facets were investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images revealed that hematite nanoplates (HNP) were of 75.3 ± 9.5% (001) facets and 24.6 ± 9.3% (012) facets, while hematite nanocubes (HNC) were of 76.0 ± 11.1% (012) facets and 24.0 ± 3.2% (110) facets. Our modeling results revealed that the proton affinity constant (log KH) of ≡FeOH-0.5 and ≡Fe3O-0.5 was 7.8 and 10.8 on hematite (012) facets, and changed to 7.7 and 11.7 on (110) facets, respectively. Owing to the different atomic arrangements, (012) facets not only have higher adsorption performance for Pb, but also present a greater dependence on pH than (110) facets. Additionally, our modeling further indicated that (012) facets bind Pb via both bidentate and tridentate complexes, while (110) facets bind Pb only through bidentate complexes at pH 3.0-6.5. These results facilitate a more detailed understanding of the complex species of Pb on hematite surface while also provide new insight into the reactivity mechanism of individual hematite facets.

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