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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 176: 106081, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033650

RESUMO

To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, ancient practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe combinations of plant species/animal species and minerals designated "TCM formulae" developed based on TCM theory and clinical experience. TCM formulae have been shown to exert curative effects on complex diseases via immune regulation but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown at present. Considerable progress in the field of immunometabolism, referring to alterations in the intracellular metabolism of immune cells that regulate their function, has been made over the past decade. The core context of immunometabolism is regulation of the allocation of metabolic resources supporting host defense and survival, which provides a critical additional dimension and emerging insights into how the immune system and metabolism influence each other during disease progression. This review summarizes research findings on the significant association between the immune function and metabolic remodeling in health and disease as well as the therapeutic modulatory effects of TCM formulae on immunometabolism. Progressive elucidation of the immunometabolic mechanisms involved during the course of TCM treatment continues to aid in the identification of novel potential targets against pathogenicity. In this report, we have provided a comprehensive overview of the benefits of TCM based on regulation of immunometabolism that are potentially applicable for the treatment of modern diseases.

2.
Food Res Int ; 151: 110854, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980390

RESUMO

Lilium is cherished for its health-promoting properties in China. The bulbs of Lilium are rich in phenolic compounds, which are associated with antioxidant capacity. However, no systematic evaluation on phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities for the edible Lilium native to China has been conducted. Herein, bulbs of 56 wild populations and three cultivars were collected. Their edible characteristics, antioxidant capacities, and pigments have been investigated and analyzed. The results showed that phenolic compounds contributed to the major colors (red, yellow and white) in Lilium bulbs. The seven phenolic pigment monomers responsible for the color of bulbs-cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, regaloside B, regaloside C, regaloside H, regaloside A and regaloside D-were identified by the combination of HPLC-MS and NMR analysis. The population Lilium regale E. H. Wilson (Maoxian County, Sichuan Province) had the highest antioxidant capacity. According to the quantification results, Lilium bulbs with darker and redder colors possessed larger biomass, better nutrient compositions, significantly higher bioactive constituents, and higher antioxidant capacities than the three currently consumed cultivars of edible lily bulbs. Overall, these findings suggest that the mountainous area of southwest China could be the fourth source of edible lilies with the bulb-colored Lilium species.

3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014107

RESUMO

The reproductive function of animals is often affected by climatic conditions. High-temperature conditions can cause damage to oocyte maturation and embryonic development in a variety of ways. The purpose of this study was to prove that supplementation idebenone (IDB) to the maturation medium can improve the maturation and development of porcine oocytes after heat stress (HS). Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured in the maturation medium with different concentrations of IDB (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 µM) for 44 hr at either 38.5°C or under the HS conditions. The cumulus oophorus expansion, nuclear maturation and blastocyst rate after parthenogenetic activation (PA) were measured. We found that HS (in vitro maturation 20-24 hr, 42°C) exposure significantly reduced cumulus expansion index and maturation rate of oocytes and the blastocyst rate of PA embryos, while IDB supplementation significantly improved oocyte maturation and development to the blastocysts stage after PA. Moreover, the addition of IDB decreased the intracellular level of ROS and increased GSH content, hence enhancing the antioxidant capacity of oocytes under HS. Meanwhile, IDB treatment also obviously improved the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis of oocytes under HS conditions. Furthermore, IDB treatment increased the expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in IVM oocytes which attribute to improve the quality and outcome of IVM oocytes and the development competence of PA embryos in pigs. In summary, we demonstrated that IDB supplementation into the maturation medium exerted protective effects and improved the ability of maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes exposed to HS.

4.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 111-127, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964414

RESUMO

Naringenin, a flavonoid, possesses antiangiogenic potential and inhibits corneal neovascularization (CNV); however, its therapeutic use is restricted due to poor solubility and limited bioavailability. In this study, we developed a naringenin microemulsion (NAR-ME) for inhibiting CNV. NAR-ME formulation was composed of triacetin (oil phase), Cremophor RH40 (CRH40), PEG400, and water, its droplet size was 13.22 ± 0.13 nm with a narrow size distribution (0.112 ± 0.0014). The results demonstrated that NAR-ME released higher and permeated more drug than NAR suspension (NAR-Susp) in in vitro drug release and ex vivo corneal permeation study. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) toxicity study showed no toxicity with NAR-ME, which is consistent with the result of ocular irritation study. NAR-ME had high bioavailability 1.45-fold, 2.15-fold, and 1.35-fold higher than NAR-Susp in the cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor, respectively. Moreover, NAR-ME (0.5% NAR) presented efficacy comparable to that of dexamethasone (0.025%) in the inhibition of CNV in mice CNV model induced by alkali burning, resulting from the attenuation of corneal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14) expression. In conclusion, the optimized NAR-ME formulation demonstrated excellent physicochemical properties and good tolerance, enhanced ocular bioavailability and corneal permeability. This formulation is promising, safe, and effective for the treatment of CNV.

5.
Anal Chem ; 94(2): 758-767, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932315

RESUMO

Limited by the rare efficient extraction system in extracting hydrophobic membrane protein complexes (MPCs) without compromising the stability of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), the in-depth functional study of MPCs has lagged far behind. In this study, the first systematic screening of ionic liquids (ILs) was performed and showed that triethylammonium acetate (TEAA) IL exhibited excellent performance in stabilizing PPIs, which was further confirmed by molecular docking simulations. By combining TEAA with the conventional detergent Nonidet P-40 (NP-40), a novel IL-based extraction system, i-TAN (TEAA IL with 1% NP-40), was proposed, which demonstrated superior performance in extracting and stabilizing MPCs, attributed to its larger size, more uniform distribution, and closer-to-neutral microenvironment of micelles. Extraction of MPCs with i-TAN allowed the confident identification of more hydrophobic EGFR-interacting proteins that are easily dissociated during the extraction process. Quantitative analysis of the difference in EGFR complexes between trastuzumab-sensitive and trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells provided comprehensive insights to understand the drug resistance mechanism, suggesting that i-TAN has great potential in interactomics and functional analysis of MPCs. This study provides a novel strategy for MPC extraction and downstream processing.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118762, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742450

RESUMO

Fungal keratitis remains a serious infectious ocular disease, and the traditional administration of eye drops is limited by ocular intrinsic barriers and drug shortages. Herein, we fabricated a chitosan-based dual-functional platform for ocular topical delivery of econazole. The platform can prolong the residence time on the ocular surface due to its strong interaction with the mucin layer by physical adhesion and covalent bonding, and also open corneal epithelial tight junctions for being positively charged, thereby enhancing corneal penetration of drug. Using these strategies, dosing concentration was reduced from 0.3 wt% to 0.1 wt%, dosing frequency was reduced from once-an-hour to twice-daily, in vitro and in vivo antifungal therapeutic effects were achieved and patient compliance could be improved. Given its high structural adaptability, many other ocular anterior segment-related diseases would benefit from this platform.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 7847-7857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876813

RESUMO

Introduction: Fungal keratitis (FK) remains a severe sight-threatening disease, and case management is difficult due to ocular intrinsic barriers and drug shortages. Econazole (ECZ), a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, is limited in ocular applications due to the poor water solubility and strong irritant property. Methods: We successfully prepared solid-lipid nanoparticle-based ECZ eye drops (E-SLNs) by microemulsion method, and the physicochemical properties of E-SLNs were investigated. Corneal permeability, antifungal ability against Fusarium spp., irritation and bioavailability compared to ECZ Suspension (E-Susp) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: E-SLNs were a uniform and stable system which had an average particle size of 19 nm and a spherical morphology. E-SLNs also exhibited controlled release, enhanced antifungal activity without irritation. The pharmacokinetic analysis in vivo confirmed that E-SLNs showed an improved ocular bioavailability and the drug concentration in the cornea were above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 3 h after single administration. Conclusion: The E-SLNs colloid system is a promising therapeutic approach for fungal keratitis and could serve as a candidate strategy for other ocular diseases.

8.
J Oncol ; 2021: 6852867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912456

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is a common malignant tumor of the female reproductive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. The progression and metastasis of OC are complex and involve multiple signaling pathways. The Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is closely related to OC, and therefore blocking the activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling directly or inhibiting related genes, and molecular targets is of great value in treating OC. Toxicities such as myelotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, genotoxicity, and vasospasm are the major side effects for common anticancer drugs and are well documented. There is, therefore, a need to develop new, effective, safer, and more affordable anticancer drugs from alternative sources. In recent years, plant-derived Chinese medicine monomers have drawn increasing attention due to their high safety, low toxicity, minimal side effects, and antitumor effects. Plant-derived Chinese medicine monomers are effective against multiple targets and can regulate the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of OC as well as reverse drug resistance by regulating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. In this review, we summarize and provide mechanisms and prospects for the use of plant-derived Chinese medicines for the prevention and treatment of OC.

9.
Front Genet ; 12: 770081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956323

RESUMO

A DNA double-strand break (DSB) takes place in the context of chromatin, and there is increasing evidence for chromatin structure to play a functional role in DSB signaling and repair. Thus, there is an emerging need for quantitative microscopy methods that can directly measure chromatin network architecture and detect changes in this structural framework upon DSB induction within an intact nucleus. To address this demand, here we present the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescently labeled histones in the DSB inducible via AsiSI cell system (DIvA), which has sufficient spatial resolution to map nuclear-wide chromatin compaction at the level of nucleosome proximity with respect to multiple site-specific DSBs. We also demonstrate that when phasor histone FLIM-FRET is coupled with immunofluorescence, this technology has the unique advantage of enabling exploration of any heterogeneity that exists in chromatin structure at the spatially distinct and genetically induced DSBs.

10.
Front Genet ; 12: 801261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956337

RESUMO

Unexplained genetic variation that causes complex diseases is often induced by gene-gene interactions (GGIs). Gene-based methods are one of the current statistical methodologies for discovering GGIs in case-control genome-wide association studies that are not only powerful statistically, but also interpretable biologically. However, most approaches include assumptions about the form of GGIs, which results in poor statistical performance. As a result, we propose gene-based testing based on the maximal neighborhood coefficient (MNC) called gene-based gene-gene interaction through a maximal neighborhood coefficient (GBMNC). MNC is a metric for capturing a wide range of relationships between two random vectors with arbitrary, but not necessarily equal, dimensions. We established a statistic that leverages the difference in MNC in case and in control samples as an indication of the existence of GGIs, based on the assumption that the joint distribution of two genes in cases and controls should not be substantially different if there is no interaction between them. We then used a permutation-based statistical test to evaluate this statistic and calculate a statistical p-value to represent the significance of the interaction. Experimental results using both simulation and real data showed that our approach outperformed earlier methods for detecting GGIs.

11.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913989

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a reduction in skeletal muscle mass; however, how the progression of sarcopenia is induced and regulated remains largely unknown. We aimed to find out whether a specific microRNA (miR) may contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated skeletal muscle miR-193b overexpression in C57BLKS/J mice, and skeletal muscle miR-193b deficiency in db/db mice were used to explore the function of miR-193b in muscle loss. In C57BL/6 J mice, tibialis anterior-specific deletion of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), mediated by in situ AAV injection, was used to confirm whether miR-193b regulates muscle growth through PDK1. Serum miR-193b levels were also analysed in healthy individuals (n = 20) and those with type 2 diabetes (n = 20), and correlations of miR-193b levels with HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), body composition, triacylglycerols and C-peptide were assessed. RESULTS: In this study, we found that serum miR-193b levels increased in individuals with type 2 diabetes and negatively correlated with muscle mass in these participants. Functional studies further showed that AAV-mediated overexpression of miR-193b induced muscle loss and dysfunction in healthy mice. In contrast, suppression of miR-193b attenuated muscle loss and dysfunction in db/db mice. Mechanistic analysis revealed that miR-193b could target Pdk1 expression to inactivate the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (S6K) pathway, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. Therefore, knockdown of PDK1 in healthy mice blocked miR-193b-induced inactivation of the Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway and impairment of muscle growth. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results identified a previously unrecognised role of miR-193b in muscle function and mass that could be a potential therapeutic target for treating sarcopenia.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 779652, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950037

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and has become a serious public health problem worldwide. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, an emerging drug for the treatment of diabetes, have been found to have renoprotective effects in addition to glucose-lowering effects and therefore have the potential to be a treatment modality for DKD. Lobeliae Chinensis Herba (LCH), a traditional Chinese herb widely used in the treatment of diabetes, has recently been found to have a hypoglycaemic mechanism related to the inhibition of DPP4. Firstly, analysis of single-cell sequencing data from mouse kidneys in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database revealed that DPP4 was specifically upregulated in DKD podocytes and was associated with podocyte proliferation. Subsequently, the network pharmacology approach was applied to the screening of compounds. Twelve LCH active ingredients targeting DPP4 were extracted from the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology (TCMSP) database. In addition, these 12 compounds and DPP4 were molecularly docked to predict the probability of them affecting DPP4 activity. In vitro, Quercetin, Methyl rosmarinate, Kaempferol, Diosmetin and Acacetin were demonstrated to retard podocyte proliferation by inhibiting DPP4 activity and were the top five compounds predicted by molecular docking to be the most likely to affect DPP4 activity. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the five compounds for DPP4 activity were as follows. Acacetin Log IC50 = -8.349, 95%CI (-9.266, -7.265), Diosmtrin Log IC50 = -8.419, 95%CI (-8.889, -7.950), Log IC50 = -8.349, 95%CI (-9.266, -7.265), Methyl rosmarinate Log IC50 = -8.415, 95%CI (-8.751, -8.085), Kaempferol Log IC50 = -8.297, 95%CI (-9.001, -7.615), Quercetin Log IC50 = -8.864, 95%CI (-9.107, -8.615). Finally, Quercetin, Methyl rosmarinate, Kaempferol, Diosmetin and Acacetin qualified for pharmacokinetic and drug similarity screening and have the potential to be the most promising oral agents for the treatment of DKD.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 785403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899349

RESUMO

Background and purpose: FXR is a promising target for the treatment of human cholestatic liver disease (CLD). SIRT1 is a deacetylase which promotes FXR activity through deacetylating FXR. Pterostilbene (PTE) is an activator of SIRT1. However, the role of PTE in cholestasis has so far not been investigated. We examined whether PTE treatment alleviate liver injury in DDC or ANIT-induced experimental cholestasis, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Experimental approach: Mice with DDC- or ANIT-induced cholestasis were treated with different dose of PTE. Primary hepatocytes and bone marrow derived macrophages were used in vitro to assess the molecular mechanism by which PTE may improve CLD. Identical doses of UDCA or PTE were administered to DDC- or ANIT-induced cholestasis mice. Key results: PTE intervention attenuated DDC or ANIT-induced cholestasis. PTE inhibited macrophage infiltration and activation in mouse liver through the SIRT1-p53 signaling pathway, and it improved hepatic bile metabolism through the SIRT1-FXR signaling pathway. Compare with UDCA, the same doses of PTE was more effective in improving cholestatic liver injury caused by DDC or ANIT. Conclusion and implications: SIRT1 activation in macrophages may be an effective CLD treatment avenue. Using CLD models, we thus identified PTE as a novel clinical candidate compound for the treatment of CLD.

14.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 338, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750365

RESUMO

Necroptosis, a form of programmed cell death, accounts for many inflammations in a wide range of diseases. Diet-induced obesity is manifested by low-grade inflammation in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), and microglia are implicated as critical responsive components for this process. Here, we demonstrate that microglial necroptosis plays a pivotal role in obesity-related hypothalamic inflammation, facilitating proinflammatory cytokine production, such as TNF-α and IL-1ß. Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin effectively reduces the obese phenotypes in the high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, attributing to remission of hypothalamic inflammation partly through repressing microglial necroptosis. Importantly, using the receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 inhibitor, necrostatin-1s, could not suppress the microglial inflammation nor prevent body weight gain in the obese mice, indicating that the microglial necroptosis is RIPK1-independent. Altogether, these findings offer new insights into hypothalamic inflammation in diet-induced obesity and provide a novel mechanism of action for metformin in obesity treatment.

15.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt C): 127573, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753055

RESUMO

Atmospheric fine particle pollution is known to cause many adverse health effects. However, the potential mechanisms of PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity still needs further understanding. Herein, we integrated cytotoxicity, component profiling, metabolomics and proteomics data to deeply explain the biological responses of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to PM2.5. We observed that PM2.5 caused cell cycle arrest, calcium influx, cell damage and further induced cell apoptosis. The contents of heavy metals and 4-6 rings PAHs in PM2.5 were positively correlated with intracellular ROS, indicating that they might be the important components to induce the above cytotoxicity. Integrated metabolomics and proteomics analysis revealed the significant alterations of many metabolic processes, such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. Notably, we found that PM2.5 inhibited the integrin signaling pathway, including down-regulating the protein expression of integrins and the phosphorylation of downstream signaling kinases, which might ultimately affect cell cycle progression, cell metabolism and apoptosis. This study provided a comprehensive data resource for the deep understanding of biological toxicity mechanisms caused by atmospheric fine particles in human lung-bronchial epithelium cells.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(15): 4365-4376, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803504

RESUMO

Given the heterogeneity of solid tumors, single-target CAR-T cell therapy often leads to recurrence, especially in ovarian cancer (OV). Here, we constructed a Tandem-CAR targeting two antigens with secretory activity (IL-12) to improve the effects of CAR-T cell therapy. Twenty coexpressed upregulated genes were identified from the GEO database, and we found FOLR1 (folate receptor 1) and MSLN (mesothelin) were specifically and highly expressed in cancer tissues and only 11.25% of samples were negative for both antigens. We observed an increased proliferation rate for these three CAR-T cells, and Tandem CAR-T cells could efficiently lyse antigen-positive OV cells in vitro and secrete higher levels of cytokines than single-target CAR-T cells. More importantly, in vivo experiments indicated that Tandem CAR-T cells markedly decreased tumor volume, exhibited enhanced antitumor activity, and prolonged mouse survival. Furthermore, the infiltration and persistence of T cells in the Tandem-CAR group were higher than those in the MSLN-CAR and Control-T groups but comparable to those in the FOLR1-CAR group. Collectively, this study demonstrated that Tandem CAR-T cells secreting IL-12 could enhance immunotherapeutic effects by reducing tumor antigen escape and increasing T cell functionality, which could be a promising therapeutic strategy for OV and other solid tumors.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761468

RESUMO

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that brain responses to nociceptive pain, non-nociceptive somatosensory, visual, and auditory stimuli are extremely similar. Actually, perception of external sensory stimulation requires complex interactions among distributed cortical and subcortical brain regions. However, the interactions among these regions elicited by nociceptive pain remain unclear, which limits our understanding of mechanisms of pain from a brain network perspective. Task fMRI data were collected with a random sequence of intermixed stimuli of four sensory modalities in 80 healthy subjects. Whole-brain psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to identify task-modulated functional connectivity (FC) patterns for each modality. Task-modulated FC strength and graph-theoretical-based network properties were compared among the four modalities. Lastly, we performed across-sensory-modality prediction analysis based on the whole-brain task-modulated FC patterns to confirm the specific relationship between brain patterns and sensory modalities. For each sensory modality, task-modulated FC patterns were distributed over widespread brain regions beyond those typically activated or deactivated during the stimulation. As compared with the other three sensory modalities, nociceptive stimulation exhibited significantly different patterns (more widespread and stronger FC within the cingulo-opercular network, between cingulo-opercular and sensorimotor networks, between cingulo-opercular and emotional networks, and between default mode and emotional networks) and global property (smaller modularity). Further, a cross-sensory-modality prediction analysis found that task-modulated FC patterns could predict sensory modality at the subject level successfully. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the whole-brain task-modulated FC is preferentially modulated by pain, thus providing new insights into the neural mechanisms of pain processing.

18.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 168: 106078, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838620

RESUMO

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), an FDA-approved drug for cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity and thus has therapeutic potential for inflammatory corneal neovascularization (CNV). However, its practical administration is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility and permeability. This study aimed to enhance the corneal permeability of SAHA by promoting its inclusion into a complex with hydroxypropyl-ß-CD (HPßCD) for topical application. In phase-solubility studies, the solubility of SAHA with HPßCD and sulfobutyl ether-ß-CD (SEßCD) was assessed at different temperatures, and complexation efficiencies (K) were calculated. The inclusion complexes (ICs) were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectrometry (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after freeze-drying. The phase-solubility study showed that the complexation efficiencies of SAHA were higher in HPßCD solutions (297.35 M-1, 115.28 M-1 and 122.75 M-1) than in SEßCD solutions (169.75 M-1, 91.33 M-1 and 96.49 M-1) at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. HPßCD was selected for SAHA-IC preparation, and characterization revealed IC formation. SAHA existed in an amorphous state in the ICs. The ex vivo corneal permeability of SAHA was also evaluated and found to be greater when formulated as an HPßCD solution than as a suspension. Irritation assays in rabbit eyes showed that the SAHA-IC solution was not irritating after topical application. The ocular pharmacokinetics of SAHA in New Zealand White rabbits were assessed following topical administration (0.2%), and a 0.2% SAHA suspension was used as the control. Compared to its formulation as a suspension, the formulation of SAHA as an HPßCD solution increased its corneal bioavailability by more than 3-fold and its conjunctival bioavailability by more than 2-fold. Thus, IC formation was effective at improving the ocular bioavailability of SAHA. This study provides an important alternative approach for developing liquid pharmaceutical formulations of SAHA for topical ocular applications.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709801

RESUMO

Most chronic wounds suffer from infections, and their treatment is challenging. The usage of antibiotics may lead to bacterial resistance and adverse side effects. Positively charged substances have shown promise, but their applications are usually limited by certain cytotoxicity or complex synthesis. Doped polyaniline that carries a high density of positive charges would be a promising candidate due to its good biocompatibility and easy availability, but its interaction with bacteria has not been elucidated. Herein, the distinct bactericidal effect of polyaniline against Gram-positive bacteria has been verified. The antibacterial activity may result from the specific interaction with lipoteichoic acid to destroy the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall. Polyaniline and a macromolecular dopant (sulfonated hyaluronic acid) are used to construct a flexible hydrogel with skin-mimic electrical conductivity. The in vivo results demonstrate that electrical stimulation (ES) through this hydrogel is superior to ES via separated electrodes (the ES strategy used clinically) for promoting infected chronic wound healing.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(13): 136802, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623865

RESUMO

The topology of quantum systems has become a topic of great interest since the discovery of topological insulators. However, as a hallmark of the topological insulators, the spin Chern number has not yet been experimentally detected. The challenge to directly measure this topological invariant lies in the fact that this spin Chern number is defined based on artificially constructed wave functions. Here we experimentally mimic the celebrated Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model with cold atoms, and then measure the spin Chern number with the linear response theory. We observe that, although the Chern number for each spin component is ill defined, the spin Chern number measured by their difference is still well defined when both energy and spin gaps are nonvanished.

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