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1.
Neurotherapeutics ; 16(4): 1255-1268, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392591

RESUMO

Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms elucidated a function of sequential PGE2 and PGD2 synthesis in regulating ß-amyloid protein (Aß) deposition by modulating tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-dependent presenilin (PS)1/2 activity in COX-2 and APP/PS1 crossed mice. Specifically, COX-2 overexpression accelerates the expression of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), leading to the synthesis of PGE2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice. Consequently, PGE2 has the ability to increase Aß production by enhancing the expression of PS1/2 in a TNF-α-dependent manner, which accelerates the cognitive decline of COX-2/APP/PS1 mice. More interestingly, low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 treatment facilitate the effects of PGE2 on the deposition of Aß via TNF-α-dependent PS1/2 mechanisms. In contrast, high concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 treatment inhibit the deposition of Aß via suppressing the expression of TNF-α-dependent PS1/2. In this regard, a high concentration of 15d-PGJ2 appears to be a therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease. However, the high 15d-PGJ2 concentration treatment induces neuronal apoptosis via increasing the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and DFF45, which further impairs the learning ability of APP/PS1 mice.

2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143112

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reportedly associated with the accumulation of calcium ions (Ca2+), and this accumulation is responsible for the phosphorylation of tau. Although several lines of evidence demonstrate the above phenomenon, the inherent mechanisms remain unknown. Using APP/PS1 Tg mice and neuroblastoma (N)2a cells as in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we observed that Ca2+ stimulated the phosphorylation of tau by activating microsomal PGE synthase 1 (mPGES1) in a prostaglandin (PG) E2-dependent EP receptor-activating manner. Specifically, the highly accumulated Ca2+ stimulated the expression of mPGES1 and the synthesis of PGE2. Treatment with the inhibitor of Ca2+ transporter, NMDAR, attenuated the expression of mPGES1 and the production of PGE2 were attenuated in S(+)-ketamine-treated APP/PS1 Tg mice. Elevated levels of PGE2 were responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau in an EP-1-, EP-2-, and EP-3-dependent but not EP4-dependent cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 5-activating manner. Reciprocally, the knockdown of the expression of mPGES1 ameliorated the expected cognitive decline by inhibiting the phosphorylation of tau in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Moreover, CDK5 was found to be located downstream of EP1-3 to regulate the phosphorylation of tau though the cleavage of p35 to p25. Finally, the phosphorylation of tau by Ca2+ contributed to the cognitive decline of APP/PS1 Tg mice.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(3): 1095-1111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883354

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reported to be associated with the accumulation of calcium ions (Ca2+), which is responsible for the phosphorylation of tau. Although a series of evidence have demonstrated this phenomenon, the inherent mechanisms remain unknown. Using tauP301S and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transgenic mice and neuroblastoma (n)2a cells as in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we found that Ca2+ stimulates the phosphorylation of tau by activating COX-2 in a prostaglandin (PG) E2-dependent EP receptor-activating manner. Specifically, Ca2+ incubation stimulated COX-2 and PGE2 synthase activity, microsomal PGE synthase 1 and the synthesis of PGE2 by activating the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in n2a cells. Elevated levels of PGE2 were responsible for phosphorylating tau in an EP-1, -2, and -3 but not EP4-dependent glycogen synthase kinase 3-activating manner. These observations were corroborated by results that showed tau was phosphorylated when it colocalized with activated COX-2 in tauP301S and COX-2 transgenic mice or n2a cells. To further validate these observations, treatment of mice with the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib decreased the phosphorylation of tau via EP1-3 but not EP4. Collectively, our observations fill the gaps between Ca2+ and the phosphorylation of tau in a COX-2-dependent mechanism, which potentially provides therapeutic targets for combating AD.

4.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899688

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment. The neuropathological features of AD are the aggregation of extracellular amyloid ß-protein (Aß) and tau phosphorylation. Recently, AD was found to be associated with magnesium ion (Mg2+) deficit and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the serum or brains of AD patients. To study the relationship between Mg2+ and TNF-α, we used human- or mouse-derived glial and neuronal cell lines or APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice as in vitro and in vivo experimental models, respectively. Our data demonstrates that magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) can decrease the expression of TNF-α by restoring the levels of Mg2+ in glial cells. In addition, PI3-K/AKT and NF-κB signals play critical roles in mediating the effects of Mg2+ on suppressing the expression of TNF-α. In neurons, Mg2+ elevation showed similar suppressive effects on the expression of presenilin enhancer 2 (PEN2) and nicastrin (NCT) through a PI3-K/AKT and NF-κB-dependent mechanism. As the major components of γ-secretase, overexpression of presenilin 1 (PS1), PEN2 and NCT potentially promote the synthesis of Aß, which in turn activates TNF-α in glial cells. Reciprocally, TNF-α stimulates the expression of PEN2 and NCT in neurons. The crosstalk between TNF-α and Aß in glial cells and neurons could ultimately aggravate the development and progression of AD.

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