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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 242: 109706, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several therapies and interventions to reduce drinking first target drink-refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) to influence drinking behavior. While higher self-efficacy scores are correlated with better outcomes, it is unclear that increased self-efficacy is the causative step leading to improved outcomes. Instead, this correlation may result from reduced drinking that increased self-efficacy. The current study sought to understand how changes in drinking behavior can influence DRSE. METHODS: Data were from 211 driving while intoxicated (DWI) arrestees participating in an 8-week contingency management (CM) study to reduce drinking. Some of participants were mandated by the courts to wear transdermal alcohol monitoring devices (Mandated group) and some were not mandated (Non Mandated group). All wore a transdermal alcohol monitor during the 8-week study and were randomized to CM or a Control condition stratified by the mandate group. Participants completed weekly assessments of DRSE. Group-based trajectory-modeling identified three drinking behavior trajectory groups. RESULTS: While there were no differences in baseline DRSE between the three trajectory groups, participants in the low- and moderate-frequency drinking behavior groups significantly increased DRSE across the study. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that being able to maintain abstinence or reduce heavy drinking may increase DRSE.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dirigir sob a Influência , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Etanol , Terapia Comportamental
2.
Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm ; 8: 100201, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457714

RESUMO

Background: The mobile integrated health-community paramedicine (MIH-CP) program affiliated with the University of Maryland Medical Center focuses on improving patient transitions from hospital to home by addressing both medical and social determinants of health. Until recently, only self-contained health systems could integrate inpatient and outpatient medication data. Without some means to track patients in transition, there is a significant risk of medication-related problems and errors. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the MIH-CP program on medication adherence among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: This is a pilot observational study designed to compare adherence to drug regimens prescribed at hospital discharge (measured by the proportion of days covered [PDC]) between patients enrolled in the MIH-CP program and a propensity-matched control group. Propensity scores were calculated using 11 demographic, diagnostic, third-party payer, and patient care-associated variables. Discharge medication details were obtained from electronic medical records. PDC for each of the medications were calculated from pharmacy claims data. Results: Eighty-three patients were included in the study; forty-three patients were placed in the intervention group and 40 were propensity-matched controls. After adjusting for age, sex, and third-party payer, findings indicated that medication adherence was higher among patients enrolled in the MIH-CP program compared with control during the first 30 days post-discharge, specifically among patients diagnosed with CHF (8% difference in PDC, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12-0.28%) and COPD (14% difference, 95% CI, -0.15-0.43%), although neither result achieved statistical significance. The differences in medication adherence between patients who were enrolled and those who were not enrolled in the MIH-CP program diminished after 30 days post-discharge. Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated a trend toward improved medication adherence among patients enrolled in the MIH-CP program. Future research involving a larger patient cohort will be required to confirm these preliminary findings.

3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1446-1454, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that may be used as potential biomarkers of sensitivity to antiretroviral therapy (ART) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHOD: A two-stage matched case-control study was conducted. First, in the screening stage, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of six subjects receiving lamivudine-based ART (3 ART-resistant and 3 ART-sensitive subjects with matching durations of ART) were subjected to comprehensive microarray expression profiling in order to screen out lncRNAs associated with ART sensitivity. Secondly, during the validation stage, promising lncRNAs were evaluated via a 1:4 matched case-control study using 50 subjects (10 ART-resistant and 40 ART-sensitive subjects with matching durations of ART). RESULTS: Seven lncRNAs were screened out (P < 1.06 × 10-3) in the first stage. Among these, two lncRNAs (n341598 and n407911) survived validation conducted at the second stage (n341598: P < 0.001; n407911: P = 0.007), while another lncRNA n406445 showed marginally significant (P = 0.049). All three showed higher expression in ART-resistant subjects compared to that in ART-sensitive subjects. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for n341598 was 0.867 (95 % CI: 0.796-0.966; P < 0.001), which was better than that for n406445 (0.702) and n407911 (0.780). Meanwhile, the AUC for n341598 was better than that of any combination of the three lncRNAs. CONCLUSION: Our study identified three highly expressed lncRNAs in patients with HIV ART-resistant, among which the lncRNA n341598 may be utilized as an optimal biomarker to distinguish ART-resistant and ART-sensitive patients. Further studies aimed at revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ART sensitivity by n341598 are warranted to complement our findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Área Sob a Curva
4.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-26, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Test a culturally tailored obesity prevention intervention in low-income, minority preschool-age children. DESIGN: A three-group clustered randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Twelve Head Start Centers were randomly assigned to a center-based intervention, a combined center- and home-based intervention, or control using a 1:1:1 ratio. The center-based intervention modified center physical activity and nutrition policies, staff practices, and child behaviors, while the home-based intervention supported parents for obesity prevention at home. STUDY OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint was change in children's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) at posttest immediately following completion of the 8-month intervention. Secondary endpoints included standardized scores for BMI (BMIz) and body weight (WAZ), and BMI percentiles (BMI pctl). PARTICIPANTS: Three-year-old children enrolled in Head Start in San Antonio, Texas, with written parent consent (N=325), 87% Latino; 57% female with mean age (SD) of 3.58 years (0.29). RESULTS: Change in BMI at posttest was 1.28 (0.97), 1.28 (0.87), and 1.41 (0.71) in the center+home-based intervention, center-based intervention, and control, respectively. There was no significant difference in BMI change between center+home-based intervention and control or center-based intervention and control at posttest. BMIz (adjusted difference -0.12 [95% CI, -0.24 to 0.01], p = .06) and WAZ (adjusted difference, -0.09 [-0.17 to -0.002], p = .04) were reduced for children in center+home-based intervention compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in BMI at posttest in children who received the intervention. Findings shed light on methodological challenges in childhood obesity research and offer future directions to explore health equity-oriented obesity prevention.

5.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930221140792, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lacunar stroke accounts for a quarter of all strokes, but little is known about the underlying pathological mechanisms. Analysis of serum metabolites may allow better understanding of the underlying biological processes. Mendelian randomization (MR) can provide information on the causality of associations. AIMS: To identify causal relationships between serum metabolites and lacunar stroke. METHODS: We applied a two-sample MR analysis to evaluate relationships between 486 serum metabolites and lacunar stroke. The inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was used to estimate the causal relationship of the exposure on the outcome, while sensitivity analyses were performed using MR-Egger, weighted median, and MR-PRESSO to eliminate the pleiotropy. We also performed a metabolic pathway analysis to identify potential metabolic pathways. RESULTS: We identified 15 known (8 risk and 7 protective) and 14 unknown serum metabolites associated with lacunar stroke. Among the known risk metabolites, two were lipids (1-linoleoylglycerophosphoethanolamine and dihomo-linolenate (20:3n3 or n6)), five amino acids (kynurenine, isobutyrylcarnitine, aspartate, trans-4-hydroxyproline, and 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate), and one peptide (ADSGEGDFXAEGGGVR). The known protective metabolites included four lipids (4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1, 1-palmitoleoylglycerophosphocholine, adrenate (22:4n6), and glycodeoxycholate), one amino acid (methionine), and two exogenous metabolites (homostachydrine and 2-methoxyacetaminophen sulfate). Metabolic pathway analysis identified several pathways that might be involved in the disease. CONCLUSION: We identified eight risk and seven protective human serum metabolites associated with lacunar stroke. Isobutyrylcarnitine was positively associated with an increased risk of lacunar stroke. In addition, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate and aspartate may be involved in the disease pathogenesis through metabolic pathways.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 223(Pt A): 327-334, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343835

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel ionogel with semi-interpenetrating poly (ionic liquids)/xanthan gum (PIL/XG) polymer network (semi-IPN) was prepared by using a simple one-pot method. The structure and the pressure sensing performance have been systematically investigated. It was found that introducing a low content (0.3-3.1 wt%) of XG significantly promoted the mechanical performance of ionogels with little effect on the ionic conductivity. The optimized PIL/XG containing 2.2 wt% XG exhibited high compression strength (761.0 kPa) and ionic conductivity (0.63 S/m at 25 °C). Such ionogels showed a liner response (0-100 kPa) and high sensitivity value of 6.86 kPa-1 in a capacitive mode. Meanwhile, as a resistive sensor, PIL/XG exhibited a wide response range to dynamic pressure ranges with stable repeatability. Furthermore, this ionogel exhibited excellent bactericidal properties against both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. This research provides a potential approach for developing ionogels based on semi-IPN with pressure-sensitive and anti-bacterial properties.

7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid conjugate vaccines are being introduced in low-income and middle-income countries to prevent typhoid illness in children. Vaccine effectiveness studies assess vaccine performance after introduction. The test-negative design is a commonly used method to estimate vaccine effectiveness that has not been applied to typhoid vaccines because of concerns over blood culture insensitivity. The overall aim of the study was to evaluate the appropriateness of using a test-negative design to assess typhoid Vi polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) effectiveness using a gold standard randomised controlled trial database. METHODS: Using blood culture data from a randomised controlled trial of Vi-TT in Malawi, we simulated a test-negative design to derive vaccine effectiveness estimates using three different approaches and compared these to randomised trial efficacy results. In the randomised trial, 27 882 children aged 9 months to 12 years were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-TT or meningococcal capsular group A conjugate vaccine between Feb 21 and Sept 27, 2018, and were followed up for blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever until Sept 30, 2021. FINDINGS: For all three test-negative design approaches, vaccine effectiveness estimates (test-negative design A, 80·3% [95% CI 66·2 to 88·5] vs test-negative design B, 80·5% [66·5 to 88·6] vs test-negative design C, 80·4% [66·9 to 88·4]) were almost identical to the randomised trial results (80·4% [95% CI 66·4 to 88·5]). Receipt of Vi-TT did not affect the risk of non-typhoid fever (vaccine efficacy against non-typhoid fever -0·4% [95% CI -4·9 to 3·9] vs -1% [-5·6 to 3·3] vs -2·5% [-6·4 to 1·3] for test-negative design A, test-negative design B, and test-negative design C, respectively). INTERPRETATION: This study validates the test-negative design core assumption for typhoid vaccine effectiveness estimation and shows the accuracy and precision of the estimates compared with the randomised controlled trial. These results show that the test-negative design is suitable for assessing typhoid conjugate vaccine effectiveness in post-introduction studies using blood culture surveillance. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

8.
Ann Plast Surg ; 89(5): 552-559, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2020-2021 interview cycle for integrated plastic surgery applicants was the first to be held virtually because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we detail the largest study on integrated plastic surgery applicant perceptions after the virtual interview cycle. METHODS: A 35-question institutional review board-approved survey was distributed to medical students who had applied to the Johns Hopkins/University of Maryland or University of California San Diego integrated residency programs during the 2020-2021 interview cycle. Survey questions assessed the structure, strengths, and weaknesses of the exclusively virtual interview process. Survey administration and data collection were performed using the Qualtrics platform. RESULTS: Of 318 distributed surveys, 94 were completed. In addition, 91.5% of respondents preferred in-person interviews before the interview season, whereas 54.3% preferred in-person interviews afterward. Applicants who favored virtual interviews did not view being unable to physically meet with program staff as a detriment (P = .001) and felt they could effectively advocate for themselves (P = .002). Overall, the most cited strengths were the ability to complete more interviews (P = .01) and cost benefits (P = .02). Criticisms were directed at the impersonal nature of the exchange (86.2%), lack of physical tour (56.4%), and difficulties at self-advocacy (52.1%). CONCLUSION: Preference for virtual interviews increased from 7.5% to 34.0% after the virtual interview cycle. For several students, the ideal interview structure permits both in-person and virtual interviews to maximize flexibility. Augmenting with virtual city tours and one-on-one interviews may mitigate the impersonal nature of virtual interviews as perceived by some applicants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Cirurgia Plástica , Humanos , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Community Health ; 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269531

RESUMO

In 2018, the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Baltimore City Fire Department implemented a community paramedicine program to help medically or socially complex patients transition from hospital to home and avoid hospital utilization. This study describes how patients' social determinants of health (SDoH) needs were identified, and measures the association between needs and hospital utilization. SDoH needs were categorized into ten domains. Multinomial logistic regression was used to measure association between identified SDoH domains and predicted risk of readmission. Poisson regression was used to measure association between SDoH domains and actual 30-day hospital utilization. The most frequently identified SDoH needs were in the Coordination of Healthcare (37.7%), Durable Medical Equipment (18.8%), and Medication (16.3%) domains. Compared with low-risk patients, patients with an intermediate risk of readmission were more likely to have needs within the Coordination of Healthcare (RRR [95% CI] 1.12 [1.01, 1.24], p = 0.032) and Durable Medical Equipment (RRR = 1.13 [1.00, 1.27], p = 0.046) domains. Patients with the highest risk for readmission were more likely to have needs in the Utilities domain (RRR = 1.76 [0.97, 3.19], p = 0.063). Miscellaneous domain needs, such as requiring a social security card, were associated with increased 30-day hospital utilization (IRR = 1.23 [0.96, 1.57], p = 0.095). SDoH needs within the Coordination of Healthcare, Durable Medical Equipment, and Utilities domains were associated with higher predicted 30-day readmission, while identification documentation and social services needs were associated with actual readmission. These results suggest where to allocate resources to effectively diminish hospital utilization.

10.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244021

RESUMO

To identify potential predictors by assessing adverse outcomes in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients. Eighty-nine untreated AAV patients were followed up to January 31, 2022, death, or loss of follow-up. Clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatment, and progress were collected, and disease activity was evaluated via Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). We determined risk factors of high-risk events, defined as developing tumors, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death. Patients and renal survivals were computed by the Kaplan-Meier curve analysis. Cox regression analysis was performed for assessing variables for predicting death. During 267 person-years follow-up, 46 patients occurred high-risk events, including 20 patients receiving RRT, 12 patients developing tumors, and 29 patients who died mostly from organ failure and infection. Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P < 0.001) and complement 3 levels (P = 0.019) were associated with high-risk events. Patients with lower serum potassium tended to develop tumors (P = 0.033); with higher BVAS (HR = 1.290, 95%CI 1.075-1.549, P = 0.006) and lower eGFR (HR = 0.782, 95%CI 0.680-0.901, P = 0.001) were more likely to undergo RRT. Patients with cardio and renal involvement exhibited a lower frequency of renal survival and all-cause mortality. Through multivariate COX analysis, age (HR = 1.016, 95%CI 1.016-1.105, P = 0.006) and eGFR (HR = 0.982, 95%CI 0.968-0.997, P = 0.018) predicted death in AAV, separately. The BVAS and eGFR could be a great prognosticator for RRT, while age and eGFR can independently predict the death. Serum potassium level and immunoglobulins should be focused on their predictor value in development of cancer and renal outcomes in AAV patients.

11.
Front Radiol ; 22022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120383

RESUMO

Purpose: Trials of non-operative management (NOM) have become the standard of care for blunt splenic injury (BSI) in hemodynamically stable patients. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the utility of follow-up CT exams and relevant CT features. The purpose of this study is to determine imaging predictors of splenectomy on follow-up CT using quantitative volumetric measurements. Methods: Adult patients who underwent a trial of non-operative management (NOM) with follow-up CT performed for BSI between 2017 and 2019 were included (n = 51). Six patients (12% of cohort) underwent splenectomy; 45 underwent successful splenic salvage. Voxelwise measurements of splenic laceration, hemoperitoneum, and subcapsular hematoma were derived from portal venous phase images of admission and follow-up scans using 3D slicer. Presence/absence of pseudoaneurysm on admission and follow-up CT was assessed using arterial phase images. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of decision to perform splenectomy. Results: Factors significantly associated with splenectomy in bivariate analysis incorporated in multivariate logistic regression included final hemoperitoneum volume (p = 0.003), final subcapsular hematoma volume (p = 0.001), change in subcapsular hematoma volume between scans (p = 0.09) and new/persistent pseudoaneurysm (p = 0.003). Independent predictors of splenectomy in the logistic regression were final hemoperitoneum volume (unit OR = 1.43 for each 100 mL change; 95% CI: 0.99-2.06) and new/persistent pseudoaneurysm (OR = 160.3; 95% CI: 0.91-28315.3). The AUC of the model incorporating both variables was significantly higher than AAST grading (0.91 vs. 0.59, p = 0.025). Mean combined effective dose for admission and follow up CT scans was 37.4 mSv. Conclusion: Follow-up CT provides clinically valuable information regarding the decision to perform splenectomy in BSI patients managed non-operatively. Hemoperitoneum volume and new or persistent pseudoaneurysm at follow-up are independent predictors of splenectomy.

12.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139006

RESUMO

Radiotherapy remains an effective conventional method of treatment for patients with cancer. However, the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy is compromised by the development of radioresistance of the tumor cells during the treatment. Consequently, there is need for a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of tumor cells in response to radiation to improve radiotherapy efficacy. The current study aims to highlight new developments that illustrate various forms of cancer cell death after exposure to radiation. A summary of the cellular pathways and important target proteins that are responsible for tumor radioresistance and metastasis is also provided. Further, the study outlines several mechanistic descriptions of the interaction between ionizing radiation and the host immune system. Therefore, the current review provides a reference for future research studies on the biological effects of new radiotherapy technologies, such as ultra-high-dose-rate (FLASH) radiotherapy, proton therapy, and heavy-ion therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Morte Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radiação Ionizante , Radioterapia/métodos
13.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13767, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123790

RESUMO

Buffaloes are raised by small farm holders primarily as source of draft power owing to its resistance to hot climate, disease, and stress conditions. Over the years, transformation of these animals from draft to dairy was deliberately carried out through genetic improvement program leading to the development of buffalo-based enterprises. Buffalo production is now getting more attention and interest from buffalo raisers due to its socioeconomic impact as well as its contribution to propelling the livestock industry in many developing countries. Reproduction of buffaloes, however, is confronted with huge challenge and concern as being generally less efficient to reproduce compared with cattle due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as poor estrus manifestation, silent heat, marked seasonal infertility, postpartum anestrus, long calving interval, delayed puberty, inherently low number of primordial follicles in their ovaries, high incidence of atresia, and apoptosis. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are major interventions for the efficient utilization of follicle reserve in buffaloes. The present review focuses on estrus and ovulation synchronization for fixed time artificial insemination, in vitro embryo production, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, somatic cell nuclear transfer, the factors affecting utilization in various ARTs, and future perspectives in buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Sêmen , Anestro , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-11, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant nosocomial pathogen in the ICU. MRSA contamination of healthcare personnel (HCP) gloves and gowns after providing care to patients with MRSA occurs at a rate of 14%-16% in the ICU setting. Little is known about whether the MRSA isolates identified on HCP gown and gloves following patient care activities are the same as MRSA isolates identified as colonizing or infecting the patient. METHODS: From a multisite cohort of 388 independent patient MRSA isolates and their corresponding HCP gown and glove isolates, we selected 91 isolates pairs using a probability to proportion size (PPS) sampling method. To determine whether the patient and HCP gown or gloves isolates were genetically similar, we used 5 comparative genomic typing methods: phylogenetic analysis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), large-scale BLAST score ratio (LSBSR), and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis. RESULTS: We identified that 56 (61.5%) of isolate pairs were genetically similar at least by 4 of the methods. Comparably, the spa typing and the LSBSR analyses revealed that >75% of the examined isolate pairs were concordant, with the thresholds established for each analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the patient MRSA isolates were genetically similar to those on the HCP gown or gloves following a patient care activity. This finding indicates that the patient is often the primary source of the MRSA isolates transmitted to the HCP, which can potentially be spread to other patients or hospital settings through HCP vectors. These results have important implications because they provide additional evidence for hospitals considering ending the use of contact precautions (gloves and gowns) for MRSA patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35990826

RESUMO

Background: Multiple system and organ damage occurs with the continuous progression of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), and the lack of specific drugs against this disease is a huge challenge. White peony (WP), a widely used traditional Chinese herb, has been confirmed to have a therapeutic value in pSS. However, the specific mechanisms of WP in the treatment of pSS are unknown. Methods: The active ingredients and their targets in WP were searched on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and disease-related targets were collected from GeneCards, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), and the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The overlapping targets were acquired by taking the intersection. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was structured using the STRING database. A disease-drug-ingredient-target (D-D-I-T) network was built using Cytoscape software. By filtering twice, core targets were acquired. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were accompanied by R packages. Finally, molecular docking was used to verify the abovementioned results. Results: In total, we screened 88 WP-related targets, 1480 pSS-related targets, and 32 overlapping targets. D-D-I-T Network analysis displayed six main active ingredients of WP, which played a significant therapeutic role in pSS. Further topological analysis selected seven core target genes, including IL-6, TNF, PPARγ, AKT1, CASP3, NOS3, and JUN. GO and KEGG analysis were used to elucidate pharmacological mechanisms, mainly acting in the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway. Molecular docking proved that paeoniflorin bound well with core targets. Conclusion: Our study revealed that IL-6, TNF, AKT1, CASP3, NOS3, and JUN may be pathogenic target genes, and PPARγ may be a protective target gene. The main active ingredients of WP mainly played a therapeutic role via the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway. These findings provide a fundamental and theoretical basis for the clinical application of WP.

16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7393661, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966245

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the combined application of 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy, glaucoma drainage valve implantation, and phacoemulsification cataract extraction in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) combined with vitreous hemorrhage (VH). Methods: Eighty-three patients (91 eyes) with PDR diagnosed as NVG phase III complicated with VH from June 2018 to May 2020 were selected as the study subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A was treated with 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy combined with glaucoma drainage valve implantation; group B was given 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification cataract extraction; and group C was treated with 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy combined with glaucoma drainage valve implantation and phacoemulsification cataract extraction. The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and iris neovascularization (INV) scores were recorded and compared among the 3 groups before and after operation, and then the postoperative pain relief and complications were observed. Results: Through observation, there was no significant difference in the UCVA, IOP, and INV scores in the 3 groups before operation. After the operation, the UCVA, IOP, and INV scores of the 3 groups were significantly lower than those before operation. After operation, the UCVA of the 3 groups increased first and then decreased, and it improved most significantly in the 3rd month after operation and decreased in the 4th month after operation. There were significant differences in UCVA among the 3 groups at each time point after operation. From the 1st day to the 6th month after operation, the IOP of the 3 groups showed an upward trend, and there was no significant difference among the 3 groups in IOP at each time point after operation. At the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months after operation, the INV score of group A and group B was higher than that of group C. There was no significant difference in the INV score between group A and group B. The incidence of complications was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Conclusion: 23G minimally invasive vitrectomy, glaucoma drainage valve implantation, and phacoemulsification cataract extraction can effectively improve the UCVA, IOP, and INV scores of NVG secondary to PDR with VH, and the combined application of the 3 methods has better security.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Implantes para Drenagem de Glaucoma , Glaucoma Neovascular , Glaucoma , Facoemulsificação , Extração de Catarata/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Implantes para Drenagem de Glaucoma/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma Neovascular/etiologia , Glaucoma Neovascular/cirurgia , Humanos , Facoemulsificação/efeitos adversos , Facoemulsificação/métodos , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Hemorragia Vítrea/complicações , Hemorragia Vítrea/cirurgia
17.
Emerg Radiol ; 29(6): 995-1002, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We employ nnU-Net, a state-of-the-art self-configuring deep learning-based semantic segmentation method for quantitative visualization of hemothorax (HTX) in trauma patients, and assess performance using a combination of overlap and volume-based metrics. The accuracy of hemothorax volumes for predicting a composite of hemorrhage-related outcomes - massive transfusion (MT) and in-hospital mortality (IHM) not related to traumatic brain injury - is assessed and compared to subjective expert consensus grading by an experienced chest and emergency radiologist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included manually labeled admission chest CTs from 77 consecutive adult patients with non-negligible (≥ 50 mL) traumatic HTX between 2016 and 2018 from one trauma center. DL results of ensembled nnU-Net were determined from fivefold cross-validation and compared to individual 2D, 3D, and cascaded 3D nnU-Net results using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and volume similarity index. Pearson's r, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and mean bias were also determined for the best performing model. Manual and automated hemothorax volumes and subjective hemothorax volume grades were analyzed as predictors of MT and IHM using AUC comparison. Volume cut-offs yielding sensitivity or specificity ≥ 90% were determined from ROC analysis. RESULTS: Ensembled nnU-Net achieved a mean DSC of 0.75 (SD: ± 0.12), and mean volume similarity of 0.91 (SD: ± 0.10), Pearson r of 0.93, and ICC of 0.92. Mean overmeasurement bias was only 1.7 mL despite a range of manual HTX volumes from 35 to 1503 mL (median: 178 mL). AUC of automated volumes for the composite outcome was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.58-0.91), compared to 0.76 (95%CI: 0.58-0.93) for manual volumes, and 0.76 (95%CI: 0.62-0.90) for consensus expert grading (p = 0.93). Automated volume cut-offs of 77 mL and 334 mL predicted the outcome with 93% sensitivity and 90% specificity respectively. CONCLUSION: Automated HTX volumetry had high method validity, yielded interpretable visual results, and had similar performance for the hemorrhage-related outcomes assessed compared to manual volumes and expert consensus grading. The results suggest promising avenues for automated HTX volumetry in research and clinical care.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Traumatismos Torácicos , Adulto , Humanos , Hemotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(9): e1326-e1335, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is a substantial public health problem in Africa, yet there are few clinical trials of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV). We assessed immunogenicity and safety of Typbar TCV in Malawi. METHODS: This substudy was nested within a phase 3, double-blind, parallel design, randomised controlled trial of TCV in children from Ndirande Health Centre in Ndirande township, Blantyre, Malawi. To be eligible, participants had to be aged between 9 months and 12 years with no known immunosuppression or chronic health conditions, including HIV or severe malnutrition; eligible participants were enrolled into three strata of approximately 200 children (9-11 months, 1-5 years, and 6-12 years), randomly assigned (1:1) to receive TCV or control (meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine [MCV-A]) intramuscularly. Serum was collected before vaccination and at 28 days and 730-1035 days after vaccination to measure anti-Vi antibodies by ELISA. Because of COVID-19, day 730 visits were extended up to 1035 days. This nested substudy evaluated reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity by age stratum. Safety outcomes, analysed in the intention-to-treat population, included solicited adverse events within 7 days of vaccination (assessed on 3 separate days) and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days of vaccination. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03299426. FINDINGS: Between Feb 22 and Sept 6, 2018, 664 participants were screened, and 631 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned (320 to the TCV group and 311 to the MCV-A group). 305 participants in the TCV group and 297 participants in the MCV-A group were vaccinated. Among TCV recipients, anti-Vi IgG geometric mean titres increased more than 500 times from 4·2 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 4·0-4·4) at baseline to 2383·7 EU/mL (2087·2-2722·3) at day 28, then decreased to 48·0 EU/mL (39·9-57·8) at day 730-1035, remaining more than 11 times higher than baseline. Among MCV-A recipients, anti-Vi IgG titres remained unchanged: 4·3 EU/mL (4·0-4·5) at baseline, 4·4 EU/mL (4·0-4·7) on day 28, and 4·6 EU/mL (4·2-5·0) on day 730-1035. TCV and MCV-A recipients had similar solicited local (eight [3%] of 304, 95% CI 1·3-5·1 and three [1%] of 293, 0·4-3·0) and systemic (27 [9%] of 304, 6·2-12·6 and 27 [9%] of 293, 6·4-13·1) reactogenicity. Related unsolicited adverse events occurred similarly in TCV and MCV-A recipients in eight (3%) of 304 (1·3-5·1) and eight (3%) of 293 (1·4-5·3). INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence of TCV safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity up to 730-1035 days in Malawian children aged 9 months to 12 years. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Febre Tifoide , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas , Vacinas Conjugadas , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Lactente , Malaui , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115656, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041691

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multicausal neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by generalized dementia. The pathogenic process of AD not only is progressive and complex but also involves multiple factors and mechanisms, including ß-amyloid (Aß) aggregation, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. As the first-line treatment for AD, cholinesterase inhibitors can, to a certain extent, relieve AD symptoms and delay AD progression. Nonetheless, the current treatment strategies for AD are far from meeting clinical expectations, and more options for AD treatment should be applied in clinical practice. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review was to investigate published reports of C. tinctorius L. and its active constituents in AD treatment through a literature review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was retrieved from scientific databases including Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Chemical Abstracts Services and books, PubMed, dissertations and technical reports. Keywords used for the search engines were "Honghua" or "Carthamus tinctorius L." or "safflower" in conjunction with "(native weeds OR alien invasive)"AND "Chinese herbal medicine". RESULTS: A total of 47 literatures about C. tinctorius L. and its active constituents in AD treatment through signaling pathways, immune cells, and disease-related mediators and systematically elucidates potential mechanisms from the point of anti-Aß aggregation, suppressing tau protein hyperphosphorylation, increasing cholinergic neurotransmitters levels, inhibiting oxidative stress, anti-neuroinflammation, ameliorating synaptic plasticity, and anti-apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is a treasure endowed by nature to mankind. Emerging studies have confirmed that CHM and its active constituents play a positive role in AD treatment. Carthamus tinctorius L., the most commonly used CHM, can be used with medicine and food, with the effect of activating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. In the paper, we have concluded that the existing therapeutic mechanisms of C. tinctorius L. and summarized the potential mechanisms of C. tinctorius L. and its active constituents in AD treatment through a literature review.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Carthamus tinctorius , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Proteínas tau
20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e31289, 2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health service is an important component and pathway to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), a major direction goal of many countries. China's National Basic Public Health Service Program (the Program) is highly consistent with this direction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the key experience and challenges of the Program so as to present China's approach to UHC, help other countries understand and learn from China's experience, and promote UHC across the world. METHODS: A literature review was performed across five main electronic databases and other sources. Some data were obtained from the Department of Primary Health, National Health Commission, China. Data obtained included the financing share of the national/provincial/prefectural government among the total investment of the program in 32 provinces in 2016, their respective per capita funding levels, and some indicators related to program implementation from 2009 to 2016. The Joinpoint regression model was adopted to test the time trend of changes in program implementation indicators. Face-to-face individual interviews and group discussions were conducted with 48 key insiders. RESULTS: The program provided full life cycle service to the whole population with an equitable and affordable financing system, enhanced the capability and quality of the health workforce, and facilitated integration of the public health service delivery system. Meanwhile, there were also some shortcomings, including lack of selection and an exit mechanism of service items, inadequate system integration, shortage of qualified professionals, limited role played by actors outside the health sector, and a large gap between the subsidy standard and the actual service cost. The Joinpoint regression analysis demonstrated that 13 indicators related to program implementation showed a significant upward trend (P<.05) from 2009 to 2016, with average annual percent change values above 10% for 6 indicators and below 6% for 7 indicators. Three indicators (coverage of health records, electronic health records, and health management among the elderly) rose rapidly with annual percent change values above 30% between 2009 and 2011, but rose slowly or remained stable between 2011 and 2016. In 2016, the subsidy standard per capita in the eastern, central, and western regions was equivalent to US $7.43, $7.15, and $6.57, respectively, of which the national-level subsidy accounted for 25.50%, 60.57%, and 79.52%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Program has made a significant contribution to China's efforts in achieving UHC. The Program focuses on a key population and provides full life cycle services for the whole population. The financing system completely supported by the government makes the services more equitable and affordable. However, there are a few challenges to implementing the Program in China, especially to increase the public investment, optimize service items, enhance quality of the services, and evaluate the health outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
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