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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543412

RESUMO

Geogenic arsenic enrichment in soil and river sediments of Tibet compared to its upper crustal abundance has been observed, raising the question whether other trace elements are also enriched and thus may pose ecological risks. Because human activities are limited, the reservoir sediments after the recent construction of the Shiquan dam on the Singe Tsangpo (ST) and the Zam dam on the Yarlung Tsangpo (YT) collect and thus represent material sourced from 14,870 km2 and 157,668 km2 of drainage areas, respectively. Bulk concentrations of the metalloid (As) and 13 metals (Li, Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cs, and Pb) are analyzed for 123 samples from 9 mostly silty sediment cores (depth: 11-20 cm) from the Shiquan Reservoir and for 250 samples from 13 mostly sandy sediment cores (depth: 9-28 cm) from the Zam Reservoir. These elemental concentrations are normalized to the upper crustal Fe abundance of 3.9% to arrive at a regional sediment geochemical background value for each element. The regional background values of most elements in the ST drainage and the YT drainage are comparable with the upper crustal abundance. However, three elements (Li, As, and Cs) in both drainage basins display significant enrichment compared to their respective upper crustal abundance. Sequential leaching of a subset of sediment samples from the ST (n = 18) and YT (n = 29) drainages reveals that chemical fractions of metals and metalloids in these two reservoirs are similar, with most of the elements dominated by the residual fraction with low mobility. Taken together, the ecological risks of the most studied elements in the reservoir sediments are likely low pending further aquatic bioavailability investigations, except that As, Cu, Pb, and Be deserve more attention due to their elevated levels in mobile fractions.

2.
Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 32, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547272

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the most fundamental physical properties to characterize various physical, chemical, and biological processes. Even a slight change in temperature could have an impact on the status or dynamics of a system. Thus, there is a great need for high-precision and large-dynamic-range temperature measurements. Conventional temperature sensors encounter difficulties in high-precision thermal sensing on the submicron scale. Recently, optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) sensors have shown promise for many sensing applications, such as thermal sensing, magnetic detection, and biosensing. However, despite their superior sensitivity, the conventional sensing method for WGM resonators relies on tracking the changes in a single mode, which limits the dynamic range constrained by the laser source that has to be fine-tuned in a timely manner to follow the selected mode during the measurement. Moreover, we cannot derive the actual temperature from the spectrum directly but rather derive a relative temperature change. Here, we demonstrate an optical WGM barcode technique involving simultaneous monitoring of the patterns of multiple modes that can provide a direct temperature readout from the spectrum. The measurement relies on the patterns of multiple modes in the WGM spectrum instead of the changes of a particular mode. It can provide us with more information than the single-mode spectrum, such as the precise measurement of actual temperatures. Leveraging the high sensitivity of WGMs and eliminating the need to monitor particular modes, this work lays the foundation for developing a high-performance temperature sensor with not only superior sensitivity but also a broad dynamic range.

3.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533914

RESUMO

The airway mucosal microenvironment is crucial for host defense against inhaled pathogens but remains poorly understood. We report here that the airway surface normally undergoes surprisingly large excursions in pH during breathing that can reach pH 9.0 during inhalation, making it the most alkaline fluid in the body. Transient alkalinization requires luminal bicarbonate and membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) and is antimicrobial. Luminal bicarbonate concentration and CA12 expression are both reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF), and mucus accumulation both buffers the pH and obstructs airflow, further suppressing the oscillations and bacterial-killing efficacy. Defective pH oscillations may compromise airway host defense in other respiratory diseases and explain CF-like airway infections in people with CA12 mutations.

4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127558, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711269

RESUMO

Shellfishes contain plasmalogens correlating to the functions of brain, heart, etc. Herein, a mild acid hydrolysis and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for analyzing plasmalogens in six shellfish species. A total of 19 plasmalogen molecular species were successfully identified, including nine phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (plasPC), seven phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen (plasPE), and three phosphatidylserine plasmalogen (plasPS). The quantitative results indicated that mussel (32 µg·mg-1) possessed the highest content of plasmalogens, followed by oyster (21 µg·mg-1) and razor clam (15 µg·mg-1). The statistic models showed that the plasPE P-18:0/20:5 (m/z 748), plasPE P-16:0/22:2 & P-18:0/20:2 (m/z 754) and plasPS were the most contributing difference between shellfishes. The results indicated that this method was sensitive and precise to determine plasmalogens in shellfish, and mussel was demonstrated to be a good choice for the large-scale preparation of plasmalogens.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Plasmalogênios/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lipidômica/métodos , Ostrea/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilserinas/análise , Plasmalogênios/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374769

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is one of the most common and well-recognized risk factors for human cancer, including colon cancer. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as a longstanding idiopathic chronic active inflammatory process in the colon, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Importantly, patients with IBD have a significantly increased risk for the development of colorectal carcinoma. Dietary inositol and its phosphates, as well as phospholipid derivatives, are well known to benefit human health in diverse pathologies including cancer prevention. Inositol phosphates including InsP3, InsP6, and other pyrophosphates, play important roles in cellular metabolic and signal transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, RNA export, DNA repair, energy transduction, ATP regeneration, and numerous others. In the review, we highlight the biologic function and health effects of inositol and its phosphates including the nature and sources of these molecules, potential nutritional deficiencies, their biologic metabolism and function, and finally, their role in the prevention of colitis-induced carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Colite/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/prevenção & controle , Fosfatos de Inositol/farmacologia , Inositol/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos
6.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208462

RESUMO

The TP53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers, and the majority of TP53 mutations are missense mutations. As a result, these mutant p53 (mutp53) either directly lose wild-type p53 (wtp53) tumor suppressor function or exhibit a dominant negative effect over wtp53. In addition, some mutp53 have acquired new oncogenic function (gain of function). Therefore, targeting mutp53 for its degradation, may serve as a promising strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. Based on our previous finding that farnesylated DNAJA1 is a crucial chaperone in maintaining mutp53 stabilization, and by using an in silico approach, we built 3-D homology models of human DNAJA1 and mutp53R175H proteins, identified the interacting pocket in the DNAJA1-mutp53R175H complex, and found one critical druggable small molecule binding  site in the DNAJA1 glycine/phenylalanine rich region. We confirmed that the interacting pocket in the DNAJA1-mutp53R175H complex was crucial for stabilizing mutp53R175H using a site-directed mutagenesis approach. We further screened a drug-like library to identify a promising small molecule hit (GY1-22) against the interacting pocket in DNAJA1-mutp53R175H complex. The GY1-22 compound displayed an effective activity against DNAJA1-mutp53R175H complex. Treatment with GY1-22 significantly reduced mutp53 protein levels, enhanced Waf1p21 expression, suppressed cyclin D1 expression, and inhibited mutp53-driven pancreatic cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results indicate that the interacting pocket in the DNAJA1-mutp53R175H complex is critical for mutp53's stability and oncogenic function, and DNAJA1 is a robust therapeutic target for developing the efficient small molecule inhibitors against oncogenic mutp53.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147626

RESUMO

Cell-cell communications in multicellular organisms generally involve secreted ligand-receptor (LR) interactions, which is vital for various biological phenomena. Recent advancements in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) have effectively resolved cellular phenotypic heterogeneity and the cell-type composition of complex tissues, facilitating the systematic investigation of cell-cell communications at single-cell resolution. However, assessment of chemical-signal-dependent cell-cell communication through scRNA-seq relies heavily on prior knowledge of LR interaction pairs. We constructed CellTalkDB (http://tcm.zju.edu.cn/celltalkdb), a manually curated comprehensive database of LR interaction pairs in humans and mice comprising 3398 human LR pairs and 2033 mouse LR pairs, through text mining and manual verification of known protein-protein interactions using the STRING database, with literature-supported evidence for each pair. Compared with SingleCellSignalR, the largest LR-pair resource, CellTalkDB includes not only 2033 mouse LR pairs but also 377 additional human LR pairs. In conclusion, the data on human and mouse LR pairs contained in CellTalkDB could help to further the inference and understanding of the LR-interaction-based cell-cell communications, which might provide new insights into the mechanism underlying biological processes.

8.
iScience ; 23(11): 101748, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225250

RESUMO

Selecting appropriate cell lines to represent a disease is crucial for the success of biomedical research, because the usage of less relevant cell lines could deliver misleading results. However, systematic guidance on cell line selection is unavailable. Here we developed a clinical Genomics-guided Prioritizing Strategy for Cancer Cell Lines (CCL-cGPS) and help to guide this process. Statistical analyses revealed CCL-cGPS selected cell lines were among the most appropriate models. Moreover, we observed a linear correlation between the drug response and CCL-cGPS score of cell lines for breast and thyroid cancers. Using RT4 cells selected by CCL-GPS, we identified mebendazole and digitoxin as candidate drugs against bladder cancer and validate their promising anticancer effect through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Additionally, a web tool was developed. In conclusion, CCL-cGPS bridges the gap between tumors and cell lines, presenting a helpful guide to select the most suitable cell line models.

9.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13760, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068310

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) can be effective for the early screening and diagnosis of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the distinctive CT characteristics of two stages of the disease (progression and remission). METHODS: We included all COVID-19 patients admitted to Wenzhou Central Hospital from January to February, 2020. Patients underwent multiple chest CT scans at intervals of 3-10 days. CT features were recorded, such as the lesion lobe, distribution characteristics (subpleural, scattered or diffused), shape of the lesion, maximum size of the lesion, lesion morphology (ground-glass opacity, GGO) and consolidation features. When consolidation was positive, the boundary was identified to determine its clarity. RESULTS: The ratios of some representative features differed between the remission stage and the progression phase, such as round-shape lesion (8.0% vs 34.4%), GGO (65.0% vs 87.5%), consolidation (62.0% vs 31.3%), large cable sign (59.0% vs 9.4%) and crazy-paving sign (20.0% vs 50.0%). Using these features, we pooled all the CT data (n = 132) and established a logistic regression model to predict the current development stage. The variables consolidation, boundary feature, large cable sign and crazy-paving sign were the most significant factors, based on a variable named "prediction of progression or remission" (PPR) that we constructed. The ROC curve showed that PPR had an AUC of 0.882 (cutoff value = 0.66, sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.875). CONCLUSION: CT characteristics, in particular, round shape, GGO, consolidation, large cable sign, and crazy-paving sign, may increase the recognition of the intrapulmonary development of COVID-19.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(44): 10023-10049, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053004

RESUMO

Decellularized materials (DMs) are attracting more and more attention because of their native structures, comparatively high bioactivity, low immunogenicity and good biodegradability, which are difficult to be imitated by synthetic materials. Recently, DMs have been demonstrated to possess great potential to overcome the disadvantages of autografts and have become a kind of promising material for tissue engineering. In this systematic review, we aimed to not only provide a quick access for understanding DMs, but also bring new ideas to utilize them more appropriately in tissue engineering. Firstly, the preparation of DMs was introduced. Then, the updated applications of DMs derived from different tissues and organs in tissue engineering were comprehensively summarized. In particular, their advantages, drawbacks and current improvements were emphasized. Moreover, we analyzed and proposed future perspectives.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4081-4087, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124289

RESUMO

Thirteen typical antibiotics in surface water of the Lianhua Reservoir were analyzed using HPLC/MS/MS to assess the pollution characteristics and risk levels. Ten antibiotics except for erythromycin, sulfadiazine, and sulfamethoxazole were detected in surface water and the total concentration of antibiotics varied between non-detectable (n.d.) and 925.26 ng ·L-1. Azithromycin had the highest concentration (n.d.-232.61 ng ·L-1) with the detection frequency of 75%, followed by enrofloxacin (n.d.-187.69 ng ·L-1), tetracycline (n.d.-155.05 ng ·L-1), and ciprofloxacin (n.d.-83.66 ng ·L-1) with the detection frequencies over 60%. The spatial distribution of antibiotics was as follows: total concentration of upstream (sampling point 1) > Aoxi River stream tributary (sampling point 2) > reservoir downstream (sampling point 3) > reservoir entrance (sampling point 4) > reservoir area (sampling point 5). The seasonal variations in the concentrations of antibiotics were evident; total concentrations in the dry season were significantly higher than those in the wet and normal seasons. The results of the environmental risk assessment indicated that ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin pose significant risks to the environment. In the Lianhua Reservoir, ciprofloxacin showed high potential risk to the ecological environment, while the environmental risks of other antibiotics in the reservoir were below the medium level. The combined risk value of the antibiotics in the dry season was higher than that in the wet and normal seasons.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
JCI Insight ; 5(23)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119551

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly occurs after surgery and is associated with atrial remodeling. TRPV4 is functionally expressed in the heart, and its activation affects cardiac structure and functions. We hypothesized that TRPV4 blockade alleviates atrial remodeling and reduces AF induction in sterile pericarditis (SP) rats. TRPV4 antagonist GSK2193874 or vehicle was orally administered 1 day before pericardiotomy. AF susceptibility and atrial function were assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, ex vivo optical mapping, patch clamp, and molecular biology on day 3 after surgery. TRPV4 expression increased in the atria of SP rats and patients with AF. GSK2193874 significantly reduced AF vulnerability in vivo and the frequency of atrial ectopy and AF with a reentrant pattern ex vivo. Mechanistically, GSK2193874 reversed the abnormal action potential duration (APD) prolongation in atrial myocytes through the regulation of voltage-gated K+ currents (IK); reduced the activation of atrial fibroblasts by inhibiting P38, AKT, and STAT3 pathways; and alleviated the infiltration of immune cells. Our results reveal that TRPV4 blockade prevented abnormal changes in atrial myocyte electrophysiology and ameliorated atrial fibrosis and inflammation in SP rats; therefore, it might be a promising strategy to treat AF, particularly postoperative AF.

13.
Hum Pathol ; 105: 37-46, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916163

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer type in the United States. While the incidence of CRC is decreasing among an older population undergoing screening, the incidence of early-onset CRC is rising. There is a growing understanding that the molecular underpinnings of colorectal carcinoma vary by age. In this study, we report the genetic alterations and clinicopathologic features of a single-institution colorectal carcinoma cohort over a 2-year period using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach and microsatellite stability (MS) status determined by immunohistochemical staining. Forty cases were identified in an early-onset colorectal carcinoma cohort (eCRC) defined by age <40 years, and 164 cases were identified in an age-related colorectal carcinoma cohort (arCRC) defined by age >70 years. eCRC was more often-left-sided/rectal and more likely to present high rates of lymph node positivity with metastatic disease. NGS mutational analysis revealed distinct differences between eCRC and arCRC, with eCRC being characterized by low frequency of PIK3CA mutations, elevated frequency of KRAS and CTNNB1 mutations in microsatellite instability high tumors, and very low frequency of BRAF mutations.

14.
Opt Express ; 28(19): 28620-28634, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988129

RESUMO

We propose a spectrometric method to detect a classical weak force acting upon the moving end mirror in a cavity optomechanical system. The force changes the equilibrium position of the end mirror, and thus the resonance frequency of the cavity field depends on the force to be detected. As a result, the magnitude of the force can be inferred by analyzing the single-photon emission and scattering spectra of the optomechanical cavity. Since the emission and scattering processes are much faster than the characteristic mechanical dissipation, the influence of the mechanical thermal noise is negligible in this spectrometric detection scheme. We also extent this spectrometric method to detect a monochromatic oscillating force by utilizing an optomechanical coupling modulated at the same frequency as the force.

15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3393-3405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884242

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that curcumin derivatives can improve the fatty degeneration of liver tissue that occurs in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the specific mechanism for that improvement remains unclear. We examined whether the curcumin derivative galangin could reduce the fatty degeneration of liver tissue in mice with NAFLD by inducing autophagy, from the perspective of both prevention and treatment. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a prevention group (given galangin and a HFD simultaneously) or a treatment group (given galangin after being fed an HFD). The prevention group was treated with galangin (100 mg/kg/d) or an equal volume of normal saline (NS) while being fed an HFD. Some mice were treated with an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA; 30 mg/kg/biwk, i.p.) while being fed an HFD and galangin. HepG2 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing both free fatty acids and galangin. Results: Galangin was found to reduce the fatty degeneration of liver tissue induced by eating an HFD at both the prevention and treatment levels, and that effect might be related to an enhancement of hepatocyte autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA blocked the protective effect of galangin on hepatic steatosis. At the cellular level, galangin reduced lipid accumulation and enhanced the level of hepatocyte autophagy. Conclusion: In vitro and in vivo studies showed that galangin cannot only improve pre-existing hepatic steatosis but also prevent the development of stenosis by promoting hepatocyte autophagy.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140406, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886960

RESUMO

Construction of dams on the Singe Tsangpo (ST) and the Yarlung Tsangpo (YT) Rivers, the upper stretch of the Indus and the Brahmaputra Rivers, respectively, are expected to affect material transport. To evaluate the effects of dam construction on arsenic (As) mobility and transport in the ST River and the YT River in Tibet and the downstream river basins, water column and sediment core samples in the Shiquan Reservoir of the ST River and in the Zam Reservoir of the YT River were obtained in August 2017, and January and May 2018, and additionally, at the inflows and outfalls of the reservoirs. The seasonal variation of dissolved As contents in the inflow water of the Zam Reservoir and the Shiquan Reservoir was regulated by the mixing between the low-As river runoff and the high-As hot spring input. Water residence time (WRT) is a key variable regulating the variation of dissolved As contents in reservoirs and outflow waters with time. The absence of the oxic layer at the sediment-water interface reduced the accumulation of As in surface sediments under high-flow conditions. Arsenic mobility in sediment of the two reservoirs was mainly controlled by Mn oxides and organic matter. Reservoirs with long water residence time are more favorable for As retention. Sedimentation was the main mechanism of As retention. The Shiquan Reservoir with a longer WRT of 385 days can effectively retain 55% of the total arsenic load from upstream, while the Zam Reservoir has no effective retention of arsenic due to the very short WRT of 1.1 days. These have important implications on the geochemical and ecological environments of the downstream river basins.

17.
Opt Express ; 28(15): 22867-22881, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752540

RESUMO

We propose a scheme to implement a supersensitive estimation of the coupling strength in a hybrid optomechanical system which consists of a cavity-Bose-Einstein condensate system coupled to an impurity. This method can dramatically improve the estimation precision even when the involved photon number is small. The quantum Fisher information indicates that the Heisenberg scale sensitivity of the coupling rate could be obtained when the photon loss rate is smaller than the corresponding critical value in the input of either coherent state or squeezed state. The critical photon decay rate for the coherent state is larger than that of the squeezed state, and the coherent state input case is more robust against the photon loss than the squeezed state case. We also present the measurement scheme which can saturate the quantum Cramér-Rao bound.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12557, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724074

RESUMO

We study the effect of quantum entanglement maintained by virtual excitations in an ultrastrongly-coupled harmonic-oscillator system. Here, the quantum entanglement is caused by the counterrotating interaction terms and hence it is maintained by the virtual excitations. We obtain the analytical expression for the ground state of the system and analyze the relationship between the average excitation numbers and the ground-state entanglement. We also study the entanglement dynamics between the two oscillators in both the closed- and open-system cases. In the latter case, the quantum master equation is microscopically derived in the normal-mode representation of the coupled-oscillator system. This work will open a route to the study of quantum information processing and quantum physics based on virtual excitations.

19.
Opt Express ; 28(11): 16175-16190, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549445

RESUMO

We study the photon blockade effect in a coupled cavity system, which is formed by a linear cavity coupled to a Kerr-type nonlinear cavity via a photon-hopping interaction. We explain the physical phenomenon from the viewpoint of the conventional and unconventional photon blockade effects. The corresponding physical mechanisms of the two kinds of photon blockade effects are based on the anharmonicity in the eigenenergy spectrum and the destructive quantum interference between two different transition paths, respectively. In particular, we find that the photon blockade via destructive quantum interference also exists in the conventional photon blockade regime and that the unconventional photon blockade occurs in both the weak- and strong-Kerr nonlinearity cases. The photon blockade effect can be observed by calculating the second-order correlation function of the cavity field. This model is general and hence it can be implemented in various experimental setups such as coupled optical-cavity systems, coupled photon-magnon systems, and coupled superconducting-resonator systems. We present some discussions on the experimental feasibility.

20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110384, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554248

RESUMO

A few clinical trials have recently reported the potential effect of colchicine in preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) and early atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter pulmonary vein isolation. However, the molecular mechanisms through which colchicine inhibits AF remain unclear. We aim to assess the anti-AF effect of colchicine in the rat sterile pericarditis (SP) model and to investigate its molecular mechanisms. SP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by the epicardial application of sterile talc. Treatment with colchicine or vehicle began 1 d before pericardiotomy. AF was induced by transesophageal burst pacing on day 3 after surgery. Treatment with colchicine reduced the duration of AF and the probability of induction of AF in SP rats. The dose of 0.5 mg kg-1·day-1 had the best effect. Such treatment also reduced neutrophil infiltration, the mRNA expression of IL-6, TGF-ß, and TNF-α, atrial fibrosis, fibrosis related genes, and signal molecules (STAT3, P38, and AKT). Meanwhile, the release of IL-1ß (4-24 h) and IL-6 (4-72 h) in atria after surgery was significantly inhibited by colchicine. In cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts, colchicine treatment inhibited IL-1ß-induced expression of IL-6, which was accompanied by significantly decreased phosphorylation of P38, AKT, JNK, and NFκB. Interestingly, the supplementation of IL-6 abolished the anti-AF effect of colchicine in SP rats. Colchicine prevents AF in SP rats through the inhibition of IL-1ß-induced IL-6 release and subsequent atrial fibrosis. However, further studies are required to investigate whether colchicine inhibits POAF through other mechanisms.

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