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1.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117288, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984777

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) exposure increases the risks of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Child-specific activities and land use scenarios may lead to elevated opportunities for Pb exposure through the soil. Therefore, we investigated hair and fingernail Pb concentrations among young children in northern Taiwan, in relation to soil Pb pollution and land use characteristics. We also explored the effect of the Pb exposure burden and land use scenarios on neurobehavioral development. In total, 139 healthy children under 3 years of age were recruited in October 2011 to April 2014. Pb levels in hair and fingernail samples were determined using an inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer. Pb concentrations in soils and land use types surrounding the children's homes were accessed by a geographic information system to identify any associations with hair Pb levels. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) were used to evaluate the cognitive, language, and motor development of the children. A multivariable regression model was performed to assess the effects of soil Pb levels and land-use status on Pb exposure in children, as well as associations of Pb exposure and land-use scenarios with neurodevelopmental abilities. Geometric mean Pb concentrations in hair, fingernails, and soil were 2.9 ± 4.8 µg/g, 0.8 ± 5.1 µg/g, and 20.8 ± 4.3 mg/kg, respectively. The multivariable analysis indicated that soil Pb concentrations and green areas around residences had potential links with Pb exposure among children in northern Taiwan. Hair Pb concentrations were negatively associated with expressive language scores. Soil Pb exposure was positively associated with hair Pb concentrations. Land use types around the children's homes in northern Taiwan were associated with their neurodevelopment. Increased green areas were negatively associated with hair Pb concentrations. Living near a highway may have had negative impacts on gross motor scores. A healthy residence can avoid potential health risks for children during their early life.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Poluentes do Solo , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Taiwan
2.
Environ Int ; 154: 106657, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052604

RESUMO

Phthalates, which are commonly used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have been reported to be toxic to reproductive and developmental function in mammals. Past studies have focused on the toxic effects on male reproduction, with only a few studies conducted on the risks that cumulative exposure to phthalates have on the female reproductive system. We recruited 260 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) of unknown etiology and 203 controls from the clinics of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2020. The daily intake of phthalates was estimated from urine samples using the back-calculation method, after which the cumulative risk was determined using multiple hazard indices, including a dose-addition model, a receptor effect model, and a hazard index approach. The patients with RPL had a significantly higher cumulative exposure to phthalates (p < 0.05) than did the controls with a hazard index above one. After adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that the risk of RPL was strongly related to the higher quartiles of DEHP, the DEHPTEQ for the antiandrogenic effect and adverse effects of the female reproductive system and the ERα binding effect (p < 0.05). Our work suggests that more attentions should be paid to the adverse effects induced by phthalates on female reproduction, especially the effects caused by the cumulative exposure to phthalates in women of reproductive age.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113769, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051577

RESUMO

Since a 2011 incident involving phthalate-tainted food, Taiwanese people have become concerned with food quality, and they are still being exposed to certain levels of phthalates. However, no nationwide human biomonitoring survey had been conducted to gather information on levels or reference values (RVs) of phthalates in the Taiwanese population. We aimed to establish the urinary levels and RVs of phthalate metabolites and identify exposure characteristics among Taiwan's population. We enrolled 1857 participants 7 years of age and older from the Taiwan Environmental Survey for Toxicants (TESTs) conducted during 2013-2016. Levels of 11 phthalate metabolites in each participant's urine samples were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. For all phthalate metabolites except for mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), and mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), urinary median levels were significantly higher in the 7-17-year old group than in the ≧18-year-old group. For most phthalate metabolites and in the general population, the geometric mean decreased with increasing age. Median levels of MEP (19.55 µg/L), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) (2.11 µg/L), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) (22.82 µg/L), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) (16.08 µg/L), ΣDibutyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDBPm) (0.17 nmol/mL), Σdi-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHPm) (0.29 nmol/mL) were higher in participants from central Taiwan than those from other areas. The median level of DBP (ΣDBPm: 0.20 nmol/mL) was significantly higher in participants from harbor areas than those from other urbanization groups. The RV of the 95 percentile (P95) for phthalate metabolites in the 7-17/≧18-year-old groups were 185.95/208.19 µg/L for MMP, 198.46/265.81 µg/L for MEP, 119.85/69.99 µg/L for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiBP), 165.19/204.32 µg/L for Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), 15.61/11.73 µg/L for MBzP, 62.09/59.23 µg/L for MEHP, 149.70/69.66 µg/L for MEHHP, 112.06/35.07 µg/L for MEOHP, 195.20/93.83 µg/L for mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), 45.66/27.69 µg/L for mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl) phthalate (MCMHP), and 9.09/12.13 µg/L for mono-iso-nonyl phthalate (MiNP). We concluded that phthalate exposure of the general population in Taiwan varies by sex, age, region, and urbanization level. Exposure by the 7-17-year-old group to DMP, DBP, and DEHP in Taiwan remains higher than that of youth from other countries. RV of phthalate metabolites in Taiwan were established in the current study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Valores de Referência , Taiwan
4.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114648, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No information is available on the long-term effects on thyroid and growth hormones of children exposed to phthalate-tainted products, despite the infamous 2011 Taiwan phthalate episode. We investigated estimated daily intake levels and their long-term effects on serum thyroid and growth hormone levels in children. METHODS: We recruited 166 children (2-18 years old) in three visits who provided specimens and filled out a questionnaire from the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT) project study from 2012 to 2016. Morning spot urine samples were analyzed for nine phthalate metabolites. Serum thyroid (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], and free T4) and growth hormone (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and its binding protein 3 [IGF-BP3]) levels were measured. A generalized estimating equation model was used to evaluate associations between phthalate metabolite levels and children's thyroid and growth hormone levels. RESULTS: The median metabolite levels of monomethyl phthalate (MMP), Σdibutyl phthalate (DBP), and Σdi-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) at visits 1, 2, and 3 were 6.59, 10.5, and 21.0 ng/mL, 0.15, 0.24, and 0.20 nmol/mL, and 0.15, 0.17, and 0.12 nmol/mL, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found that levels of urinary MMP were negatively associated with T3 (ß = -0.013, p = 0.047), T4 (ß = -0.016, p = 0.006), free T4 (ß = -0.012, p = 0.002), and IGF-BP3 (ß = -0.025, p = 0.003). Urinary mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was negatively associated with IGF-1 (ß = -0.027, p = 0.029) and IGF-BP3 (ß = -0.016, p = 0.018). In addition, serum free T4 was positively associated with urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxy hexyl phthalate (MEHHP) (ß = 0.016, p = 0.043), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP) (ß = 0.015, p = 0.024), and ΣDEHPm (ß = 0.019, p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that specific phthalates disturb the hemostasis of thyroid and growth hormone levels in children exposed to phthalate-tainted products.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Taiwan , Glândula Tireoide
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113414, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784327

RESUMO

Studies have suggested that phthalates may be a risk factor for microalbuminuria, whereas little is known regarding their nephrotoxic effects on adults. We enrolled 311 participants (≥18 y, N = 241; <18 y, N = 70) who provided questionnaire information as well as blood and urine samples from a nationally cross-sectional study. Urinary phthalate metabolites were analyzed through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. From the renal function index, we measured the serum level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and the urinary levels of microalbumin, albumin, protein and creatinine. We used multiple logistic regressions and a cumulative risk assessment of renal effect to evaluate the relationship between phthalate exposure and renal function in our participants. We aimed to assess the relationship between phthalate exposure and renal function including serum level of BUN, and urinary levels of microalbumin, albumin, protein, and creatinine in 311 participants (≥18 y, N = 241; <18 y, N = 70) from a population-based study. The multiple logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio of the highest tertile of estimated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) daily intake in participants ≥18 y for early renal impairment (microalbumin >1.9 mg/dL) was 9.40 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.67-52.84) than the lowest tertile. The cumulative hazard index of phthalate-induced nephrotoxicity (HInephro) was significantly positively associated with microalbumin (ß: 0.98, P < 0.001), BUN (ß: 0.19, P = 0.002), and urine protein (ß: 0.75, P = 0.001) in participants ≥18 y without type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for confounding factors, but not in those <18 y. Our findings suggest that daily exposure to DEHP and its metabolites were significantly positively associated with an increased risk of higher microalbumin in Taiwanese ≥18 y. Comprehensive or mechanistic studies are required to elucidate these associations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Albuminúria , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Dietilexilftalato , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Int ; 131: 104978, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational and experimental studies have revealed that high vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Epidemiological study reported that children living near a petrochemical complex have elevated exposure levels of urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA), a potential VCM biomarker. However, no studies on the association of urinary TDGA exposure with NAFLD in children are available. AIM: To assess the association of pediatric NAFLD with urinary TDGA exposure in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 261 school-aged children (aged 6-13 years) living near a petrochemical complex were recruited during October 2013 to September 2014. First morning spot urine was sampled for analyzing urinary TDGA through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ultrasonography and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in each participant. NAFLD was diagnosed as recommended by the North American and European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN). Risk for NAFLD with urinary TDGA exposure in children was evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The percentage of children with NAFLDNASPGHAN and NAFLDESPGHAN were 9.6% and 11.5%, respectively. Median levels (µg/g creatinine) of urinary TDGA of children with NAFLDNASPGHAN (vs non-NAFLDNASPGHAN) and NAFLDESPGHAN (vs non-NAFLDESPGHAN) were 118.0 (vs 96.6) and 113.1 (vs 96.5), respectively. Participants in the highest urinary TDGA quartile (Q4: ≥160.0 µg/g creatinine) had a significantly increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-21.38; P = 0.032) and dose-response trend (Ptrend = 0.045) for NAFLDNASPGHAN compared with those in the lowest urinary TDGA quartile (Q1: <35.4 µg/g creatinine) after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, HOMA-IR and distance of elementary schools from the petrochemical complex. Participants in the Q4 had borderline significantly increased risk (OR = 3.45; 95% CI = 0.89-13.42; P = 0.074) correlated with NAFLDESPGHAN compared with those in the Q1 after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that children exposed to higher urinary TDGA levels significantly increased pediatric NAFLD risk. Serum ALT levels can be a useful predictor for screening children's NAFLD in field studies. Large and longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate the association.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Tioglicolatos/urina , Cloreto de Vinil/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/urina , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Cloreto de Vinil/metabolismo
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 6048-6064, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612372

RESUMO

Toxic metal contamination in food products and the environment is a public health concern. Therefore, understanding human exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), and copper (Cu) levels in the general population of Taiwan is necessary and urgent. We aimed to establish the human biomonitoring data of urine toxic metals, exposure profile changes, and factors associated with metal levels in the general population of Taiwan. We randomly selected 1601 participants older than 7 years of age (36.9 ± 18.7 years (7-84 years)) from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) conducted during 1993-1996 (93-96) and 2005-2008 (05-08) periods and measured the levels of four metals in the participants' urine samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median (range) levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu in participants from the NAHSIT 93-96 (N = 821)/05-08 (N = 780) were 0.60 (ND-13.90)/0.72 (ND-7.44), 2.28 (ND-63.60)/1.09 (0.04-48.88), 0.91 (0.08-17.30)/1.05 (0.05-22.43), and 16.87 (2.62-158.28)/13.66 (1.67-189.70) µg/L, respectively. We found that the urinary median levels of Pb and Cu in our participants were significantly lower in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Pb 1.09 µg/L, Cu 13.66 µg/L) than in the NAHSIT 93-96 (Pb 2.28 µg/L, Cu 16.87 µg/L; P < 0.01), whereas those of Cd and Co were significantly higher in the NAHSIT 05-08 (Cd 0.72 µg/L, Co 1.05 µg/L; P < 0.01). Youths had higher exposure levels of Pb, Co, and Cu than adults. Participants with alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing, or cigarette smoking had significantly higher median levels of urinary Pb or Cu (P < 0.01) than those without. Principal components and cluster analysis revealed that sex had different exposure profiles of metals. We concluded that levels of urinary Cd, Pb, Co, and Cu exposure in the general Taiwanese varied by age, sex, and lifestyles.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Metais Pesados/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Cobalto/urina , Cobre/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/urina , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 648-656, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384070

RESUMO

The effect of exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in children is unknown, although experimental studies have demonstrated a significantly increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents exposed to VCM in early life. Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of liver fibrosis and abnormal liver function in workers exposed to high VCM levels. We aimed to assess the association among urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) level, abnormal liver function, and hepatic fibrosis in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex. A total of 303 school-aged (6-13 years) children within 10 km nearly a petrochemical complex was recruited in central Taiwan. First-morning urine and blood samples were collected from each subject, and urinary TDGA level was analyzed through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Liver function was determined by serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 score (FIB-4). Risk of hepatotoxicity induced by TDGA exposure was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. The median (range, subclinically abnormal %) AST and ALT levels of all subjects were 26.0 (17.0-99.0, 25.7%) and 15.0 (7.0-211.0, 5.9%) IU/L, respectively. Children in the highest urinary TDGA quartile (≥160.0 µg/g creatinine) exhibited significantly elevated median AST levels compared with those in the lowest quartiles (<35.4 µg/g creatinine, p = 0.033). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, children in the highest quartiles (Q4) of TDGA level had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of subclinically abnormal AST (OR = 3.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-9.67) compared with those in the lowest quartile. A dose-response trend (p = 0.004) was observed. Our findings support the hypothesis that elevated urinary TDGA level in children living near petrochemical complex is associated with susceptibility to hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Tioglicolatos/urina , Cloreto de Vinil/toxicidade , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Risco , Taiwan
9.
Environ Pollut ; 241: 969-977, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029331

RESUMO

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is the termination of pregnancies, usually before 20 weeks of gestation, and is defined as the loss of two or more pregnancies. In Taiwan, after 2011 di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure episode, more reproductive-aged women still expose to high levels of DEHP and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) than have women of other age groups. Phthalates might be involved in the RPL pathogenesis. This study assessed the association of phthalate exposure with RPL risk in reproductive-aged Taiwanese women. This study recruited 103 patients diagnosed by a physician with RPL of unknown etiology and 76 controls from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a medical center in southern Taiwan between August 2013 and August 2017. Urine samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis were performed to determine the main sources of phthalate exposure. Finally, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the RPL risk. The creatinine-unadjusted median levels of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) in RPL/control were 9.8/5.3, 27.2/13.1, 11.4/8.1, and 12.9/9.5 ng/mL, respectively; furthermore, ΣDBPm and ΣDEHPm in RPL/control were 0.18/0.10 and 0.15/0.12 nmol/mL, respectively. PCA revealed three primary components of phthalate exposure: diethyl phthalates (DEP), DEHP, and DBP. Plastic food container use and medication were identified as the main phthalate exposure sources. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (urinary creatinine, age, age at menarche, education, and plastic food container use), we found that the urinary level of ΣDBPm was significantly associated with elevated risk for RPL (OR = 2.85, p = 0.045). Our findings supported the hypothesis that exposure to phthalates increases RPL risk. The development of a strategy to reduce phthalate exposure among reproductive-aged women should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dibutilftalato , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Reprodução , Risco , Taiwan
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 619-620: 1058-1065, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734584

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have revealed that phthalate exposure alters thyroid hormone homeostasis in the general population, but there is insufficient evidence of the effect of longitudinal maternal phthalate exposure on maternal and fetal thyroid hormones during pregnancy. We longitudinally assessed the effect of prenatal phthalate exposure in pregnant women on umbilical cord and maternal thyroid hormones at three trimesters during pregnancy. We recruited 98 pregnant women and collected urine and blood samples at three trimesters in an obstetrics clinic in Southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. We analyzed the concentrations of 11 urinary phthalate metabolites, including monoethylhexyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), using online liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cord and maternal serum levels of thyroxine (T4), free T4, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine-binding globulin were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A mixed-model analysis was utilized to assess the effect of longitudinal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones and adjusted for significant covariates. We found that urinary MiBP (ß=-0.065, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.124, -0.005), and MEOHP (ß=-0.083, 95% CI: -0.157, -0.009) were significantly negatively associated with serum TSH. Urinary MECPP was inversely related to serum T3 (ß=-0.027, 95% CI: -0.047, -0.006). Urinary MEP (ß=0.014, 95% CI: -0.001, 0.028) and MiBP (ß=0.033, 95% CI: 0.018, 0.049) were positively related to free T4. We found that cord serum T3 (ß=0.067, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.131) and free T4 (ß=0.031, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.062) levels had significant positive associations with maternal ΣDBPm levels at the second trimester. We concluded that different phthalates exposure windows during gestation may alter cord and serum thyroid hormone homoeostasis.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 635-644, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055577

RESUMO

The contamination of a clouding agent with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a substitute emulsifier-containing compound used in a variety of foods was announced on May 23, 2011. The aims of this study were as follows (1) compare the urine phthalates (PAE) metabolites concentration and estimate the daily intake (DI) of PAEs in pregnant women before and after the tainted food scandal and (2) examine the effect of relatively high PAEs exposure on birth outcome. One-hundred twelve pregnant women in Northern Taiwan participated in this study from March to December 2010, i.e., before the tainted food scandal. After the tainted food scandal, we collected 69, 73, and 180 urine specimens (January 2013 to August 2014) from women whom were in their first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. We measure urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations to estimate the DI of DEHP and the hazard quotient (HQ) of subjects. This was the first study to assess the effects of DEHP-tainted food scandal exposure in pregnant women across the three trimesters of pregnancy. After the tainted food report, the concentrations of urine PAE metabolite were significantly decreased, especially those of DEHP metabolites. Based on different reference limit values, the percentages of pregnant women whose HQDEHP value exceeded the limit ranged from 0.53% to 8.93%. Despite this low frequency, the higher ΣPAE exposure during the second trimester may significantly increase the risk of relatively low birth height compared to the lower exposure group (ß=-0.63 (-1.20 to -0.06)). Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to relatively high concentrations of DEHP in pregnant Taiwanese women may have an adverse effect on birth outcomes. The percentage of subjects whose exposure level exceeded the exposure limit was low; however, high PAEs exposure appears to be significantly associated with birth outcomes. Therefore, we suggest that reference dose for PAEs should be revised.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taiwan
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 1373-1379, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is a global health concern. Several studies have focused on chronic arsenic exposure in adults; however, limited data are available regarding the potential adverse effects of prenatal exposure on fetuses and neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess which time point maternal arsenic exposure may influence the fetus during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: In this study, total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in urine samples collected from 130 women with singleton pregnancies (22-45years old) in Taiwan from March to December of 2010. All fetal biometric measurements in each trimester period and birth outcomes at delivery were obtained. We applied a generalized estimating equation model and multivariate regression models to evaluate the associations between maternal urinary total arsenic (UtAs) exposure during pregnancy, fetal biometric measurements, and neonatal birth outcomes. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant correlations between maternal UtAs levels and the fetal biparietal diameter over all three trimesters (ß=-1.046mm, p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses showed a negative association between maternal UtAs levels and chest circumference in the first trimester (ß=-0.721cm, p<0.05), and second-trimester UtAs exposure was associated with decreases in birth weight (ß=-173.26g, p<0.01), head circumference (ß=-0.611cm, p<0.05), and chest circumference (ß=-0.654cm, p<0.05). Dose-response relationships were also observed for maternal UtAs exposure and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a negative relationship between maternal UtAs levels during pregnancy, fetal development, and neonatal birth outcomes. These findings should be confirmed in future studies with large sample sizes.


Assuntos
Arsênio/urina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Pollut ; 233: 577-587, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102888

RESUMO

High levels of phthalates in name-brand cosmetics products have raised concerns about phthalate exposure and the associated risk for cosmetics sales clerks. We assessed the exposure and risk of phthalates in 23 cosmetics, 4 perfume, and 9 clothing department store sales clerks. We collected 108 urine samples pre- and post-shift and analyzed for phthalate monoesters through liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Phthalates in 32 air samples were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics and information on the exposure scenarios were obtained through questionnaires. Principal component analysis, cluster and risk analysis were applied to identify the exposure profile and risk of phthalate. Median post-shift levels of urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP) were significantly higher than the corresponding pre-shift levels in cosmetics group (53.3 vs. 30.9 µg/g-c for MEHP; 34.4 vs. 22.5 µg/g-c for MMP; both P < 0.05) and the post-shift levels of urinary MMP was significantly higher than the corresponding pre-shift levels in perfume group (26.6 vs. 14.9 µg/g-c, P < 0.05). Median levels of air diethyl phthalate (DEP) in cosmetics (1.77 µg/m3) and perfume (1.75 µg/m3) groups and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in perfume group (6.98 µg/m3) were higher than those in clothing group (DEP: 0.89; DEHP: 2.16 µg/m3). Over half of cosmetic (70%) and perfume sale clerks had exceeded cumulative risk of phthalate exposure for anti-androgenic effect. We concluded that cosmetic and perfume workers had increased risks of reproductive or hepatic effects for DBP and DEHP exposure. We suggest that not only inhalation but dermal exposure is important route of phthalate exposure for cosmetics and perfume workers.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Comércio , Dietilexilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Perfumes , Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0149558, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonylphenol (NP) belongs to the family of endocrine disruptors, and it is widely used in industrial applications and is ubiquitous in daily foods. Animal studies have suggested that NP exposure might promote motor hyperactivity, likely by causing deficits in dopaminergic neurons. However, research assessing NP exposure and epidemiology studies on human populations are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the association between child NP exposure and ADHD while considering particular covariants, such as lead levels and dopamine-related gene variations. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on patients with clinically diagnosed ADHD; the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham, Fourth Revision (SNAP-IV) questionnaire was used to identify normal controls aged 4-15 years. Participants were examined for urinary NP concentrations, blood lead levels, and select single-nucleotide polymorphisms of two dopamine-related genes (D4 dopamine receptor, DRD4, and dopamine transporter, DAT1). Socio-demographic variables, maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy and family medical history were obtained using a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 97 children with doctor-diagnosed ADHD and 110 normal controls were enrolled. The blood lead levels in both groups were similar (1.57±0.73 vs. 1.73±0.77 µg/dL, p = 0.15). No significant difference in urinary NP concentration was found between the children with ADHD and the control subjects (4.52±3.22 µg/g cr. vs. 4.64±2.95 µg/g cr., p = 0.43). ADHD was significantly more prevalent among males in this study (male to female ratio: 5:1 for the ADHD group and 1.3:1 for the control group, p<0.01). The analysis was repeated after excluding the females, but this had no effect on the association between NP and ADHD. The regression model, including or excluding females, indicated no increased odds of having ADHD in the context of NP exposure after adjusting for covariants. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that NP exposure might not promote ADHD in children, even though children in Taiwan had relatively high levels of NP compared to those reported previously and those in developed nations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/urina , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatinina/metabolismo , Demografia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Taiwan
15.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1220, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26653029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization reported that more than 10 % of women are severely affected by infertility, making the condition a major worldwide public health problem. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are environmental pollutants that may contribute to reproductive disorders. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As and risk factors for infertility in women. METHODS: Women who were infertile (N = 310) or pregnant (N = 57) were recruited from the gynecology and obstetrics department of a hospital. The participants were interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic, reproductive, and lifestyle information. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As in their blood samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Our findings suggested that the concentrations of Pb and As, but not Cd, were significantly higher in the blood of infertile women than in that of pregnant women. A higher percentage of the infertile women consumed more alcohol, used Chinese herbal medicine more frequently, and lacked physical activity compared with the pregnant women. After accounting for potentially relevant predictors, we observed that blood Pb levels might be elevated by using Chinese herbal medicine 1-6 times per week (aOR = 2.82, p = 0.05). In addition, engaging in physical activity 1-2 times per week (aOR = 0.37, p = 0.05) might assist in reducing Pb accumulation in infertile women, though the p value was borderline. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of physical activity and frequent use of Chinese herbal medicine may be associated with elevated blood Pb levels in infertile women. Chinese herbal medicine use was observed to increase the Pb body burden of both infertile and pregnant women in this study. The risk-benefit for Chinese herbal medicine intake should be evaluated by women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Arsênio/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan
16.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138145, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26367380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness is an important marker for prenatal screening; however, studies focusing on the correlation between maternal trace element levels and NT thickness are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal trace element levels during the first trimester and to investigate the association between maternal trace element levels and fetal NT thickness. METHODS: In total, 113 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women. Maternal plasma samples were collected in the first trimester of gestation. Plasma trace element levels were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nuchal translucency thickness was measured using ultrasonography at 10-14 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: We found that maternal plasma potassium (K) levels had a significant negative correlation with both NT (r = -0.230, p < 0.05) and NT Multiples of the Median (NT MoM) (r = -0.206, p < 0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, log-transformed maternal plasma potassium levels in the first trimester were significantly associated with fetal NT (NT MoM: ß = -0.68, p < 0.05; NT: ß = -1.20, p < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, the As, Hg and Pb levels in maternal plasma were positively correlated with NT, and the Mg, Cu, Zn, Na and Ca levels were negatively correlated with NT. CONCLUSION: Maternal plasma K levels during the first trimester appeared to be associated with NT thickness. The essential elements tended to decrease NT thickness, and non-essential elements tended to increase it.


Assuntos
Medição da Translucência Nucal , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 218(7): 603-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. METHODS: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. RESULTS: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 µg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 µg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/urina , Obesidade Pediátrica/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
18.
Environ Res ; 137: 215-21, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25575372

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure and the health effects of that exposure have been intensively studied for a variety of environmental pollutants and trace elements. However, few studies have compared susceptibilities among the three trimesters of gestation. Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring and abundant trace element in the environment. Although the effects of Mn on animals are well documented, knowledge of the effects of Mn exposure on pregnant women and fetuses remains limited. A longitudinal study was conducted by collecting blood samples during all three trimesters, and Mn exposure was completely characterized during gestation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of maternal Mn exposure on neonatal birth outcomes and to explore the critical stage of these effects. In total, 38, 76 and 76 samples were obtained from singleton pregnant women in their first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The cohort of pregnant women was selected at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Erythrocyte samples were collected during the first, second and third trimesters of gestation. Erythrocyte Mn concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neonatal birth outcomes were evaluated immediately after delivery. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the associations between maternal Mn levels in erythrocytes in each trimester and neonatal birth outcomes. The geometric mean concentrations of Mn were 2.93 µg/dL, 3.96 µg/dL and 4.41 µg/dL in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, a consistently negative association was found between maternal Mn levels throughout the three trimesters and birth outcomes. Log-transformed Mn levels in maternal erythrocytes in the second trimester were significantly associated with neonatal birth weight, head and chest circumferences, respectively (ß=-556.98 g, p=0.038; ß=-1.87 cm, p=0.045; ß=-2.74 cm, p=0.024). Despite the limited sample size in the first trimester, negative effects of maternal Mn levels on birth weight (ß=-1108.95 g, p<0.01) and chest circumference (ß=-4.40 cm, p=0.019) were also observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feto/metabolismo , Manganês/sangue , Exposição Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Apgar , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104245, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (ß = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/urina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chemosphere ; 93(6): 1145-52, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23871597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the association between NP exposure and parity and their effect on neonatal birth weight. METHODS: A cohort of pregnant women was established in a medical center in North Taiwan. Urinary NP concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection and adjusted using creatinine. A multivariable regression model was fit to determine the association between the maternal NP level in each trimester and neonatal birth weight. The odds ratios (ORs) of infant birth weight below the 10th, 25th, and 50th percentiles, comparing pregnant women with the different NP exposure levels, was estimated using a logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 162 pregnant women in the study, 99 were multiparas and 63 were primiparas. After adjusting for other covariates, the NP level in the second trimester had a significant association with birth weight in the primiparas (ß = -182.49 g, p value = 0.02). The OR of low infant birth weight, comparing pregnant women with different NP levels, was increased by decreasing the cutoff percentile for birth weight (OR = 1.18 for the 50th percentile, 2.12 for the 25th percentile, and 7.81 for the 10th percentile). The odds of primiparas with high NP level having a low neonatal birth weight increased to 3.87, 11.77, and 9.40 for the three different percentiles (p value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Maternal NP exposure level is associated with an increased risk of low neonatal weight. Primiparas are especially at risk, and the second trimester of pregnancy may be the critical stage of exposure.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Fenóis/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Taiwan
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