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2.
Nat Immunol ; 20(4): 503-513, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778242

RESUMO

Two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) has revolutionized the understanding of adaptive immunity. However, TPEM usually requires animal models and is not amenable to the study of human disease. The recognition of antigen by T cells requires cell contact and is associated with changes in T cell shape. We postulated that by capturing these features in fixed tissue samples, we could quantify in situ adaptive immunity. Therefore, we used a deep convolutional neural network to identify fundamental distance and cell-shape features associated with cognate help (cell-distance mapping (CDM)). In mice, CDM was comparable to TPEM in discriminating cognate T cell-dendritic cell (DC) interactions from non-cognate T cell-DC interactions. In human lupus nephritis, CDM confirmed that myeloid DCs present antigen to CD4+ T cells and identified plasmacytoid DCs as an important antigen-presenting cell. These data reveal a new approach with which to study human in situ adaptive immunity broadly applicable to autoimmunity, infection, and cancer.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura
3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 4: 14, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396860

RESUMO

A 55-year-old man with a history of erosive, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and interstitial lung disease presented with shortness of breath. Echocardiography showed new-onset severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15% and moderately increased mean aortic valve gradient of 20 mmHg in a trileaflet aortic valve with severe sclero-calcific degeneration. Coronary angiography revealed no significant obstructive coronary disease. Invasive hemodynamic studies and dobutamine stress echocardiography were consistent with moderate aortic stenosis. Guideline directed medical therapy for heart failure with reduced EF was initiated; however, diuretics and neurohormonal blockade (beta-blocker and angiotensin receptor blocker) provided minimal improvement, and the patient remained functionally limited. Of interest, echocardiography performed 1 year prior to his presentation showed normal LV EF and mild aortic leaflet calcification with moderate stenosis, suggesting a rapid progressing of calcific aortic valve disease. Subsequently, the patient underwent surgical aortic valve replacement and demonstrated excellent postsurgical recovery of LV EF (55%). Calcific aortic valve disease is commonly associated with aging, bicuspid aortic valve, and chronic kidney disease. Pathophysiological mechanism for valvular calcification is incompletely understood but include osteogenic transformation of valvular interstitial cells mediated by local and systemic inflammatory processes. Several rheumatologic diseases including RA are associated with premature atherosclerosis and arterial calcification, and we speculated a similar role of RA accelerating calcific aortic valve disease. We present a case of accelerated aortic valve calcification with (only) moderate stenosis, complicated by a rapid decline in LV systolic performance. Guidelines for AVR in moderate stenosis without concomitant cardiac surgery are not well established, although it should be considered in selected patients.

4.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 22(6): 320-3, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27556240

RESUMO

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is characterized by the presence of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and end-organ injury. In this report, we describe two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with findings compatible with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, complicated by acute kidney injury that was refractory to conventional therapies. Both patients exhibited a response to eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody to complement protein C5, with stabilization of their platelet count. On 1-year follow-up from their initial presentation, their hematologic disease remained in remission without recurrence.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/etiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 28(5): 460-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27341623

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite recent developments and treatment successes, the outcome, and prognosis of patients with lupus nephritis (LuN) have not greatly changed since the 1980s. This review covers the application of new concepts to the understanding of renal inflammation and the study of new pharmacologic agents to improve patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that the presence of anti-vimentin antibodies and T follicular helper cells in patient biopsies is associated with more severe interstitial inflammation, which has been tied to faster disease progression and onset of end-stage renal disease. Additionally, data regarding the role of serum IgE antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies in LuN by means of mediating IFN1 production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells are highlighted. Finally, a thorough review of completed and currently open clinical trials of therapeutic agents is provided. SUMMARY: Current management of LuN is guided almost exclusively by glomerular involvement. Based on the data provided in this review, we argue that renal tubulointerstitial inflammation is no less important and represents an overlooked feature in the current clinical approach to patients. Tubulointerstitial inflammation is driven by both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms that are still poorly understood. Studying these pathogenic processes promises to reveal new therapeutic opportunities for those LuN patients with the worst prognosis. VIDEO ABSTRACT: Alternate video abstract introduction (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, with introduction by two of the authors - VL and KT). Abstract Video: http://links.lww.com/COR/A35.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimentina/imunologia
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(11): 2740-2751, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In lupus nephritis, tubulointerstitial inflammation (TII) is associated with in situ adaptive immune cell networks that amplify local tissue damage. Since conventional therapy appears ineffective for severe TII, and these patients often progress to renal failure, understanding in situ mechanisms might reveal new therapeutic targets. This study was undertaken to assess whether dysregulated apoptotic regulators maintain local adaptive immunity and drive inflammation in TII. METHODS: This study utilized novel computational approaches that, when applied to multicolor confocal images, quantified apoptotic regulator protein expression in selected lymphocyte subsets. This approach was validated using laser-capture microdissection (LCM) coupled to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated apoptotic mediator expression were explored in a murine model of lupus nephritis. RESULTS: Analyses of renal biopsy tissue from patients with lupus nephritis and those with mixed cellular renal allograft rejection revealed that the B cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2) was frequently expressed in infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas expression of myeloid cell leukemia 1 was low. In contrast, the reciprocal pattern of expression was observed in tonsil germinal centers. These results were consistent with RNA expression data obtained using LCM and qPCR. Bcl-2 was also highly expressed in tubulointerstitial infiltrates in (NZB × NZW)F1 (NZB/NZW) mice. Furthermore, treatment of NZB/NZW mice with ABT-199, a selective oral inhibitor of Bcl-2, prolonged survival and prevented proteinuria and development of TII in a lupus prevention model. Interestingly, glomerular immune complexes were partially ameliorated by ABT-199 treatment, and serum anti-double-stranded DNA antibody titers were unaffected. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that Bcl-2 is an attractive therapeutic target in patients with lupus nephritis who manifest TII.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Intersticial/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/metabolismo , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glomérulos Renais/imunologia , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NZB , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Nefrite Intersticial/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
7.
Nat Immunol ; 17(2): 196-203, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26692173

RESUMO

Canonically, immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and type 2 helper cytokines. Here we found that in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a type of cell of the immune system linked to viral defense, which led to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α (IFN-α). The concentration of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC function by triggering phagocytosis via the high-affinity FcɛRI receptor for IgE, followed by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated sensing of DNA in phagosomes. Our findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Masculino , Fagocitose/imunologia , Fagossomos/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 6(230): 230ra46, 2014 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695686

RESUMO

T follicular helper (TFH) cells are critical for B cell activation in germinal centers and are often observed in human inflamed tissue. However, it is difficult to know if they contribute in situ to inflammation. Expressed markers define TFH subsets associated with distinct functions in vitro. However, such markers may not reflect in situ function. The delivery of T cell help to B cells requires direct cognate recognition. We hypothesized that by visualizing and quantifying such interactions, we could directly assess TFH cell competency in situ. Therefore, we developed computational tools to quantify spatial relationships between different cell subtypes in tissue [cell distance mapping (CDM)]. Analysis of inflamed human tissues indicated that measurement of internuclear distances between TFH and B cells could be used to discriminate between apparent cognate and noncognate interactions. Furthermore, only cognate-competent TFH cell populations expressed high levels of Bcl-6 and interleukin-21. These data suggest that CDM can be used to identify adaptive immune cell networks driving in situ inflammation. Such knowledge should help identify diseases, and disease subsets, that may benefit from therapeutic targeting of specific T cell-antigen-presenting cell interactions.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo
9.
Autoimmunity ; 45(5): 333-47, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22390182

RESUMO

Within the B-cell follicle of secondary lymphoid organs, germinal center (GC) reactions produce high affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) and memory B-cells necessary for the host's defense against invading pathogens. This process of GC formation is reliant on the activation of antigen-specific B-cells by T-cells capable of recognizing epitopes of the same antigenic complex. The unique architecture of secondary lymphoid organs facilitates these initial GC events through the placement of large clonally-diverse B-cell follicles near equally diverse T-cell zones. Antigen-activated B-cells that receive proper differentiation signals at the T-cell border of the B-cell follicle initiate an early GC B-cell transcriptional profile and migrate to follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks within the B-cell follicle to seed the GC reaction. Peripheral to FDCs, GC B-cells rapidly divide in dark zones of the GC, and undergo somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin (Ig) variable domain. Newly formed GC B-cell clones then migrate into the GC light zone where they compete for antigen and secondary signals presented by FDCs and a specialized subset of CD4(+) T-cells known as T-follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. Survival, proliferative and differentiation signals delivered by mature FDCs and T(FH) cells initiate transcriptional programs that determine if GC B-cells become memory B-cells or terminally differentiated PCs. To prevent oncogenic transformation and/or the escape of autoreactive clones, there are several regulatory mechanisms that restrict GC B-cell proliferation and survival. Here we will detail the recent advances in GC B-cell biology that relate to their generation and fate-determination as well as their pathogenic potential.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Plasmócitos/citologia , Plasmócitos/imunologia
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