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1.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110370, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308934

RESUMO

Chronic infection is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The link between infectious agents and atherosclerosis is manifested by the presence of infection-induced pyroptotic cells in atherosclerotic lesions. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection. However, inflammation is not the only cause by which pyroptosis involved in atherosclerosis. During pyroptosis, a large amount of microparticles are released from pyroptotic cells, which not only transfer inflammatory mediators to arterial vessel, but also mediate the interaction between a variety of cells, leading to endothelial injury, macrophage infiltration, vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, thereby accelerating atherosclerosis. Thus, we proposed hypothesis that pyroptotic cell-derived microparticle is an atherogenic factor in infectious diseases.

2.
Nutrition ; 83: 111058, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360033

RESUMO

Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing disorder that results in serious health and socioeconomic issues worldwide. Addictive drugs induce long-lasting morphologic and functional changes in brain circuits and account for the formation of compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Yet, there remains a lack of reliable therapy. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicated that neuroinflammation was implicated in the development of drug addiction. Findings from both our and other laboratories suggest that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are effective in treating neuroinflammation-related mental diseases, and indicate that they could exert positive effects in treating drug addiction. Thus, in the present review, we summarized and evaluated recently published articles reporting the neuroinflammation mechanism in drug addiction and the immune regulatory ability of ω-3 PUFAs. We also sought to identify some of the challenges ahead in the translation of ω-3 PUFAs into addiction treatment.

3.
J Drug Target ; : 1-38, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269623

RESUMO

Vascular remodeling refers to abnormal changes in the structure and function of blood vessel walls caused by injury, and is the main pathological basis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension. Among them, the neointimal hyperplasia caused by abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling. Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) can release vasoactive substances to target VSMCs and regulate the pathological process of vascular remodeling. Specifically, PVAT can promote the conversion of VSMCs phenotype from contraction to synthesis by secreting visfatin, leptin, and resistin, and participate in the development of vascular remodeling-related diseases. Conversely, it can also inhibit the growth of VSMCs by secreting adiponectin and omentin to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and alleviate vascular remodeling. Therefore, exploring and developing new drugs or other treatments that facilitate the beneficial effects of PVAT on VSMCs is a potential strategy for prevention or treatment of vascular remodeling-related cardiovascular diseases.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303989

RESUMO

Celastrol is a triterpene derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f, which displays potential anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of celastrol against clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and the underlying mechanisms. Using Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and genotype-tissue expression (GTEx) database we conducted a bioinformatics analysis, which showed that the mRNA levels of liver-X receptors α (LXRα) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in ccRCC tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent normal tissues. This result was confirmed by immunoblotting analysis of 4 ccRCC clinical specimens, which showed that the protein expression of LXRα and ABCA1 was downregulated. Similar results were obtained in a panel of ccRCC cell lines (786-O, A498, SN12C, and OS-RC-2). In 786-O and SN12C cells, treatment with celastrol (0.25-2.0 µM) concentration-dependently inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that celastrol inhibited the invasion of 786-O cells through reducing lipid accumulation; celastrol concentration-dependently promoted autophagy to reduce lipid storage. Moreover, we revealed that celastrol dramatically activated LXRα signaling, and degraded lipid droplets by inducing lipophagy in 786-O cells. Finally, celastrol promoted cholesterol efflux from 786-O cells via ABCA1. In high-fat diet-promoted ccRCC cell line 786-O xenograft model, administration of celastrol (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1·d-1, for 4 weeks, i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited the tumor growth with upregulated LXRα and ABCA1 protein in tumor tissue. In conclusion, this study reveals that celastrol triggers lipophagy in ccRCC by activating LXRα, promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, suppresses EMT progress, and ultimately inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as tumor growth. Thus, our study provides evidence that celastrol can be used as a lipid metabolism-based anticancer therapeutic approach.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314677

RESUMO

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (Tb ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.

6.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 119, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746850

RESUMO

Exosomes have been considered as novel and potent vehicles of intercellular communication, instead of "cell dust". Exosomes are consistent with anucleate cells, and organelles with lipid bilayer consisting of the proteins and abundant lipid, enhancing their "rigidity" and "flexibility". Neighboring cells or distant cells are capable of exchanging genetic or metabolic information via exosomes binding to recipient cell and releasing bioactive molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Of note, exosomes exert the remarkable effects on lipid metabolism, including the synthesis, transportation and degradation of the lipid. The disorder of lipid metabolism mediated by exosomes leads to the occurrence and progression of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and Alzheimer's diseases and so on. More importantly, lipid metabolism can also affect the production and secretion of exosomes, as well as interactions with the recipient cells. Therefore, exosomes may be applied as effective targets for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Video abstract.

7.
Pharmacology ; : 1-8, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694250

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Homeostasis of cholesterol is crucial for cellular function, and dysregulated cholesterol biosynthesis is a metabolic event that can lead to hepatic and cardiovascular abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of domain-associated protein (Daxx) and androgen receptor (AR) on intracellular cholesterol synthesis. METHODS: HepG2 cells were transfected with pCDNA3.1(+)/Daxx plasmid or treated with testosterone propionate to observe the effects of Daxx and AR on intracellular cholesterol levels. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to identify the interaction between Daxx and AR and to explore the regulatory effects of this interaction on cholesterol synthesis. RESULTS: Our experiments showed that AR promoted cholesterol synthesis and accumulation by activating sterol-regulatory element-binding protein isoform 2. AR-induced cholesterol synthesis was inhibited by Daxx; however, the expression of AR was not affected. Further studies demonstrated the existence of direct binding between Daxx and AR and this interaction was required to suppress AR activity. CONCLUSIONS: The Daxx-mediated antagonism of AR depicts a more complete picture as to how Daxx regulates intracellular cholesterol level and provides a new target for treatment of atherosclerosis.

8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525748

RESUMO

Kadsura heteroclita Roxb. Craib. (Schisandraceae), is a vine plant mainly distributed in southwest part of China. A new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan, kadsulignan W (1), along with eleven known lignans (2-12) were isolated from chloroform soluble fraction of stems of Kadsura heteroclita. The structure of new lignan was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, namely one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and HRESI-MS analysis. The absolute configuration of the biphenyl ring in the new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan was discerned by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Antioxidative effects of these compounds were evaluated on human isolated neutrophils, and compounds 5, 8, 9, and 10 were found to be strongly active with the IC50 of 36.68, 34.41, 35.97, and 33.65 µM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 8 was also found to be cytotoxic against human gastric cancer cells (BGC 823), and human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa) with the IC50 values of 11.0, and 23.8 µM, respectively.

9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 189, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The flowers and dried fruit spikes of Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris L.) have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and food. P. vulgaris L. is regarded as a good option for treating uterine myoma (UM). However, scientific evidence of anti-UM activity of the extract of P. vulgaris L. (PVE) is lacking. The present study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of PVE and evaluate the pharmacodynamics and mechanism of PVE against UM. METHODS: The chemical composition of PVE was analyzed by GC-MS. MTT was used to screen and evaluate cell proliferation and toxicity. Double fluorescence flow cytometry method were used to determine the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of UM cells under PVE treatment. The anti-UM activity of PVE was investigated by using a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rat model of UM. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptosis of UM cells. The concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in the serum of SPF rats were detected by ELISA. The expression levels of PCNA, estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, progesterone receptor, survivin, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in the uterus of SPF rats was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: The extraction rate of PVE was 8.1%. The main components were squalene (28.3%), linoleic acid (9.96%), linolenic acid (9.95%), stearic acid (6.26%) and oleic acid (5.51%). In vitro, PVE had significant anti-human UM cell activity, exhibited no drug toxicity, promoted the apoptosis of human UM cells, and inhibited the transition of UM cells from the G0/G1 stage into the G2 stage, in which DNA replication occurs. In vivo, PVE had significant anti-UM activity. PVE decreased the concentrations of estrogen and progesterone and downregulated the expression levels of the estrogen and progesterone receptors through the estrogen signaling pathway. PVE also promoted the apoptosis of UM cells by downregulating the expression levels of the survivin and Bcl-2 proteins and upregulating the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. CONCLUSION: PVE has marked anti-UM activity. PVE can be used as an ideal candidate drug to treat UM.

10.
Chin Med ; 15: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411290

RESUMO

Background: Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts psychomotor and cognitive functions, most of which are subserved by the dysfunction of hippocampus. Dysregulated excitatory glutamatergic transmission is implicated in repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the main active ingredient of the traditional tonic medicine Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), has been used to treat cognitive deficits. Particularly, Rg1 has been demonstrated to improve hippocampus-dependent learning in mice and attenuate glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. Thus, in the present research, we sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive deficits in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks and unravel the underpinnings of its neuroprotection. Methods: Male ICR (CD-1) mice were consecutively intragastrically treated with 20% (w/v) alcohol for 21 days. Then, behavior tests were conducted to evaluate repeated alcohol induced psychomotor and cognitive deficits. Histopathological changes, and biochemical and molecular alterations were assessed to determine the potential neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1. Results: The results suggested that Rg1, at the optimal dose of 6 mg/kg, has the potential to ameliorate repeated alcohol induced cognitive deficits by regulating activities of NR2B containing NMDARs and excitotoxic signaling. Conclusion: Our findings further provided a new strategy to treat chronic alcohol exposure induced adverse consequences.

11.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 559-577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345030

RESUMO

Depression is partially caused by inflammation in the central nervous system. Early study demonstrated that musk, glandular secretion from male musk deer, exerted an antidepressant-like effect. The aim of this study was to investigate if muscone, a bioactive ingredient in musk, could ameliorate neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors as well as explore the potential action mechanism. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with muscone for 2 weeks prior to administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 1mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with muscone reversed the LPS-induced decrease in body weight within 24h and ameliorated depressive-like behaviors shown by sucrose preference, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. LPS-induced activation of microglial cells and elevation in expression of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß, RANTES, and MCP-1 in the prefrontal cortex of mice were effectively abrogated by muscone, which significantly down-regulated expression of TLR4, MyD88, Caspase-1, NLRP3, renin, and Ang II. In addition, treatment of BV2 microglia cells with muscone markedly attenuated the LPS-induced rise in protein expression of TLR4, Ang II, and IL-1ß. This study revealed that muscone could ameliorate LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors by repressing neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex of mice caused by its suppression on microglia activation and production of inflammatory cytokines via acting on TLR4 pathway and RAS cascade.


Assuntos
Cicloparafinas/administração & dosagem , Cicloparafinas/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cervos , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
12.
J Membr Biol ; 253(2): 101-108, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140737

RESUMO

As a member of the kinesin-3 family, kinesin family member 16B (KIF16B) has a characteristic PhoX homology (PX) domain that binds to membranes containing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P) and moves along microtubule filaments to the plus end via a process regulated by coiled coils in the stalk region in various cell types. The physiological function of KIF16B supports the transport of intracellular cargo and the formation of endosomal tubules. Ras-related protein (Rab) coordinates many steps of membrane transport and are involved in the regulation of KIF16B-mediated vesicle trafficking. Data obtained from clinical research suggest that KIF16B has a potential effect on the disease processes in intellectual disability, abnormal lipid metabolism, and tumor brain metastasis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the structural and physiological characteristics of KIF16B as well as diseases associated with KIF16B disorders, and speculating its role as a potential adaptor for intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18467, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a controversial "panacea," has been broadly studied. Its bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and especially antineoplastic activities have been documented. However, due to its extensive bioactivities, some scientists hold a skeptical point of view toward curcumin and described curcumin as a "deceiver" to chemists. The objective of this study was to explore curcumin's another possibility as a potential supplementary leading compound to cancer treatments. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using electronic databases. Search terms such as "curcumin," "curcumin analogues," and so on were used. The literatures were collected and summarized. In this article, reported targets of curcumin are reviewed. The limitations of a curcumin as a therapeutic anticancer product including low bioavailability and poor targeting are mentioned. Furthermore, modified curcumin analogues and antitumor mechanisms are listed and discussed in the aspects of cell death and tumor microenvironment including angiogenesis, tissue hypoxia status, and energy metabolism. RESULTS: Several possible modification strategies were presented by analyzing the relationships between the antitumor activity of curcumin analogues and their structural characteristics, including the introduction of hydrophilic group, shortening of redundant hydrocarbon chain, the introduction of extra chemical group, and so on. CONCLUSIONS: From our perspective, after structural modification curcumin could be more effective complementary product for cancer therapies by the enhancement of targeting abilities and the improvement of bioavailability.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Corantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapias Complementares , Curcumina/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678514

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by lipids metabolism disorder and inflammatory response. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Wingless type 5a (Wnt5a) is implicated in cardiovascular diseases through non-canonical Wnt cascades. However, its precise role during the pathogenesis of AS is still unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the role and the underlying mechanism of Wnt5a/receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) pathways in the promotion of AS process through affecting lipid accumulation and inflammation. In atherosclerotic clinical samples, Wnt5a levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. In vivo experiments were conducted by using apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice model. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were applied for in vitro studies. Wnt5a was highly expressed in both of atherosclerotic clinical samples and apoE-/- mice. The knockdown of Wnt5a significantly inhibited cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory response. Additionally, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation aggravated the cholesterol accumulation and decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression in VSMCs. Depletion of intracellular cholesterol by ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) led to the upregulation of ABCA1 and the inhibition of inflammation. Conversely, the overexpression of Wnt5a inhibited ABCA1 expression, facilitated cholesterol accumulation, impared cholesterol efflux, promoted NF-κB nuclear translocation and the inflammatory cytokines secretion. Moreover, the knockdown of Ror2 increased ABCA1 expression and reduced Wnt5a-induced cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the knockdown of ABCA1 enhanced cholesterol accumulation and inflammatory response. Therefore, Wnt5a/Ror2 pathway was critical in regulating cholesterol homeostasis and inflammatory response, which might be a promising therapeutic target for AS therapy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/sangue , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteína Wnt-5a/sangue , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética
15.
Phytochemistry ; 169: 112178, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669819

RESUMO

In the present work, we take advantage of the characteristic NMR signal (δC-10 = 96.0-99.9) for guiding the isolation of schinortriterpenoids (SNTs) from n-butanol fraction of stems of Kadsura heteroclita which is a Tujia ethnomedicine with trivial name "Xuetong". This effort resulted in the identification of three unreported 3,4:9,10-disecocycloartane triterpenoids xuetongdilactones A-C and three undescribed SNTs xuetongdilactones D-F, along with two known SNTs, namely, wuweizidilactone B and micrandilactone B. The structures of the unreported compounds were established based on 1D, and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute stereochemistry of xuetongdilactone A was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis along with ECD calculation. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for all the isolated compounds.


Assuntos
Kadsura/química , Caules de Planta/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 20(4): 504-517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To overcome the disadvantages of cisplatin, numerous platinum (Pt) complexes have been prepared. However, the anticancer activity and mechanism of Pt(II) complexed with 2-benzoylpyridine [Pt(II)- Bpy]: [PtCl2(DMSO)L] (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide, L = 2-benzoylpyridine) in cancer cells remain unknown. METHODS: Pt(II)-Bpy was synthesized and characterized by spectrum analysis. Its anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms were demonstrated at the cellular, molecular, and in vivo levels. RESULTS: Pt(II)-Bpy inhibited tumor cell growth, especially HepG2 human liver cancer cells, with a halfmaximal inhibitory concentration of 9.8±0.5µM, but with low toxicity in HL-7702 normal liver cells. Pt(II)- Bpy induced DNA damage, which was demonstrated through a marked increase in the expression of cleavedpoly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) and gamma-H2A histone family member X and a decrease in PARP expression. The interaction of Pt(II)-Bpy with DNA at the molecular level was most likely through an intercalation mechanism, which might be evidence of DNA damage. Pt(II)-Bpy initiated cell cycle arrest at the S phase in HepG2 cells. It also caused severe loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential; a decrease in the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3; an increase in reactive oxygen species levels; the release of cytochrome c and apoptotic protease activation factor; and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in HepG2 cells, which in turn resulted in apoptosis. Meanwhile, changes in p53 and related proteins were observed including the upregulation of p53, the phosphorylation of p53, p21, B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein, and NOXA; and the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2. Moreover, Pt(II)-Bpy displayed marked inhibitory effects on tumor growth in the HepG2 nude mouse model. CONCLUSION: Pt(II)-Bpy is a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy.

17.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104441, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778760

RESUMO

In the present work, we reported the triterpenoids isolated from n-butanol fraction of Kadsura heteroclita which is a Tujia ethnomedicine with trivial name "Xuetong". This effort resulted in the isolation of six unpresented triterpenoids xuetongsu A-F (1-6), along with five known triterpenoids (7-11). The structures of the reported compounds were established on the 1D, and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectra, along with CD spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the absolute stereochemistry of compound 7 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for all isolated compounds, compound 7 shown weak cytotoxic activity against HL-60 with IC50 value of 50.0 µM.


Assuntos
Kadsura/química , Caules de Planta/química , Triterpenos/química , China , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 500: 81-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770510

RESUMO

The SREBP2/LDLR pathway is sensitive to cholesterol content in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while membrane low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is influenced by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of LDLR (IDOL). LDL-C, one of the risk factors in cardiovascular disease, is cleared through endocytosis recycling of LDLR. Therefore, we propose that a balance between LDLR endocytosis recycling and PCSK9-mediated and IDOL-mediated lysosomal LDLR degradation is responsible for cholesterol homeostasis in the ER. For statins that decrease serum LDL-C levels via cholesterol synthesis inhibition, the mechanism by which the statins increase the membrane LDLR may be regulated by cholesterol homeostasis in the ER.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Animais , Endocitose , Humanos , Receptores de LDL/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Transcrição Genética
19.
J Drug Target ; 28(5): 449-455, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835918

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the main intracellular components of the blood vessel wall. The abnormalities of VSMCs participate in the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis, especially the formation and stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Autophagy is involved in the regulation of proliferation, migration and phenotype switching of VSMCs, which in turn affects the pathological process of atherosclerosis. However, the autophagy of VSMCs has a dual effect on cells survival. Autophagy is induced in VSMCs by various stimuli such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), unsaturated lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde and excess free cholesterol, thereby promoting VSMCs survival and stabilising atherosclerotic plaque. Conversely, autophagy caused by factors such as osteopontin (OPN), angiotensin II (Ang II) and nicotine can accelerate the death of VSMCs, further accelerating atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, mitophagy and lipophagy as selective autophagy are also involved in the outcome of VSMCs as well as progression of atherosclerotic lesion. Currently, there are only a few drugs available to induce VSMCs autophagy, such as atorvastatin, telmisartan and so on. Due to the important role of VSMCs autophagy in the progression of atherosclerosis plaques, drugs that directly target autophagy of VSMCs are urgently needed to be developed.

20.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752145

RESUMO

Curcumin is an anticancer agent, but adverse effects and low bioavailability are its main drawbacks, which drives efforts in chemical modifications of curcumin. This study evaluated antiproliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity of a curcumin derivative, curcumin nicotinate (CN), in which two niacin molecules were introduced. Our data showed that CN effectively inhibited proliferation and clonogenic growth of colon (HCT116), breast (MCF-7) and nasopharyngeal (CNE2, 5-8F and 6-10B) cancer cells with IC50 at 27.7 µM, 73.4 µM, 64.7 µM, 46.3 µM, and 31.2 µM, respectively. In cancer cells, CN induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase through a p53-mediated mechanism, where p53 was activated, p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bak were upregulated, and PARP was cleaved. In non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A, CN at 50 µM had no cytotoxicity and p53 was not activated, but curcumin at 12.5 µM activated p53 and p21 and inhibited MCF10A cell growth. These data suggest that CN inhibits cell growth and proliferation through p53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest with cancer cell selectivity.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7
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