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1.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 14(1): 15-26, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561908

RESUMO

The present study investigates the possibility of using poloxamers as solubility and dissolution rate enhancing agents of poorly water soluble bioactive constituent patchouli alcohol (PA) that can be used for the preparation of immediate release pellets formulation. Two commercially available grades poloxamer 188 (P 188) and poloxamer 407 (P 407) were selected, and solid dispersions (SDs) containing different weight ratio of PA and poloxamers, and the combination of P 188 and P 407 as dispersing carriers of ternary solid dispersions (tSDs) were prepared by a low temperature melting method and solidified rapidly by dropping into the 10-15 °C condensing agent atoleine. Both PA/P 188 and PA/P 407 binary solid dispersions (bSDs) could remarkably promote the dissolution rate of PA, increasing approximately 16 times in bSDs with poloxamers in comparison with pure PA within 180 min. P188 contributed to a faster dissolution rate than P 407, however, P 407 had a better solubility. It is interesting to note that the incorporation of P 188 in PA/P 407 bSD pellets could strongly enhance the dissolution rate of PA. DSC and FTIR were used to explore the characteristics of PA-SD pellets. The enhancement of dissolution from the SDs may be attributed partly to the reduction in particle size in PA crystalline due to the formation of eutectic system with poloxamers. Moreover, a simple, accurate in-vitro dissolution test method for volatility drug was established, and the process of PA-SD pellets preparation was simple, rapid, cost effective, uncomplicated and potentially scalable.

2.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 41(3): 436-44, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410045

RESUMO

Solid dispersion technique is known to be an effective approach for the polymer to keep drugs stable in the solid state, thereby improving the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability through inhibiting reprecipitation in supersaturated solution. In this study, to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG), Polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) and Aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit), the reprecipitation profiles were observed from supersaturated solutions of Patchouli alcohol (PA) in the presence and absence of the polymers. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of PA solid dispersions formulated with PEG, PVP or Eudragit were compared for investigating the effect on improving dissolution of each polymer. Solid dispersions formulated with Eudragit were found to result in solution with the highest extent of supersaturation. By contrast, PEG and PVP were less effective. At equivalent supersaturation, all three polymers are capable of mitigating reprecipitation relative to that of PA alone. In addition, in the PA solid dispersion with Eudragit (E-SD (1/3)), the highest concentration of supersaturation of PA was maintained for prolonged time. These results unambiguously indicate that it is imperative to select the appropriate polymer and drug/polymer ratio in addition to considering the stability of the supersaturated solution, which was generated following dissolution of amorphous solid dispersion.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Polímeros/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Polímeros/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Solubilidade
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25435895

RESUMO

Background. Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction (SGD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has been widely used to treat adenomyosis, dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain, and inflammation in Asia. However, the mechanism underlying the effectiveness of SGD in the treatment of adenomyosis still remains elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the bioactivity of SGD and its underlying molecular mechanisms using cultured human adenomyosis-derived cells. Methods. Human adenomyosis-derived cells were treated with SGD and its major constituents (paeoniflorin and liquiritin) in vitro. Effects of SGD, paeoniflorin, and liquiritin on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analyses. The effects of SGD, paeoniflorin, and liquiritin on the production of PGE2 and PGF2α were assayed using ELISA. ER-α and OTR mRNA expression levels were also evaluated by real-time qRT-PCR. Results. SGD, paeoniflorin, and liquiritin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of human adenomyosis-derived cells in a dose-dependent manner. SGD and paeoniflorin significantly reduced the PGE2 and PGF2α production. Furthermore, they remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of ER-α and OTR. Conclusions. The results of this study provide possible mechanisms for the bioactivity of SGD for treating adenomyosis and contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge about this prescription.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 157: 212-21, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256685

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth is a well-known medicinal herb commonly used in many Asian countries for inflammatory diseases. Pogostone (PO), a natural product isolated from Pogostemon cablin, is known to exert various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of PO, to elucidate its mechanism of action, and to evaluate its potential acute toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of PO was assessed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The protein and mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators were measured with ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK family were determined by Western blot to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of PO was tested using LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice. In addition, the median lethal dose (LD50) of PO in mice was tested in an acute toxicity test. RESULTS: In vitro, PO significantly inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, NO, and PGE2. The action mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of PO was partly dependent on inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. In vivo, PO was able to significantly reduce the mortality induced by LPS in mice. Furthermore, PO could markedly suppress the production of the proinflammatory mediators in serum, and attenuate liver and lung injury. The action mechanisms of PO during endotoxic shock may be attributed to down-regulation of the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in multiple organs via inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Moreover, the LD50 of PO in mice was about 163mg/kg with intravenous administration, which was about 8-fold higher than the dose used in the animal experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of PO and the underlying molecular mechanisms help justify the use of Pogostemon cablin in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. More importantly, the results also render PO a promising anti-inflammatory agent worthy of further development into a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of septic shock.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 22(2): 371-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25068825

RESUMO

Usnic acid is a dibenzofuran derivative found in several lichen species, which has been shown to possess several activities, including antiviral, antibiotic, antitumoral, antipyretic, analgesic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there were few reports on the effects of usnic acid on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of our study was to explore the effect and possible mechanism of usnic acid on LPS-induced lung injury. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with usnic acid significantly improved survival rate, pulmonary edema. In the meantime, protein content and the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) significantly decreased, and the levels of MPO, MDA, and H2O2 in lung tissue were markedly suppressed after treatment with usnic acid. Meanwhile, the activities of SOD and GSH in lung tissue significantly increased after treatment with usnic acid. Additionally, to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of usnic acid, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in BALF were studied. The results in the present study indicated that usnic acid attenuated the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-2. Meanwhile, the improved level of IL-10 in BALF was observed. In conclusion, these data showed that the protective effect of usnic acid on LPS-induced ALI in mice might relate to the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in lung tissue. Thus, it was suggested that usnic acid might be a potential therapeutic agent for ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Contagem de Células , Citocinas/imunologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 119, 2013 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23721522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, HZJW, has been applied in clinics in China for gastrointestinal disorders. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy and safety remained to be defined. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the formula HZJW for its gastroprotective potential, possible effect on Helicobacter pylori along with safety to justify its anti-ulcer action and safe clinical application. METHODS: The gastroduodenal cytoprotective potential was evaluated in rodent experimental models (HCl/Ethanol and NSAID-induced ulcer protocols). The anti-H. pylori property was assessed by agar dilution assay in vitro and analysis in vivo including rapid urease test, immunogold test and histopathology. For toxicity assessment, acute toxicity study was performed according to fixed dose procedure with a single oral administration of HZJW to mice. In the oral chronic toxicity, rats (80 males, 80 females) were administrated HZJW orally in 0, 1000, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg/day doses for 26 weeks (n = 40/group of each sex). Clinical signs, mortality, body weights, feed consumption, ophthalmology, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights and histopathology were examined at the end of the 13- and 26-week dosing period, as well as after the 4-week recovery period. RESULTS: In the HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer model, it was observed that oral administration with HZJW (260, 520 and 1040 mg/kg) and ranitidine (250 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesion index (116.70 ± 36.4, 102.20 ± 18.20, 84.10 ± 12.1 and 73.70 ± 16.70) in a dose-dependent manner, respectively, with respect to control group (134.10 ± 31.69). Significant inhibition was also observed in ulcerative index from aspirin-induced ulcer model, with decreases of 35.40 ± 5.93, 31.30 ± 8.08, 26.80 ± 8.27and 20.40 ± 6.93 for the groups treated with HZJW and ranitidine, in parallel to controls (41.60 ± 10.80). On the other hand, treatment with HZJW efficaciously eradicated H. pylori in infected mice in rapid urease test (RUT) and immunogold antibody assay, as further confirmed by reduction of H. pylori presence in histopathological analysis. In the in vitro assay, MICs for HZJW and amoxicillin (positive control) were 125 and 0.12 µg/mL respectively. The LD50 of HZJW was over 18.0 g/kg for mice. No drug-induced abnormalities were found as clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemistry, ophthalmology and histopathology results across three doses. No target organ was identified. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of HZJW was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, a dose that was equivalent to 50 times of human dose. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested the efficacy and safety of HZJW in healing peptic ulcer and combating H. pylori, which corroborated their conventional indications and contributed to their antiulcer pharmacological validation, lending more credence to its clinical application for the traditional treatment of stomach complaints symptomatic of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). HZJW might have the potential for further development as a safe and effective alternative/complementary to conventional medication in treating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Química Farmacêutica , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Phytomedicine ; 20(3-4): 249-57, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23141427

RESUMO

Kangtai capsule (KT) is one type of traditional Chinese medicine preparation derived from the proved recipe, which was frequently applied as an effective clinical treatment of IBS. However, there still lack the reasonable and all-round analytical approach and the scientific studies on its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, our study aimed to develop the novel method for evaluating its quality as well as to interpret the potential mechanisms. In our study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint was applied to provide a chemical profile of KT. The neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on Sprague-Dawley pups was employed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of KT by virtue of various parameters including visceral hyperalgesia, serum nitric oxide (NO) level, and tissue 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level. Consequently, a chromatographic condition, which was carried at 30°C with a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min on AQUA 3µ C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water-phosphoric acid (100:0.1, v/v), was established to give a common fingerprint chromatography under 254 nm with a similarity index of 0.963 within ten batches of KT samples. On the NMS model, KT markedly elevated the pain threshold of NMS rats. Furthermore, KT at three doses significantly decreased 5-HT content from distal colon of visceral hyperalgesia rats induced by NMS, while the significant decrease of 5-HT content in serum was only observed in the group with KT at high dose. However, compared with that in NMS rats without KT, there was no apparent difference of 5-HT level from brain issue in the rats with various doses. Besides, KT could substantially elevate the concentration of NO in the serum. The results showed our study developed the simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible qualitative and quantitative analysis by HPLC fingerprint for the quality control for KT. Data from the pharmacological investigation suggested that the curative effect of KT to the visceral hypersensitivity may be concerned with the level of 5-HT and NO in vivo, promising its potential in irritable bowel syndrome treatment.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Serotonina/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Privação Materna , Fitoterapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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