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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16087, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999320

RESUMO

Epigenetics alternation of non-genetic variation and genome-wide association study proven allelic variants may associate with insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes (T2D) development. We analyzed promoter DNA methylation array to evaluate the associated with increased susceptibility to T2D (30 cases, 10 controls) and found 1,091 gene hypermethylated in promoter regions. We performed the association study of T2D and found 698 single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon and promoter sites by using 2,270 subjects (560 cases, 1,710 controls). A comparison of DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing of mouse T2D results in our T2D patients' results showed that the 5'-nucleotidase, cytosolic II (NT5C2) and fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) genes were strongly associated with increased susceptibility to T2D. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions reduced NT5C2 gene expression, but not FUT8 in T2D patients. NT5C2 protein expression was decreased in pancreatic ß-cells from T2D mice. Transient transfection NT5C2 into RIN-m5F cells down-regulated DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) expression and up-regulation of the insulin receptor. Moreover, NT5C2 knockdown induced in DNMT1 overexpression and insulin receptor inhibition. Taken together, these results showed that NT5C2 epigenetically regulated insulin receptor in patients and mice with T2D, and maybe provide for T2D therapy strategy.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008701, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956365

RESUMO

Russell's vipers (RVs) envenoming is an important public health issue in South-East Asia. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, systemic bleeding, hemolysis, and acute renal injury are obvious problems that develop in most cases, and neuromuscular junction blocks are an additional problem caused by western RV snakebite. The complex presentations usually are an obstacle to early diagnosis and antivenom administration. Here, we tried to produce highly specific antibodies in goose yolks for use in a paper-based microfluidic diagnostic kit, immunochromatographic test of viper (ICT-Viper), to distinguish RVs from other vipers and even cobra snakebite in Asia. We used indirect ELISA to monitor specific goose IgY production and western blotting to illustrate the interaction of avian or mammal antibody with venom proteins. The ICT-Viper was tested not only in prepared samples but also in stored patient serum to demonstrate its preliminary efficacy. The results revealed that specific anti-Daboia russelii IgY could be raised in goose eggs effectively without inducing adverse effects. When it was collocated with horse anti-Daboia siamensis antibody, which broadly reacted with most of the venom proteins of both types of Russell's viper, the false cross-reactivity was reduced, and the test showed good performance. The limit of detection was reduced to 10 ng/ml in vitro, and the test showed good detection ability in clinical snake envenoming case samples. The ICT-Viper performed well and could be combined with a cobra venom detection kit (ICT-Cobra) to create a multiple detection strip (ICT-VC), which broadens its applications while maintaining its detection ability for snake envenomation identification. Nonetheless, the use of the ICT-Viper in the South-East Asia region is pending additional laboratory and field investigations and regional collaboration. We believe that the development of this practical diagnostic tool marks the beginning of positive efforts to face the global snakebite issue.

3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899472

RESUMO

Cobra snakes (genus Naja) are some of the most dangerous snake species in Asia and Africa, as their bites cause severe life-threatening respiratory failure and local tissue destruction, especially in the case of late diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of snakebite envenomation still mainly relies upon symptomatology, the patient's description, and the experience of physicians. We have designed a rapid test, immunochromatographic test of cobra (ICT-Cobra), which obtained fair results in improving the diagnosis and treatment of Naja (N.) atra snakebites in Taiwan. In this study, we further investigated the feasibility of applying the kit for the detection of other cobra venoms based on the potential interspecies similarity. We firstly demonstrated the cross-reactivity between eight venoms of medically important cobra species and the rabbit anti-N. atra IgG that was used in ICT-Cobra by Western blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, ICT-Cobra was used to detect various concentrations of the eight venoms to elucidate its performance. Noticeable correlations between the cross-reactivity of venoms from genus Naja snakes and existing geographical characteristics were found. ICT-Cobra could detect venoms from other Asian cobras with variable detection limits comparable to those observed for N. atra, but the kit was less successful in the detection of venom from African cobras. The similar but slightly different venom components and the interaction between venom and rabbit anti-N. atra IgG led to variations in the detection limits. The transcontinental usage of ICT-Cobra might be possible due to the cross-reactivity of antibodies and similarities among the larger-sized proteins. This study showed that the close immunological relationships in the genus Naja could be used to develop a venom detection kit for the diagnosis of cobra envenomation in both Asian and African regions. Additional clinical studies and technical adjustments are still needed to improve the efficacy and broadening the application of ICT-Cobra in the future.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The major aim of the present study was to determine the effects of quercetin, a well-known flavonoid, on attenuating cisplatin (CDDP)-induced fat loss and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Tumor-bearing nude mice and tumor-free BALB/c mice were administrated with CDDP alone or in combination with quercetin by a diet containing 0.1% or 1% quercetin (LQ or HQ) or by intraperitoneal injection (IQ) to determine the effects of quercetin on the anticancer effect of CDDP or CDDP-induced fat loss. The effects of quercetin on fat accumulation in CDDP-exposed 3T3-L1 cells were also determined. RESULTS: We first showed that HQ and IQ significantly enhanced the anticancer effect of CDDP by upregulating p53- and p21-associated pathways, while tended to attenuate CDDP-induced fat loss in tumor-bearing nude mice. The study in 3T3-L1 cells showed that CDDP decreased the fat accumulation accompanied by strong upregulation of the expression of six genes which are associated with fat metabolism, while quercetin completely suppressed such an effect. The tumor-free BALB/c mice study consistently showed a protective effect of HQ on CDDP-induced body weight and epididymal fat loss. HQ also increased the fat levels in liver and muscle tissues. In epididymal fat tissues, HQ consistently attenuated CDDP-induced changes in fat metabolism-associated gene expression. However, CDDP alone or in combination with HQ did not affect the food intake. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that quercetin possesses the potential to suppress CDDP-induced fat loss may partly through the regulation of the fat metabolism-associated gene expression.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3476212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617135

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is an important contributing factor for inflammation. Piper methysticum, also known as Kava-kava, is a shrub whose root extract has been consumed as a drink by the pacific islanders for a long time. Flavokawain A (FKA) is a novel chalcone derived from the kava plant that is known to have medicinal properties. This study was aimed at demonstrating the antioxidant molecular mechanisms mediated by FKA on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammation in BALB/c mouse-derived primary splenocytes. In vitro data show that the nontoxic concentrations of FKA (2-30 µM) significantly suppressed the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) release but induced the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine. It was also shown that FKA pretreatment significantly downregulated the LPS-induced ROS production and blocked the activation of the NFκB (p65) pathway leading to the significant suppression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1ß protein expressions. Notably, FKA favored the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 leading to the downstream expression of antioxidant proteins HO-1, NQO-1, and γ-GCLC via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway signifying the FKA's potent antioxidant mechanism in these cells. Supporting the in vitro data, the ex vivo data obtained from primary splenocytes derived from the FKA-preadministered BALB/c mice (orally) show that FKA significantly suppressed the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) secretion in control-, LPS-, or Concanavalin A- (Con A-) stimulated cells. A significant decrease in the ratios of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6/IL-10; TNF-α/IL-10) showed that FKA possesses strong anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, BALB/c mice induced with experimental pancreatitis using cholecystokinin- (CCK-) 8 showed decreased serum lipase levels due to FKA pretreatment. We conclude that with its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, chalcone flavokawain A could be a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708678

RESUMO

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a common metabolic disorder worldwide. In addition to the chief feature of long-standing hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and a number of complications develop in parallel. It is believed that an adequate control of blood glucose levels can cause these complications to go into remission. This study was performed to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) in vivo. The blood-glucose-lowering activity of EL was studied in db/db mice administered crude powdered EL root (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) orally for eight weeks. At the end of the study, HbA1c, insulin, plasma lipid levels, and histopathology were performed. Powdered EL root showed significant antihyperglycemic activity along with the control of body weight. After eight weeks of treatment, both the blood cholesterol level and the glycogen deposit in hepatocytes were remarkably lower, whereas the secreting insulin level was elevated. An improvement in islet performance was manifested as an increase in beta-cell number and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) expression. Neogenesis or formation of new islets from pancreatic duct epithelial cells seen in the EL-treated group was encouraging. This study confirms the antihyperglycemic activity of EL through PDX1-associated beta-cell expansion resulting in an enhancement of islet performance.

8.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 164: 109254, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554126

RESUMO

Hepatoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Due to the poor outcomes of patients with late diagnosis, newer treatments for hepatoma are still needed. As an emerging therapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may be an effective solution in hepatoma management. In this study, boric acid (BA) was used as the boron drug for in vivo analysis of action mechanism. The N1S1 single liver tumor-bearing rat and the VX2 multifocal liver tumor-bearing rabbit models were used to investigate the retention status of BA in the tumor regions during BNCT. The autoradiographic examination showed BA can localize specifically not only in the hepatoma cells but also in tumor blood vessels. Our findings indicate that superior hepatoma targeting could be achieved in BA-mediated BNCT, which supports BA to be a suitable boron drug for BNCT for hepatoma.

9.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 224: 110056, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380309

RESUMO

Fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) is one of the bioactive compounds of edible mushrooms, which has been shown to trigger type 1 T helper (Th1) pathway activation in research with mice. This study was designated to assess immunomodulatory effects of recombinant FIP-Flammulina velutipes (rFIP-fve) on swine and the protective efficacy against PRRSV infection. In the in vitro evaluations, rFIP-fve significantly triggered up-regulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA in porcine PBMCs and stimulated natural killer cytotoxicity. Porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) treated with rFIP-fve showed prolonged life times, up-regulation of both MHC I and II molecules and enhanced abilities to present antigen. In the in vivo trial, two doses of 2 mg rFIP-fve significantly reduced drops in the CD4/CD8 ratio after PRRSV challenge, and the cytokine mRNA profile of PBMC revealed a tendency of IFN-γ up-regulation and a decrease in IL-10 in the rFIP-treated group. Moreover, administration of rFIP-fve also decreased the PRRSV viremia with 1 log10 in titer (p = 0.07) and alleviated the severity of clinical signs after PRRSV challenge. Conclusively, these results illustrate the in vitro and in vivo immunological changes of rFIP-fve administered to pigs and reveal its potential to be used as an immunomodulatory therapeutic against PRRSV infection.

10.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652393

RESUMO

KIT is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in carcinogenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcripts, differed from presence of four amino acids (GNSK) at exon 9 of c-kit, were identified in various human tumours and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA). The biological function and clinical implications of these isoforms have not yet been elucidated in canine tumours. The current study aimed to validate the expression profile and ultimately to evaluate the correlation of c-kit isoform levels with clinicopathological factors of canine mammary tumours (CMTs). In total, the expression profiles of c-kit isoforms in 196 samples obtained from normal mammary glands (NMGs) of healthy controls and dogs with CMTs, benign and malignant CMTs, and HSAs were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantified via real-time PCR. Overall, the expression levels of the two isoforms were equivalent in NMGs, whereas the GNSK- /GNSK+ ratio sharply increased to 7.44- and 8.33-fold, indicating abundant GNSK- isoforms in benign and malignant CMTs, respectively. However, a significant decrease in GNSK- expression was detected in dogs with high-grade malignant CMTs (mCMTs) and with metastatic CMTs compared with expression in those with a lower grade and non-metastatic CMTs. In addition, the median survival time was shorter in mCMT canines with a lower GNSK- /GNSK+ ratio than that in mCMT canines with a higher ratio (899 days vs 1534 days). In conclusion, two c-kit isoforms are ubiquitously expressed with great variability in HSAs and CMTs with both benign and malignant status. The GNSK- /GNSK+ ratio could serve as a prognostic indicator for dogs with mCMTs.

11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5495-5504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cannot be treated using traditional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a new treatment for HCC. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy and radiobiological effects of boric acid (BA)-mediated BNCT in a VX2 multifocal liver tumor-bearing rabbit model are investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbits were irradiated with neutrons at the Tsing Hua Open Pool Reactor 35 min following an intravenous injection of BA (50 mg 10B/kg BW). The tumor size following BNCT treatment was determined by ultrasonography. The radiobiological effects were identified by histopathological examination. RESULTS: A total of 92.85% of the tumors became undetectable in the rabbits after two fractions of BNCT treatment. The tumor cells were selectively eliminated and the tumor vasculature was collapsed and destroyed after two fractions of BA-mediated BNCT, and no injury to the hepatocytes or blood vessels was observed in the adjacent normal liver regions. CONCLUSION: Liver tumors can be cured by BA-mediated BNCT in the rabbit model of a VX2 multifocal liver tumor. BA-mediated BNCT may be a breakthrough therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Ácidos Bóricos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos da radiação , Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro/métodos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos da radiação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Coelhos
12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(8)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357705

RESUMO

(1) Background: Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In our previous study, 50% ethanolic G. paraguayense extracts (GE50) demonstrated good antioxidant activity. (2) Methods: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of GE50 on ethanol and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) co-induced hepatic damage in rats, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (Control group; GE50 group, 0.25 g/100 g BW; EC group: Ethanol + CCl4, 1.25 mL 50% ethanol and 0.1 mL 20% CCl4/100 g BW; EC + GE50 group: Ethanol + CCl4 + GE50; EC + silymarin group: ethanol + CCl4 + silymarin, 20 mg/100 g BW) for six consecutive weeks. (3) Results: Compared with the control group, EC group significantly elevated the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminitransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, GE50 or silymarin treatment effectively reversed these changes. GE50 had a significant protective effect against ethanol + CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, E, total antioxidant status (TAS), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Furthermore, in EC focal group, slight fat droplet infiltration was observed in the livers, while in the GE50 or silymarin treatment groups, decreased fat droplet infiltration. HPLC phytochemical profile of GE50 revealed the presence of gallic acid, flavone, genistin, daidzin, and quercetin. (4) Conclusions: The hepatoprotective activity of GE50 is proposed to occur through the synergic effects of its chemical component, namely, gallic acid, flavone, genistin, daidzin, and quercetin. Hence, G. paraguayense can be used as a complementary and alternative therapy in the prevention of alcohol + CCl4-induced liver injury.

13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 96-102, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300134

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been endemic in Taiwan since 1991. This study aimed to present a highly virulent PRRSV in Taiwan based on farm data collection and both in vitro and in vivo evaluations in virus challenge studies. This virulent PRRSV strain was first noticed on Farm TSYM due to continuously high nursery mortality rate and severe PRRSV-associated pneumonia. In phylogenetic surveillance, the PRRSV TSYM-strain remained in the predominant position for years, even with several other PRRSV strain invasions. In laboratory challenge trials, the TSYM-strain led to prolonged pyrexia, growth retardation, high mortality rates and high viremia titer that similar to the highly pathogenic PRRSV. The TSYM-strain isolate also triggered early interleukin-10 up-regulation and significantly higher infection rates under in vitro experiments. This study provides information of a comparably virulent strain in Taiwan and its appearance in both farm and laboratory levels.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Viremia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fazendas , Masculino , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/mortalidade , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suínos , Taiwan , Virulência
14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 186, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, a novel quinone derivative, coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0), promotes apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. This study explored the anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and antimetastatic attributes of CoQ0 in TNBC (MDA-MB-231). METHODS: Invasion, as well as MTT assays were conducted. Lipofectamine RNAiMAX was used to transfect cells with ß-catenin siRNA. Through Western blotting and RT-PCR, the major signaling pathways' protein expressions were examined, and the biopsied tumor tissues underwent immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as Western blotting. RESULTS: CoQ0 (0.5-2 µM) hindered tumor migration, invasion, and progression. Additionally, it caused MMP-2/- 9, uPA, uPAR, and VEGF downregulation. Furthermore, in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, TIMP-1/2 expression was subsequently upregulated and MMP-9 expression was downregulated. In addition, CoQ0 inhibited metastasis and EMT in TGF-ß/TNF-α-stimulated non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Bioluminescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 luciferase-injected live mice demonstrated that CoQ0 significantly inhibited metastasis of the breast cancer to the lungs and inhibited the development of tumors in MDA-MB-231 xenografted nude mice. Silencing of ß-catenin with siRNA stimulated CoQ0-inhibited EMT. Western blotting as well as histological analysis established that CoQ0 reduced xenografted tumor development because apoptosis induction, cell-cycle inhibition, E-cadherin upregulation, ß-catenin downregulation, and metastasis and EMT regulatory protein modulation were observed. CONCLUSIONS: CoQ0 inhibited the progression of metastasis as well as EMT (in vitro and in vivo). The described approach has potential in treating human breast cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caderinas/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina/genética
15.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 17(3): 427-438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050171

RESUMO

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a new biomarker for renal injury. It is also involved in tumorigenesis of different human cancer types. The oncogenic role of NGAL is related to its molecular forms, and heterodimer formation with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) promotes human breast cancer (HBC) invasion and metastasis. To date, the levels of NGAL and NGAL/MMP9 complex have not yet been explored in canine mammary tumours (CMTs). Hence, this study aimed to investigate whether NGAL and its molecular forms could be the biomarker for CMT diagnosis. To this end, expression profile of NGAL and MMP9 in mammary epithelial cells as well as in urine samples were detected. By immunohistochemistry staining, NGAL was expressed at variable levels. Unlike HBC, a significant reduction in NGAL expression was demonstrated in benign and malignant CMTs as compared with normal controls. Additionally, NGAL expression was significantly reduced in dogs with metastatic CMTs. By contrast, the mean score of MMP9 expression in ascending order was normal groups, benign, and malignant CMTs. Interestingly, analysis of the molecular form revealed the NGAL/MMP9 complex presents in most mammary tissues and urine of dogs with benign or malignant CMTs, whereas the complex was absent in samples from dogs without CMTs. In conclusion, NGAL and MMP9 are ubiquitously expressed in canine mammary epithelial cells in normal and cancerous status. However, the NGAL/MMP9 complex exclusively presents in mammary tissues and urine of dogs with tumours.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Lipocalina-2/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética
16.
Am J Cancer Res ; 9(4): 740-751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106000

RESUMO

Tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX, ENOX2), which belongs to a family of growth-related NADH oxidases, was originally identified as a plasma membrane protein of rat hepatoma and is inhibited or downregulated by several anti-cancer drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of tNOX used as an immunogen against Lewis lung cancer. Human tNOX was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by His-Tag affinity chromatography, and emulsified with the adjuvant, ISA 201 VG. Immunological analyses of the generated tNOX vaccine were performed in mice. The results of ELISA and ELISpot were significantly higher in tNOX vaccine group compared to the control group. In vivo, we examined the anti-tumor effects of mice that received the tNOX vaccine via the intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes. Mice were vaccinated three times at 2-week intervals, challenged at 2 weeks after the final vaccination, and terminated at 34 days post-challenge. Antibody titers, tumor volume and histopathological scores were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of the tNOX vaccine. Our results revealed that tNOX-vaccinated mice had significantly higher antibody titers than negative control (NC) and challenge control (CC) mice. When compared to the corresponding CC groups, the intraperitoneal and subcutaneous vaccination with tNOX showed a significantly smaller tumor mass volume (P < 0.05) and a significantly lower histological lesion score (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the use of a xenogeneic tNOX as an immunogen in mice activates immune responses and anti-tumor effects against Lewis lung cancer.

17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 155, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is an enzyme that converts pro-apoptotic ceramide and sphingosine into anti-apoptotic sphingosine-1-phosphate. There is growing evidence that SPHK1 activation promotes oncogenic transformation, tumor growth, chemotherapy resistance, and metastatic spread. High SPHK1 expression has been associated with a poor prognosis in several human cancers. RESULTS: In the present study, the expression level of SPHK1 was examined in feline mammary tumor (FMT) specimens, and the IHC expression level of SPHK1 was associated with the histological grade of FMTs. IHC analysis of 88 FMT cases revealed that the expression level of SPHK1 was upregulated in 53 tumor tissues (60.2%) compared to adjacent mammary tissues. SPHK1 expression in FMTs was significantly associated with histological grade, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and estrogen receptor negativity. Treatment of primary FMT cells with SPHK1 inhibitors reduced cell viability, indicating that SPHK1 acts to promote FMT cell survival. These results indicate that SPHK1 may play an important role in FMTs and may be a therapeutic target in cats with FMT. CONCLUSIONS: SPHK1 over-expression in breast cancer tissues is associated with a poor prognosis in humans. SPHK1 over-expression in more aggressive FMTs provides support for a potential role of SPHK1 inhibitors for the treatment of FMTs. Targeting SPHK1 has potent cytotoxic effects in primary FMT cells. These findings suggest that further examination of the role SPHK1 plays in FMTs will pave the way for the investigation of SPHK1 inhibitors in future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Doenças do Gato/enzimologia , Gatos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sistema Linfático/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875840

RESUMO

Hedychium coronarium has a long history of use worldwide as a food and in folk medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of H. coronarium leaves (HC) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two types of animal models were used in this study: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM (Wistar rats; N = 8) and C57BKSdb/db mice (N = 5). After treatment with HC for 28 days, glucose tolerance improved in both of the diabetic animal models. As significant effects were shown after 14 days of treatment in the STZ-induced T2DM model, we carried out the experiments with it. After 28 days of treatment with HC, the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were significantly improved in the STZ-induced T2DM model. The lesions degree of islet ß-cells was decreased after the HC treatment. Although the insulin level increased moderately, the aldosterone level was significantly decreased in the HC-treated groups, suggesting that aldosterone might play an important role in this effect. In summary, HC is a natural product and it is worth exploring its effect on T2DM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/química , Aldosterona/sangue , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Estreptozocina
19.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(2): 335-348, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726934

RESUMO

Therapeutic administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) is frequently used as add-on chemotherapy for palliative purposes during breast cancer treatment. Recent studies have shown that GC treatment induces microRNA-708 in ovarian cancer cells, resulting in impaired tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the regulatory functions of GCs on miR-708 and its downstream target genes in human breast cancer cells (BCCs) are poorly understood. In this study, we found that treatment with either the synthetic GC dexamethasone (DEX) or the natural GC mimic, antcin A (ATA) significantly increased miR-708 expression by transactivation of glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human BCCs. Induction of miR-708 by GR agonists resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype and metastasis of BCCs. In addition, GR agonist treatment or miR-708 mimic transfection remarkably inhibited IKKß expression and suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity and its downstream target genes, including COX-2, cMYC, cyclin D1, Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, CD24, CD44 and increased p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 that are known to be involved in proliferation, cell-cycle progression, metastasis and CSC marker protein. BCCs xenograft models indicate that treatment with GR agonists significantly reduced tumor growth, weight and volume. Overall, our data strongly suggest that GR agonists induced miR-708 and downstream suppression of NF-κB signaling, which may be applicable as a novel therapeutic intervention in breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia
20.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(4): 4125-4139, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146779

RESUMO

Antrodia camphorata (AC) exhibits potential for engendering cell-cycle arrest as well as prompting apoptosis and metastasis inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We performed the current study to explore the anti-epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties of fermented AC broth in TNBC cells. Our results illustrated that noncytotoxic concentrations of AC (20-60 µg/ml) reversed the morphological changes (fibroblastic-to-epithelial phenotype) as well as the EMT by upregulating the observed E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, we discovered treatment with AC substantially inhibit the Twist expression in human TNBC (MDA-MB-231) cells as well as in those that were transfected with Twist. In addition, we determined AC to decrease the observed Wnt/ß-catenin nuclear translocation through a pathway determined to be dependent on GSK3ß. Notably, AC treatment consistently inhibited the EMT by downregulating mesenchymal marker proteins like N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, ZEB-1, and fibronectin; at that same time upregulating epithelial marker proteins like occludin and ZO-1. Bioluminescence imaging that was executed in vivo demonstrated AC substantially suppressed breast cancer metastasis to the lungs. Notably, we found that western blot analysis confirmed that AC decreased lung metastasis as demonstrated by upregulation of E-cadherin expression in biopsied lung tissue. Together with our results support the anti-EMT activity of AC, indicating AC as having the potential for acting as an anticancer agent for the treatment of human TNBC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antrodia/química , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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