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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 44-49, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes


No disponible

2.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2793-2799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293880

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the impact of eye exercises of acupoints on myopic progression among Chinese urban students. Methods: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) was a three-year cohort study, with 386 students (aged 6-17 years) enrolled at baseline. These students were invited to be reexamined in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013. The student's cycloplegic refraction at each visit and the parental non-cycloplegic refraction at baseline were performed. Students were also required to complete the eye exercise of acupoints questionnaire and the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS). Results: At the final follow-up, 226 students (57.2%) with complete refraction and eye exercises questionnaire data were enrolled in the present study. In the multivariate analysis, only students who performed the eye exercises twice or more per day had less myopic refractive change (ß=0.32, p=0.04), as compared to those who performed the eye exercises less than twice per day. No significant association was found between the CISS score and the refractive change for items in the eye exercises questionnaire. Conclusion: In this study cohort, the Chinese eye exercises of acupoints had a modest effect on reducing myopic progression among Chinese urban students aged 6 to 17 years. The precise mechanism remains unclear, especially in the absence of a control group.

3.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(9): 701-707, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106215

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Patients from the Fushun Diabetic Retinopathy Cohort Study (FS-DIRECT), a community-based prospective cohort study conducted in northeast China, were included in this study. The presence and severity of DR were determined by grading fundus photographs according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinopathy scale. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were recorded using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using an iCare rebound tonometer. MOPP was calculated using the formula MOPP = 2/3 [DBP + 1/3 (SBP - DBP)] - IOP. Results: In total, 1,857 patients who had gradable fundus photography and MOPP data were enrolled in this study. Male patients had a higher MOPP than female patients (52.25 ± 8.75 vs. 50.96 ± 8.74 mmHg, P = 0.002). Overall, both male and female patients with any type of DR, non-proliferative DR (NPDR), or non-sight-threatening DR (non-STDR) had significantly higher MOPP relative to patients without DR. Increased MOPP (per 1 mmHg) was in turn associated with the presence of any type of DR [odds ratio ( OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval ( CI) : 1.02-1.04], NPDR ( OR= 1.03 95% CI: 1.02-1.04), and non-STDR ( OR= 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04) after adjusting for confounders. Increased MOPP (per 1 mmHg) was also associated with an increased likelihood of macular edema ( OR= 1.02 , 95% CI: 1.01-1.04). Conclusions: The results suggest that increased MOPP was associated with DR and macular edema in northeastern Chinese patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Optom ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes.

5.
Ophthalmic Res ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between the corneal biomechanical parameters and visual field (VF) loss in patients with asymmetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: A total of 89 POAG patients (50 males, 56.2%) with asymmetric VF loss, aged 65.2 ± 13.3 years old, were enrolled in this study. Asymmetric VF loss was defined as an interocular difference of the global index mean deviation (MD) >2dB. Intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal biomechanical parameters such as maximum amplitude at the apex of highest concavity (Def ampl HC) were measured. The worse eye was defined as the eye with a smaller MD. RESULTS: The worse eyes had lower MD (-11.9 ± 6.7 dB vs. -5.3 ± 5.0 dB; P<0.001) and higher IOP (14.6 ± 3.3 vs.13.9 ± 2.6 mmHg, P=0.04) than the better eyes. There was no significant difference between the two groups for CCT. The interocular difference of MD (IDMD) was negatively correlated with the interocular difference of IOP (r=-0.22, P=0.04), while positively correlated with the interocular difference of Def ampl HC (r=0.27, P=0.01). In patients with moderate asymmetric VF loss (IDMD ≥6 dB), the Def ampl HC of the worse eyes group (1.07 ± 0.12 mm) were significantly lower than the better eyes group (1.10 ± 0.11 mm, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Asymmetric POAG was associated with asymmetry in IOP and corneal biomechanical parameters but not in CCT. Lower deflection amplitude and higher IOP was found in eyes with more severe visual field damage in POAG patients.

6.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(7): 1115-1123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685401

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding eye-care seeking practices of visually impaired adults in a rural area Yueqing, and explore factors influencing their behavior. METHODS: A stratified sampling method was used to select 48 villages in Yueqing, from which 2400 people were selected to receive vision screenings conducted by oculists during a household visit. Those presenting visual acuity ≥0.5 logMAR in either eye completed a self-designed questionnaire investigating their knowledge about medical eye-care seeking, attitudes about eye health and eye-care-seeking behavior. RESULTS: Totally 165 people with moderate-to-severe visual impairment were identified (6.9%, 165/2400), and 146 eligible participants were recruited (response rate: 88.4%, mean age: 68.6±15.0y), among which 88 (60.3%) were female. They had 82 (56.2%) and 64 (43.8%) monocular and binocular visual impairments respectively. A total of 67 (45.9%) subjects demonstrated a high knowledge level about medical eye-care seeking and 88 (60.3%) had self-rated poor vision, with 23 (15%) receiving regular vision checks. The 105 (71.9%) subjects had never been to hospital for an eye examination. "No need" and "schedule conflicts" were the main reasons for not seeking eye care. Having extensive knowledge of medical eye-care seeking was positively associated with high education levels (OR=3.73, P=0.045) and negatively correlated with older age (OR=0.97, P=0.043). Both the self-perceived vision condition (OR=2.59, P=0.03) and regular vision check behavior (OR=6.50, P<0.01) were related with seeking eye care services. CONCLUSION: In rural Yueqing, intervention is required to increase public knowledge about seeking medical eye care among people with moderate-to-severe visual impairment, especially for the elderly and poorly education. Regular vision checks may be useful to promote their medical eye-care utilization.

7.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 17(4): 1479164120940988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between high myopia and diabetic retinopathy, and its possible mechanism, in a northeastern Chinese population with type 2 diabetic mellitus. METHODS: Patients were included from Fushun Diabetic Retinopathy Cohort Study. High myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of autorefraction less than -5D. RESULTS: A total of 1817 patients [688 (37.9%) diabetic retinopathy, 102 (5.6%) high myopia] were included. Compared to eyes without high myopia, the frequency of diabetic retinopathy and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was significantly less in eyes with high myopia (23.5% vs 38.7%, p = 0.002; 22.5% vs 35.3%, p = 0.005). Eyes with high myopia were less likely to have diabetic retinopathy (multivariate odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.22-0.68) or non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.23-0.70). High myopia was negatively associated with central retinal venular equivalent (multivariate ß, 95% confidence interval: -37.1, -42.3 to -31.8, p < 0.001). Furthermore, central retinal venular equivalent (per 10 µm increase) had a significant association with diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 1.17-1.31) as well as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 1.18-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: High myopia was negatively associated with both diabetic retinopathy and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in this northeastern Chinese population. This protective effect may have been partially achieved via thinning retinal veins.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Veia Retiniana/patologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/patologia , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(4): 305-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253840

RESUMO

To investigate associations between central visual function and inner retinal structure in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This study enrolled 78 POAG patients and 58 healthy controls. POAG was classified into early glaucoma and moderate to advanced glaucoma. The following tests were performed on all participants: isolated-check visual evoked potential (icVEP) testing, 24-2 standard automated perimetry (SAP), and Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measures obtained from icVEP responses to isolated checks presented at four depths of modulation (DOMs; 8%, 14%, 22%, and 32%) were explored. Mean macular sensitivity (mMS) was assessed by calculating the mean sensitivities of central 12 SAP points. Ganglion cell layer+ inner plexiform layer thickness (GCL+IPLT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT) were measured by OCT scanning. For each group of subjects, linear relationships among the following measures were analyzed: SNR, mMS, GCL+IPLT, and pRNFLT. SNR, mMS, GCL+IPLT, and pRNFLT were all more significantly decreased in glaucoma than in controls (P<0.001). A significant positive association was found between SNR at 14% DOM and GCL+IPLT at the inferior sector in early glaucoma (r=0.465, P=0.004). In moderate to advanced glaucoma, significant correlations were found between SNR at 32% DOM and mean GCL+IPLT (r=0.364, P=0.023), superior GCL+IPLT (r=0.358, P=0.025), and mean pRNFLT (r=0.396, P=0.025). In addition, in moderate to advanced glaucoma, there were significant correlations between mMS and all relevant measures of retinal thickness (r=0.330-0.663, P< 0.010). In early glaucoma, significant correlations were found between mean mMS and minimum GCL+IPLT (r=0.373, P=0.023), and between inferior mMS and superior GCL+IPLT (r=0.470, P=0.003). Linear models provided a good explanation for the relationship between SNR and inner retinal thickness (IRT), whereas nonlinear models better explained the relationship between mMS and IRT. In early glaucoma, both SNR and mMS were related moderately and significantly to IRT, whereas in moderate to advanced glaucoma, mMS was more strongly correlated with IRT than SNR.

9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(1): 73-82, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722595

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the rationale, design, methodology and baseline characteristics of Fushun Diabetic Retinopathy Cohort Study (FS-DIRECT), a community-based prospective cohort study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) living in northeast China.Methods: Patients with T2DM, aged 30 years and above from communities of Fushun city, Liaoning province, China, were recruited. The presence and severity of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) were determined by a modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinopathy scale of 6 fields fundus photographs. Detailed ocular examinations and questionnaires were collated, in addition to blood and urine sample collection.Results: Of the 2224 subjects eligible for the FS-DIRECT, 2033 (91.4%) participated in the study. The majority of participants were female (58.9%), the average age was 62.1 ± 9.1 years. The overall prevalence rates of DR, non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and vision-threatening retinopathy were 44.3%, 40.0%, 4.3%, 15.2%, and 12.3%, respectively. Compared to the patients without DR, patients with DR had lower income, an earlier onset of diabetes, a longer duration of diabetes, higher proportion of insulin use, higher fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein, as well as a higher level of urine protein (all P < .05).Conclusion: The baseline data of FS-DIRECT showed a high prevalence of DR in a community of northeast China. Further investigation will provide key information about the risk factors, impact, and trends of DR in this region.

10.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 1607064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885881

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the axial length difference (ALD) and the estimated generational axial length shift (ALS) from parents to their children and its risk factors in urban and rural China. Methods: Participants were enrolled from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) and the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Ocular biometry was performed in both parents and their children. ALD was defined as the difference between the children's axial length and the corresponding parental axial length. Generational ALS was estimated according to a binominal prediction model at 18 years of age. Results: 237 and 380 urban and rural Chinese children (6-17 years) and their parents from the BMPS and HOMS, respectively, were enrolled. Children's axial length was estimated to be closest to the parental axial length at 11 and 9 years of age in the urban and rural areas, respectively; the estimated generational ALS would be 1.53 and 0.57 mm, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that older children (urban ß = 0.26, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.11, p < 0.001) and males had larger ALD (urban ß = 0.55, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.52, p < 0.001) in both areas. Furthermore, urban children with more educated parents (fathers: ß = -0.30, p=0.002; mothers: ß = -0.29, p=0.004) and more outdoor activity (ß = -0.23, p=0.006) had a less ALD. Conclusions: The urban generational axial length shift was estimated to be approximately 1 mm longer than that of the rural area. These results suggest different environmental effects on the ocular development in these two populations of Chinese children.

12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 17(1): 203, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The near work and outdoor activity are the most important environmental risk factors for myopia. However, data from Chinese rural children are relatively rare and remain controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of both near work and outdoor activities with refractive error in rural children in China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 572 (65.1%) of 878 children (6-18 years of age) were included from the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Information from the parents on these children, as well as the parent's non-cycloplegic refraction, were obtained from the database of the Handan Eye Study conducted in the years 2006-2007. A comprehensive vision examination, including cycloplegic refraction, and a related questionnaire, were assessed on all children. RESULTS: The overall time spent on near work and outdoor activity in the children was 4.8 ± 1.6 and 2.9 ± 1.4 h per day, respectively. Myopic children spent more time on near work (5.0 ± 1.7 h vs.4.7 ± 1.6 h, p = 0.049), while no significant difference was found in outdoor activity hours (2.8 ± 1.3 h vs. 3.0 ± 1.4 h, p = 0.38), as compared to non-myopic children. In the multiple logistic analysis, in general, no association between near work and myopia was found after adjusting for the children's age, gender, parental refractive error, parental educational level, and daily outdoor activity hours [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 0.94-1.27]. However, a weak protective effect of the outdoor activity on myopia was found (OR, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.70-0.96), after adjusting for similar confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In general, no association between near work and myopia was found, except for the high near work subgroup with moderate outdoor activity levels. A weak protective effect of outdoor activity on myopia in Chinese rural children was observed.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Miopia/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Ophthalmol ; 2017: 2761301, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) with trabeculectomy as an initial treatment for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) ≥ 6 clock hours. METHODS: Patients were drawn from two randomized controlled trials. 38 eyes of 38 patients (PAS ≥ 6 clock hours) were treated with LPI (group 1) while 111 eyes of 111 PACG patients (PAS ≥ 6 clock hours) underwent primary trabeculectomy (group 2). All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination at baseline and at postoperative visits and were followed up for a minimum of one year. RESULTS: Group 2 had higher baseline IOP (45.7 ± 14.8 mmHg versus 34.3 ± 14.3 mmHg) than group 1 and more clock hours of PAS (10.4 ± 1.9 versus 9.0 ± 2.2). IOPs at all postoperative visits were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p = 0.000). Five eyes in group 1 required trabeculectomy. 17 of the 38 eyes in group 1 (44.7%) required IOP-lowering medications as compared to seven of the 111 eyes in group 2 (6.3%). Cataract progression was documented in 2 eyes (5.3%) in group 1 and 16 eyes (14.4%) in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Primary trabeculectomy for PACG (PAS ≥ 6 clock hours) is more effective than LPI in lowering IOP.

14.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 135(2): 107-119, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of isolated-check visual evoked potentials (icVEP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Ninety POAG patients and sixty-six healthy controls were recruited consecutively. All subjects underwent icVEP and visual field testing. Swept icVEP response functions were obtained by increasing contrast in six stimulus steps, recording the electroencephalogram synchronized to the stimulus display's frame rate and calculating the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the response at the fundamental frequency to evaluate visual function. Depth of modulation of the check luminance was increased as follows: 2, 4, 8, 14, 22 and 32%, about an equal level of standing contrast, so that the pattern appeared and disappeared at a frequency of 10.0 Hz. SNR above 0.85 was deemed to be significant at the 0.1 level and SNR above 1 significant at the 0.05 level. RESULTS: The results show that SNR is contrast dependent. It significantly rose as contrast increased. The areas under receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUCs) indicating classification accuracy for all POAG cases in comparison with normal subjects were 0.790 (sensitivity 91.1%, specificity 69.7%) with the cutoff SNR of 0.85, and 0.706 (sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 51.5%) with the cutoff SNR of 1. The AUC of early glaucoma cases (EG) in comparison with normal subjects was 0.801 (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 69.7%) with the cutoff SNR of 0.85, and 0.717 (sensitivity 97.8%, specificity 51.5%) with the cutoff SNR of 1. CONCLUSION: icVEP has good diagnostic accuracy (high sensitivity and moderate specificity) in distinguishing early POAG patients from healthy subjects. It might be a promising device to use in conjunction with complementary functional and structural measures for early POAG detection.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
15.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 37(4): 489-497, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503812

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with the progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. METHODS: A total of 386 children aged 6-17 years were enrolled in the baseline investigation of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study in 2010. They were invited for follow-up vision examinations in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, including cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%, three times) autorefraction. We investigated the difference between the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) and the non-cycloplegic SE (DSE) provided by autorefraction and its association with refractive error progression. The progression of refractive error was defined as the difference between the cycloplegic SE at follow-up and at baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen children (57%) with completed refractive data (mean ± standard deviation: -1.36 ± 2.44 D at baseline) were ultimately enrolled. The DSE reduced from 0.51 ± 0.72 D at baseline to 0.19 ± 0.43 D in the third year of follow-up (p = 0.01). The baseline DSE was positively associated with the children's baseline cycloplegic refraction (ß = 0.193 dioptre dioptre-1 , p < 0.001). After further divided by refractive status, the DSE was consistently higher in the hyperopic group than in either the emmetropic or myopic groups at each follow-up (all p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, the myopic children with larger baseline DSE (ß = -0.404 dioptre dioptre-1 , p = 0.01) exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, baseline DSE was not found to be a significant risk factor (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 0.79-1.41) for those with newly developed myopia. CONCLUSION: In this sample, the children's DSE was found to be increased as the hyperopic refraction increased. Furthermore, greater the DSE was associated with the progression of refractive error among the myopic children, but not with the onset of myopia.


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas , Refração Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(16): 4189-4194, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28373541

RESUMO

Indigenous Tibetan people have lived on the Tibetan Plateau for millennia. There is a long-standing question about the genetic basis of high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans. We conduct a genome-wide study of 7.3 million genotyped and imputed SNPs of 3,008 Tibetans and 7,287 non-Tibetan individuals of Eastern Asian ancestry. Using this large dataset, we detect signals of high-altitude adaptation at nine genomic loci, of which seven are unique. The alleles under natural selection at two of these loci [methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and EPAS1] are strongly associated with blood-related phenotypes, such as hemoglobin, homocysteine, and folate in Tibetans. The folate-increasing allele of rs1801133 at the MTHFR locus has an increased frequency in Tibetans more than expected under a drift model, which is probably a consequence of adaptation to high UV radiation. These findings provide important insights into understanding the genomic consequences of high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Tibet
17.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 24(6): 388-393, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the myopigenic activity change and its risk factors in urban students in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 241 primary or secondary students aged 6-17 years from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were re-examined 3 years after their baseline enrollment. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess myopigenic activities at both baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Altogether, 217 students (90.0%) with completed data were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, primary students (n = 123) had significant increases in outdoor sports time (mean ± standard deviation: 3.5 ± 4.3 vs. 2.4 ± 3.0 hours/week, p = 0.02), near work time (32.1 ± 13.4 vs. 24.8 ± 9.2 hours/week, p < 0.001), diopter hours (128.8 ± 53.3 vs. 97.5 ± 35.9 diopter hours/week, p < 0.001), and indoor time (53.8 ± 22.8 vs. 41.4 ± 16.9 hours/week, p < 0.001) at the 3-year follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up, females spent less time than males on outdoor sports (baseline: 2.4 ± 2.8 vs. 4.0 ± 5.2 hours/week, p = 0.006; follow-up: 2.3 ± 3.1 vs. 5.1 ± 5.0 hours/week, p < 0.001), and total outdoors (baseline: 11.9 ± 7.9 vs. 14.4 ± 9.5 hours/week, p = 0.03; follow-up: 10.5 ± 8.2 vs. 13.9 ± 9.6 hours/week, p = 0.005). In the multivariate regression analysis after adjustment by student's gender, younger students had more increase in both near work time (slope = -0.99 hours/week for age, p = 0.009) and indoor time (slope = -2.04 hours/week for age, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the 3-year follow-up, primary students had more myopigenic activities. Female students had more myopigenic activities than males at both baseline and follow-up. Children's age was a significant risk factor for this myopigenic activity change.


Assuntos
Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Estudantes , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 101(12): 1638-1642, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450379

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the incidence of Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) in Lucheng District, Wenzhou, China, over a 10-year period. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of all inpatient and outpatient patients diagnosed with PSS during the years 2005-2014 in the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The keywords of 'glaucomatocyclitic crisis', 'Posner-Schlossman syndrome' and 'PSS' were used for the retrieval. Only patients with registered residing address in Lucheng District where the hospital located were finally selected. The cumulative incidence and annual incidence of PSS were calculated based on the sum of household registered population and temporary resident population in Lucheng District. RESULTS: A total of 576 patients with PSS (339 men and 237 women) met the retrieval criteria. The mean age of these subjects at the first clinic visit was 40±15 years. Intraocular pressure (IOP) of the initial record was 31.91±15.37 mm Hg. The 10-year cumulative incidence of PSS in Lucheng District was 39.53 per 100 000 population, whereas the mean annual incidence of PSS in this area was 3.91 per 100 000 population. The majority of these patients were aged 20-59 years (83.9%). Men showed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of PSS than women (p=0.010). Higher rate of newly onset cases was found in spring (31%) than in other seasons (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a relatively high incidence of PSS in Wenzhou, a southeastern city in China. Young, male adults are prone to be affected in spring. However, the aetiology and other risk factors are still waited to be clarified.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/epidemiologia , Pressão Intraocular , Iridociclite/epidemiologia , Uveíte Intermediária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/complicações , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Iridociclite/complicações , Iridociclite/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Síndrome , Tonometria Ocular , Uveíte Intermediária/complicações , Uveíte Intermediária/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 4: 6, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286786

RESUMO

Glaucoma is the first leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide with increasing importance in public health. Indicators of glaucoma care quality as well as efficiency would benefit public health assessments, but are lacking. We propose three such indicators. First, the glaucoma coverage rate (GCR), which is the number of people known to have glaucoma divided by the total number of people with glaucoma as estimated from population-based studies multiplied by 100%. Second, the glaucoma detection rate (GDR), which is number of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients in one year divided by the population in a defined area in millions. Third, the glaucoma follow-up adherence rate (GFAR), calculated as the number of patients with glaucoma who visit eye care provider(s) at least once a year over the total number of patients with glaucoma in given eye care provider(s) in a specific period. Regularly tracking and reporting these three indicators may help to improve the healthcare system performance at national or regional levels.

20.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 10(1): 77-80, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28149781

RESUMO

AIM: To report the outcomes of anterior vitrectomy using high speed cutter for scleral fixated intraocular lens (SFIOL) implantation in patients with posterior capsular rupture. METHODS: Medical records of 51 patients with posterior capsular rupture who received high speed cutter anterior vitrectomy via limbal incision with SFIOL implantation from June 2011 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively for visual outcomes and complications. RESULTS: Totally 51 eyes of 51 patients were identified (23 males and 28 females). Mean age at surgery was 67.2±15y (range 27-91y), with mean follow-up of 23±8.2mo (range 12-40mo). The 49 (96.1%) eyes had improvement or unchanged of final postoperative visual acuity. The most common complication was vitreous haemorrhage (5.9%) and transient rise in intraocular pressure (5.9%) which all spontaneously resolved. CONCLUSION: High speed cutter anterior vitrectomy via limbal incision is a safe and effective method for those with posterior capsular rupture for SFIOL implantation.

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