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Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331894


BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis. Targeted gene panels and exome sequencing are both available, but the comparative diagnostic yields of these approaches are not known. OBJECTIVE: We compared the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing with the simulated application of commercial targeted gene panels in a large cohort of fetuses with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a cohort study of exome sequencing for nonimmune hydrops fetalis, in which recruitment, exome sequencing, and phenotype-driven variant analysis were completed in 127 pregnancies with features of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. An Internet search was performed to identify commercial laboratories that offer targeted gene panels for the prenatal evaluation of nonimmune hydrops fetalis or for specific disorders associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis using the terms "non-immune hydrops fetalis," "fetal non-immune hydrops," "hydrops," "cystic hygroma," "lysosomal storage disease," "metabolic disorder," "inborn error of metabolism," "RASopathy," and "Noonan." Our primary outcome was the proportion of all genetic variants identified through exome sequencing that would have been identified if a targeted gene panel had instead been used. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of genetic variants that would have been identified by type of targeted gene panel (general nonimmune hydrops fetalis, RASopathy, or metabolic) and the percent of variants of uncertain significance that would have been identified on the panels, assuming 100% analytical sensitivity and specificity of panels for variants in the included genes. RESULTS: Exome sequencing identified a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in 37 of 127 cases (29%) in a total of 29 genes. A variant of uncertain significance, strongly suspected to be associated with the phenotype, was identified in another 12 cases (9%). We identified 7 laboratories that offer 10 relevant targeted gene panels; 6 are described as RASopathy panels, 3 as nonimmune hydrops fetalis panels, and 1 as a metabolic panel. The median number of genes included on each of these panels is 22, ranging from 11 to 148. Had a nonimmune hydrops fetalis targeted gene panel been used instead of exome sequencing, 13 to 15 of the 29 genes (45%-52%) identified in our nonimmune hydrops fetalis cohort would have been sequenced, and 19 to 24 of the pathogenic variants (51%-62%) would have been detected. The yield was predicted to be the lowest with the metabolic panel (11%) and the highest with the largest nonimmune hydrops fetalis panel (62%). The largest nonimmune hydrops fetalis targeted gene panel would have had a diagnostic yield of 18% compared with 29% with exome sequencing. The exome sequencing platform used provided 30× or more coverage for all of the exons on the commercial targeted gene panels, supporting our assumption of 100% analytical sensitivity for exome sequencing. CONCLUSION: The broader coverage of exome sequencing for genetically heterogeneous disorders, such as nonimmune hydrops fetalis, made it a superior alternative to targeted gene panel testing.

Am J Surg ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315577


BACKGROUND: To identify genes associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) to help understand the etiology and inform prognosis. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing on fetuses with CDH and their parents to identify rare genetic variants likely to mediate risk. We reviewed prenatal characteristics and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Data were generated for 22 parent-offspring trios. Six Likely Damaging (LD) variants were identified in five families (23 %). Three LD variants were in genes that contain variants in other CDH cohorts (NR2F2, PTPN11, WT1), while three were in genes that do not (CTR9, HDAC6, TP53). Integrating these data bolsters the evidence of association of NR2F2, PTPN11, and WT1 with CDH in humans. Of the five fetuses with a genetic diagnosis, one was terminated, two underwent perinatal demise, while two survived until repair. CONCLUSIONS: Exome sequencing expands the diagnostic yield of genetic testing in CDH. Correlating CDH patients' exomes with clinical outcomes may enable personalized counseling and therapies.

Prenat Diagn ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057224


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the frequency of accepting secondary findings in families undergoing exome sequencing in prenatal and pediatric settings. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of prospectively enrolled patients undergoing trio exome sequencing for congenital anomalies or developmental disorders in prenatal and pediatric settings, in which families were offered receiving secondary findings (initially assessed in the proband and, if identified, then in the parents). The primary outcome was frequency of accepting secondary findings. Secondary outcomes included frequency of acceptance in prenatal versus pediatric settings, and sociodemographic differences between those who accepted versus declined secondary findings. RESULTS: There were 682 families included in the cohort (289 prenatal and 393 pediatric). Overall, 84% (576/682) of families accepted secondary findings: 86.2% (249/289) of families undergoing prenatal versus 83.2% (327/393) pediatric (p = 0.30) testing. Secondary findings were identified in 2.6% (15/576) of cases, with no difference between prenatal and pediatric settings. There were no differences in sociodemographics between families that accepted versus declined secondary findings. CONCLUSION: The majority of families undergoing exome sequencing accepted secondary findings; this did not differ in prenatal versus pediatric settings. This highlights the need for guidance surrounding the offer of secondary findings in the prenatal setting.

J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805616


Genomic sequencing results need to be effectively communicated across all populations and practice settings. Projects in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium enroll diverse racial/ethnic and medically underserved participants across various clinical contexts. This article explores a set of CSER results disclosure cases to expand the evidence base on experiences returning genomic results. Case details were collected using a structured set of questions. We identified common themes in the case set, and assessed challenges and strategies in achieving six relevant results disclosure objectives. CSER-affiliated patient/community stakeholder impressions of the findings were solicited via video conference calls. Seventeen cases across six CSER projects were included. Case themes sorted into four categories: (1) factors influencing participant understanding, (2) participant emotional response, (3) disease burden, and (4) logistical challenges. Challenges meeting results disclosure objectives included a lack of dialogue, health literacy level, unexpected findings, and complex concepts. Strategies were consistent with traditional genetic counseling practice, but also highlighted approaches being evaluated in CSER projects. Patient/community stakeholders supported the identified themes and provided additional suggestions to improve patient understanding and engagement. These experiences add valuable insights into adapting genomic results disclosure practices to best serve all patient populations.

N Engl J Med ; 383(18): 1746-1756, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027564


BACKGROUND: The cause of most fetal anomalies is not determined prenatally. Exome sequencing has transformed genetic diagnosis after birth, but its usefulness for prenatal diagnosis is still emerging. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), a fetal abnormality that is often lethal, has numerous genetic causes; the extent to which exome sequencing can aid in its diagnosis is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated a series of 127 consecutive unexplained cases of NIHF that were defined by the presence of fetal ascites, pleural or pericardial effusions, skin edema, cystic hygroma, increased nuchal translucency, or a combination of these conditions. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for detecting genetic variants that were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of cases associated with specific genetic disorders and the proportion of variants that were inherited. RESULTS: In 37 of the 127 cases (29%), we identified diagnostic genetic variants, including those for disorders affecting the RAS-MAPK cell-signaling pathway (known as RASopathies) (30% of the genetic diagnoses); inborn errors of metabolism and musculoskeletal disorders (11% each); lymphatic, neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular, and hematologic disorders (8% each); and others. Prognoses ranged from a relatively mild outcome to death during the perinatal period. Overall, 68% of the cases (25 of 37) with diagnostic variants were autosomal dominant (of which 12% were inherited and 88% were de novo), 27% (10 of 37) were autosomal recessive (of which 95% were inherited and 5% were de novo), 1 was inherited X-linked recessive, and 1 was of uncertain inheritance. We identified potentially diagnostic variants in an additional 12 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In this large case series of 127 fetuses with unexplained NIHF, we identified a diagnostic genetic variant in approximately one third of the cases. (Funded by the UCSF Center for Maternal-Fetal Precision Medicine and others; number, NCT03412760.).

Variação Genética , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prognóstico
Genet Med ; 21(6): 1339-1344, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410095


PURPOSE: Numerous etiologies may lead to nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), and the underlying cause often remains unclear. We aimed to determine the proportion of NIHF cases in which the etiology was clearly determined in a large, contemporary, and diverse cohort, as well as to describe the etiologies with a focus on genetic causes. METHODS: Retrospective review of NIHF cases between 2015 and 2017 from the five University of California Fetal-Maternal Consortium sites. Singleton pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed NIHF were included, and cases with maternal alloimmunization were excluded. Cases were categorized as being of confirmed, suspected, or unknown etiology. RESULTS: Sixty-five NIHF cases were identified. Forty-six percent (30/65) remained of unknown etiology, while 9.2% (6/65) had a suspected etiology and 44.6% (29/65) were of confirmed etiology. Among confirmed cases, 11 resulted from aneuploidy; 7 from fetal structural anomalies; 2 each from fetal arrhythmia, Noonan syndrome, and generalized lymphatic dysplasia; and 1 each from arthrogryposis, parvovirus, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, fetal goiter, and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary, multicenter study, the cause of prenatally diagnosed NIHF was confirmed in only 44% of cases, and a genetic etiology was found in only 25% of those that received standard of care genetic testing.

Hidropisia Fetal/etiologia , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneuploidia , California , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal