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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463754

RESUMO

Identification of different pollution sources in groundwater is challenging, especially in areas with diverse land uses and receiving multiple inputs. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA) was combined with geographic information system (GIS) to explore the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality and to identify the sources of pollution and main factors governing the quality of groundwater in a multiple land-use area in southwestern China. Groundwater samples collected from 26 wells in 2012 and 38 wells in 2018 were analyzed for 13 water quality parameters. The PCA results showed that the hydro-geochemical process was the predominant factor determining groundwater quality, followed by agricultural activities, domestic sewage discharges, and industrial sewage discharges. Agriculture expansion from 2012 to 2018 resulted in increased apportionment of agricultural pollution. In contrast, economic restructure and infrastructure improvement reduced the contributions of domestic sewage and industrial pollution. Anthropogenic activities were found the major causes of elevated nitrogen concentrations (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+) in groundwater, highlighting the necessity of controlling N sources through effective fertilizer managements in agricultural areas and reducing sewage discharges in urban areas. The applications of GIS and PCA successfully identified the sources of pollutants and major factors driving the variations of groundwater quality in tested years.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415147

RESUMO

Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM)-structured GaAs-based nanowire photodetectors have been widely reported because they are promising as an alternative for high-performance devices. Owing to the Schottky built-in electric fields in the MSM structure photodetectors, enhancements in photoresponsivity can be realized. Thus, strengthening the built-in electric field is an efficacious way to make the detection capability better. In this study, we fabricate a single GaAs nanowire MSM photodetector with superior performance by doping-adjusting the Fermi level to strengthen the built-in electric field. An outstanding responsivity of 1175 A/W is obtained. This is two orders of magnitude better than the responsivity of the undoped sample. Scanning photocurrent mappings and simulations are performed to confirm that the enhancement in responsivity is because of the increase in the hole Schottky built-in electric field, which can separate and collect the photogenerated carriers more effectively. The eloquent evidence clearly proves that doping-adjusting the Fermi level has great potential applications in high-performance GaAs nanowire photodetectors and other functional photodetectors.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(28): 25516-25523, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264836

RESUMO

In this report, a screening-engineered carbon nanotube (CNT) network/MoS2/metal heterojunction vertical field effect transistor (CNT-VFET) is fabricated for an efficient gate modulation independent of the drain voltage. The gate field in the CNT-VFET transports through the empty space of the CNT network without any screening layer and directly modulates the MoS2 semiconductor energy band, while the gate field from the Si back gate is mostly screened by the graphene layer. Consequently, the on/off ratio of CNT-VFET maintained 103 in overall drain voltages, which is 10 times and 1000 times higher than that of the graphene (Gr) VFET at Vsd = 0.1 (ratio = 81.9) and 1 V (ratio = 3), respectively. An energy band diagram simulation shows that the Schottky barrier modulation of CNT/MoS2 contact along the sweeping gate bias is independent of the drain voltage. On the other hand, the gate modulation of Gr/MoS2 is considerably reduced with increased drain voltage because more electrons are drawn into the graphene electrode and screens the gate field by applying a higher drain voltage to the graphene/MoS2/metal capacitor.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 9325-9331, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322851

RESUMO

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides possess the K (K') valley degree of freedom (DOF). Based on that, the research on valleytronics draws considerable attention. In this report, by breaking the spatial-inversion symmetry by an out-of-plane electric field, the valley Hall effect (VHE) is observed in multilayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) at room temperature. The non-zero Berry curvature emerges, leading to the carriers at K (K') valley being deflected to the opposite sides of the channel, giving rise to a spatial polarization of carriers at K (K') valleys in multilayer WSe2. This observation of the VHE illustrates that the K (K') valley DOF can be generated in multilayer WSe2, which makes it an alternative candidate for valleytronics.

5.
Nanoscale ; 11(21): 10420-10428, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112194

RESUMO

With continuous device scaling, avalanche breakdown in two-dimensional (2D) transistors severely degrades device output characteristics and overall reliability. It is highly desirable to understand the origin of such electrical breakdown for exploring high-performance 2D transistors. Here, we report an anomalous increase in the drain currents of black phosphorus (BP)-based transistors operating in the saturation regime. Through the comprehensive investigation of various channel thicknesses, channel lengths and operating temperatures, such novel behavior is attributed to the kink effect originating from impact ionization and the related potential shift inside the channel, which is further confirmed by device numerical simulations. Furthermore, nitrogen plasma treatment is carried out to eliminate the current anomalous increase and suppress the kink effect with improved saturation current. This work not only sheds light on the understanding of carrier transport within BP transistors, but also could open up a new avenue for achieving high-performance and reliable electronic devices based on 2D materials.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 377-387, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933794

RESUMO

The magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/chitosan hydrogel with interpenetrating network (IPN) structure was designed based on the functional groups of targeted emerging contaminants, represented by hydrophilic sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and hydrophobic bisphenol A (BPA). The average particle size, specific surface area, and total pore volume of the hydrogel were turned out to be 103.7 µm, 60.70 m2/g and 0.0672 cm3/g, respectively. Adsorption results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at the pH where SMZ was anionic and BPA was uncharged. When the adsorption temperature increased from 25 °C to 35 °C, the amount of adsorbed SMZ hardly changed, but that of BPA increased by two times. The adsorption capacity of the binary system (i.e., with both SMZ and BPA) was almost the same as that of the single system, indicating that simultaneous adsorption of SMZ and BPA was achieved. The adsorption equilibrium was reached quickly (within 5 min) for both SMZ and BPA. For adsorption isotherm, the Freundlich model fitted well for SMZ at 25, 35 and 45 °C. However, the adsorption of BPA exhibited the sigmoidally shaped isotherm at 25 °C with the Slips model fitting well, and both the Freundlich isotherm and the Slips isotherm fitted the data well at 35 °C and 45 °C, suggesting that the adsorption force was initially weak but greatly enhanced with an increase in adsorbate concentration or ambient temperature. The main adsorption mechanism was inferred to be electrostatic interactions for SMZ, and hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding for BPA. The hydrogel adsorbent maintained favorable adsorption capacity for BPA after five adsorption-desorption cycles. These findings may provide a strategy for designing high performance adsorbents that can remove both hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

7.
ACS Nano ; 13(4): 4804-4813, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938515

RESUMO

As compared with epitaxial semiconductor devices, two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures offer alternative facile platforms for many optoelectronic devices. Among them, photovoltaic based photodetectors can give fast response, while the photogate devices can lead to high responsivity. Here, we report a 2D photogate photodiode, which combines the benefits of 2D black phosphorus/MoS2 photodiodes with the emerging potential of perovskite, to achieve both fast response and high responsivity. This device architecture is constructed based on the fast photovoltaic operation together with the high-gain photogating effect. Under reverse bias condition, the device exhibits high responsivity (11 A/W), impressive detectivity (1.3 × 1012 Jones), fast response (150/240 µs), and low dark current (3 × 10-11 A). All these results are already much better in nearly all aspects of performance than the previously reported 2D photodiodes operating in reverse bias, achieving the optimal balance between all figure-of-merits. Importantly, with a zero bias, the device can also yield high detectivity (3 × 1011 Jones), ultrahigh light on/off ratio (3 × 107), and extremely high external quantum efficiency (80%). This device architecture thus has a promise for high-efficiency photodetection and photovoltaic energy conversion.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 30(13): 135201, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630138

RESUMO

In this work, a simple and effective thermal deposition method is described to enhance the stability and achieve n-doping of two-dimensional black phosphorus (BP), resulting in the successful fabrication of logic devices. By doping with Al adatoms, the stability of BP against oxidation is enhanced and the transfer characteristics are maintained for several days under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the resulting BP is n-doping showing a negative-shifted threshold voltage and enhanced electron mobility. The mechanism of Al-doping is investigated by first-principles calculation and Al induces a downward shift of the conduction band minimum and increases the Fermi level. In addition, integration of bare BP and Al-doped BP enables the fabrication of various logic devices such as inverters and p-n diodes. This work reveals a facile strategy to simultaneously enhance the stability and regulate the conductivity of BP by doping with metal adatoms boding well for device applications.

9.
Small ; 15(3): e1804661, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548912

RESUMO

Photoinduced memory devices with fast program/erase operations are crucial for modern communication technology, especially for high-throughput data storage and transfer. Although some photoinduced memories based on 2D materials have already demonstrated desirable performance, the program/erase speed is still limited to hundreds of micro-seconds. A high-speed photoinduced memory based on MoS2 /single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) network mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructure is demonstrated here. An intrinsic ultrafast charge transfer occurs at the heterostructure interface between MoS2 and SWCNTs (below 50 fs), therefore enabling a record program/erase speed of ≈32/0.4 ms, which is faster than that of the previous reports. Furthermore, benefiting from the unique device structure and material properties, while achieving high-speed program/erase operation, the device can simultaneously obtain high program/erase ratio (≈106 ), appropriate storage time (≈103  s), record-breaking detectivity (≈1016  Jones) and multibit storage capacity with a simple program/erase operation. It even has a potential application as a flexible optoelectronic device. Therefore, the designed concept here opens an avenue for high-throughput fast data communications.

10.
Opt Express ; 26(23): 30873-30881, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469979

RESUMO

Integrated dielectric metamaterials with plasmonic structures can cause drastic optical resonances and strengthen the capacity of light absorption. Here, we describe the optical properties of silicon nanoarrays on a thin silver film for extreme light confinement at subwavelength nanoscales. We attain the nearly total absorption in silicon nanostrips, which support magnetic quadruple Mie-type resonances in the visible regions. The Mie resonant field of the dielectric nanostrip engages the screening response of the silver film, resulting in plasmon resonance configuration and thus achieving perfect light absorption in the dielectric nanostrip. Moreover, we can attain similar results in other nanostructures, such as silicon cylinder and rhombus column arrays. Because it can sustain hybridized plasmon modes and magnetic modes, the combined system will benefit the application of solar energy accumulation.

11.
Nanoscale ; 10(40): 19131-19139, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298891

RESUMO

Limited by the Boltzmann distribution of electrons, the sub-threshold swing (SS) of conventional MOSFETs cannot be less than 60 mV dec-1. This limitation hinders the reduction of power dissipation of the devices. Herein, we present high-performance In2O3 nanowire (NW) negative capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) by introducing a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) layer in a gate dielectric stack. The fabricated devices exhibit excellent gate modulation with a high saturation current density of 550 µA µm-1 and an outstanding SS value less than 60 mV dec-1 for over 4 decades of channel current. The assembled inverter circuit can demonstrate an impressive voltage gain of 25 and a cut-off frequency of over 10 MHz. By utilizing the self-aligned fabrication scheme, the device can be ultimately scaled down to below 100 nm channel length. The devices with 200 nm channel length exhibit the best performances, in which a high on/off current ratio of >107, a large output current density of 960 µA µm-1 and a small SS value of 42 mV dec-1 are obtained at the same time. All these would not only evidently demonstrate the potency of NW NC-FETs to break through the Boltzmann limit in nanoelectronics, but also open up a new avenue to low-power transistors for portable products.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7060-7065, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339401

RESUMO

The nanostructure design of a prereserved hollow space to accommodate 300% volume change of silicon anodes has created exciting promises for high-energy batteries. However, challenges with weak mechanical stability during the calendering process of electrode fabrication and poor volumetric energy density remain to be solved. Here we fabricated a pressure-resistant silicon structure by designing a dense silicon shell coating on secondary micrometer particles, each consisting of many silicon nanoparticles. The silicon skin layer significantly improves mechanical stability, while the inner porous structure efficiently accommodates the volume expansion. Such a structure can resist a high pressure of over 100 MPa and is well-maintained after the calendering process, demonstrating a high volumetric capacity of 2041 mAh cm-3. In addition, the dense silicon shell decreases the surface area and thus increases the initial Coulombic efficiency. With further encapsulation with a graphene cage, which allows the silicon core to expand within the cage while retaining electrical contact, the silicon hollow structure exhibits a high initial Coulombic efficiency and fast rise of later Coulombic efficiencies to >99.5% and superior stability in a full-cell battery.

13.
J Immunol Res ; 2018: 5429543, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356413

RESUMO

Propolis is an important bee product which has been applied to the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to understand the material basis of Chinese propolis on pain relief; different Chinese propolis fractions (40W, 40E, 70E, and 95E raw propolis extracted followed by 40%, 70%, or 95% ethanol) were prepared, and their antinociceptive effects were evaluated. By analyzing using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, we showed that 40W was rich in phenolic acids, like caffeic acid, while 40E, 70E, and 95E have relatively high levels in flavonoids, like galangin, pinocembrin, and chrysin. Notably, chrysin amounts in 70E and 95E are much higher than those in 40E fraction. Antinociceptive effects by these propolis fractions were evaluated in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and tail immersion test, respectively. We noticed that only 40E fraction showed a significant reduction on acetic acid-induced writhing test. Importantly, in the hot plate test, all groups showed their effectiveness, except for the 70E group. We also noticed that 40W, 40E, and 95E administration caused an increase in the tail withdrawal latency of the mice. These data suggested that the different antinociceptive effects of different fractions from Chinese propolis extracts are directly link to their flavonoid composition.

14.
Opt Express ; 26(16): 20430-20441, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119353

RESUMO

The laser performance of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier is mainly hindered by the onset of mode instability. In this work, the slope efficiency and mode instability threshold of the ytterbium-doped fiber under various gamma-ray radiation doses have been measured. Experimental results reveal that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening degrades mode instability severely, and gamma-ray radiation-induced mode instability degradation can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection. It is shown that gamma-ray radiation-induced photodarkening results in a steep reduction of slope efficiency and mode instability threshold; moreover, the entire irradiated fiber can be partly bleached by hours of pump-light injection and exhibits both time and gamma-ray radiation-dose saturation properties. The experimental results indicate that mode instability mitigation can be partly realized by pump-light injection and implies photodarkening suppression is beneficial for TMI mitigation, which is very promising for the advancement of high-power fiber lasers.

15.
ACS Nano ; 12(7): 7239-7245, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29928792

RESUMO

Because of the distinct electronic properties and strong interaction with light, quasi-one-dimensional nanowires (NWs) with semiconducting property have been demonstrated with tremendous potential for various technological applications, especially electronics and optoelectronics. However, until now, most of the state-of-the-art NW photodetectors are predominantly based on the n-type NW channel. Here, we successfully synthesized p-type SnSe and SnS NWs via the chemical vapor deposition method and fabricated high-performance single SnSe and SnS NW photodetectors. Importantly, these two NW devices exhibit an impressive photodetection performance with a high photoconductive gain of 1.5 × 104 (2.8 × 104), good responsivity of 1.0 × 104 A W-1 (1.6 × 104 A W-1), and excellent detectivity of 3.3 × 1012 Jones (2.4 × 1012 Jones) under near-infrared illumination at a bias of 3 V for the SnSe NW (SnS NW) channel. The rise and fall times can be as efficient as 460 and 520 µs (1.2 and 15.1 ms), respectively, for the SnSe NW (SnS NW) device. Moreover, the spatially resolved photocurrent mapping of the devices further reveals the bias-dependent photocurrent generation. All these results evidently demonstrate that the p-type SnSe and SnS NWs have great potential to be applied in next-generation high-performance optoelectronic devices.

16.
Adv Mater ; 30(28): e1800932, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782679

RESUMO

The Boltzmann distribution of electrons induced fundamental barrier prevents subthreshold swing (SS) from less than 60 mV dec-1 at room temperature, leading to high energy consumption of MOSFETs. Herein, it is demonstrated that an aggressive introduction of the negative capacitance (NC) effect of ferroelectrics can decisively break the fundamental limit governed by the "Boltzmann tyranny". Such MoS2 negative-capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) with self-aligned top-gated geometry demonstrated here pull down the SS value to 42.5 mV dec-1 , and simultaneously achieve superior performance of a transconductance of 45.5 µS µm and an on/off ratio of 4 × 106 with channel length less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the inserted HfO2 layer not only realizes a stable NC gate stack structure, but also prevents the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) from fatigue with robust stability. Notably, the fabricated MoS2 NC-FETs are distinctly different from traditional MOSFETs. The on-state current increases as the temperature decreases even down to 20 K, and the SS values exhibit nonlinear dependence with temperature due to the implementation of the ferroelectric gate stack. The NC-FETs enable fundamental applications through overcoming the Boltzmann limit in nanoelectronics and open up an avenue to low-power transistors needed for many exciting long-endurance portable consumer products.

17.
Nature ; 557(7707): 696-700, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769729

RESUMO

The junctions formed at the contact between metallic electrodes and semiconductor materials are crucial components of electronic and optoelectronic devices 1 . Metal-semiconductor junctions are characterized by an energy barrier known as the Schottky barrier, whose height can, in the ideal case, be predicted by the Schottky-Mott rule2-4 on the basis of the relative alignment of energy levels. Such ideal physics has rarely been experimentally realized, however, because of the inevitable chemical disorder and Fermi-level pinning at typical metal-semiconductor interfaces2,5-12. Here we report the creation of van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions in which atomically flat metal thin films are laminated onto two-dimensional semiconductors without direct chemical bonding, creating an interface that is essentially free from chemical disorder and Fermi-level pinning. The Schottky barrier height, which approaches the Schottky-Mott limit, is dictated by the work function of the metal and is thus highly tunable. By transferring metal films (silver or platinum) with a work function that matches the conduction band or valence band edges of molybdenum sulfide, we achieve transistors with a two-terminal electron mobility at room temperature of 260 centimetres squared per volt per second and a hole mobility of 175 centimetres squared per volt per second. Furthermore, by using asymmetric contact pairs with different work functions, we demonstrate a silver/molybdenum sulfide/platinum photodiode with an open-circuit voltage of 1.02 volts. Our study not only experimentally validates the fundamental limit of ideal metal-semiconductor junctions but also defines a highly efficient and damage-free strategy for metal integration that could be used in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.

18.
Appl Opt ; 57(12): 3244-3249, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714312

RESUMO

A confined-doped fiber was fabricated by a modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process based on refractive index matching technology. With theory and experiments, we compared the confined-doped fiber and normal-doped fiber. We found that the confined-doped fiber with a core of 35 µm and 0.07 numerical aperture could achieve single-mode output and improve the beam quality from 2.8 to 1.5 in the fiber laser. Meanwhile, it still possesses high laser efficiency and has good stability of beam quality with the increase in pump power. It suggests that the confined-doped fiber with a MCVD process may be the key material for a high-power fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4362, 2018 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531356

RESUMO

We present a synthetic-wavelength based heterodyne interferometer of optical frequency combs with wide consecutive measurement range for absolute distance measurement. The synthetic wavelength is derived from two wavelengths obtained by two band-pass filters. The interferometric phase of the synthetic wavelength is used as a marker for the pulse-to-pulse alignment, which greatly improves the accuracy of traditional peak finding method. The consecutive measurement range is enlarged by using long fiber to increase the path length difference of the reference and measurement arms. The length of the long fiber is stabilized according to the interferometric phase of a CW laser. The experimental results show the present system can realize an accuracy of 75 nm in 350 mm consecutive measurement range.

20.
Nature ; 555(7695): 231-236, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517002

RESUMO

Artificial superlattices, based on van der Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene or molybdenum disulfide, offer technological opportunities beyond the reach of existing materials. Typical strategies for creating such artificial superlattices rely on arduous layer-by-layer exfoliation and restacking, with limited yield and reproducibility. The bottom-up approach of using chemical-vapour deposition produces high-quality heterostructures but becomes increasingly difficult for high-order superlattices. The intercalation of selected two-dimensional atomic crystals with alkali metal ions offers an alternative way to superlattice structures, but these usually have poor stability and seriously altered electronic properties. Here we report an electrochemical molecular intercalation approach to a new class of stable superlattices in which monolayer atomic crystals alternate with molecular layers. Using black phosphorus as a model system, we show that intercalation with cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide produces monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattices in which the interlayer distance is more than double that in black phosphorus, effectively isolating the phosphorene monolayers. Electrical transport studies of transistors fabricated from the monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattice show an on/off current ratio exceeding 107, along with excellent mobility and superior stability. We further show that several different two-dimensional atomic crystals, such as molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide, can be intercalated with quaternary ammonium molecules of varying sizes and symmetries to produce a broad class of superlattices with tailored molecular structures, interlayer distances, phase compositions, electronic and optical properties. These studies define a versatile material platform for fundamental studies and potential technological applications.

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