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1.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder in the latest diagnostic manuals, it shows phenotypic and genetic associations of similar magnitudes across neurodevelopmental, externalising and internalising disorders. AIMS: To investigate if ADHD is aetiologically more closely related to neurodevelopmental than externalising or internalising disorder clusters, after accounting for a general psychopathology factor. METHOD: Full and maternal half-sibling pairs (N = 774 416), born between 1980 and 1995, were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth and Multi-Generation Registers, and ICD diagnoses were obtained from the Swedish National Patient Register. A higher-order confirmatory factor analytic model was fitted to examine associations between ADHD and a general psychopathology factor, as well as a neurodevelopmental, externalising and internalising subfactor. Quantitative genetic modelling was performed to estimate the extent to which genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects influenced the associations with ADHD. RESULTS: ADHD was significantly and strongly associated with all three factors (r = 0.67-0.75). However, after controlling for a general psychopathology factor, only the association between ADHD and the neurodevelopmental-specific factor remained moderately strong (r = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.42-0.45) and was almost entirely influenced by genetic effects. In contrast, the association between ADHD and the externalising-specific factor was smaller (r = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.24-0.27), and largely influenced by non-shared environmental effects. There remained no internalising-specific factor after accounting for a general factor. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that ADHD comorbidity is largely explained by genetically influenced general psychopathology, but the strong link between ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders is also substantially driven by unique genetic influences.

2.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether individuals with tic disorders are at increased risk for serious transport accidents. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk for injuries or death caused by transport and motor vehicle accidents in individuals with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder. METHODS: This population-based, sibling-controlled cohort study included all individuals aged ≥18 years living in Sweden between 1997 and 2013 (N = 6,127,290). A total of 3449 individuals had a registered diagnosis of Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder in the Swedish National Patient Register. We also identified 2191 families with full siblings discordant for tic disorders. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to estimate the risk for injuries or deaths as a result of transport accidents in individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder compared with unexposed individuals and siblings. RESULTS: Individuals with tic disorders had a higher risk for transport injuries or death compared with the general population (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.50 [95% confidence interval: 1.33-1.69]) and their unaffected siblings (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.68]). The risks were similar across sexes. The exclusion of most psychiatric comorbidities did not alter the magnitude of the estimates. However, the risks were no longer significant after exclusion of individuals with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The marginally increased risk for serious transport accidents in tic disorders is mainly driven by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity. Improved detection and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in this patient group are warranted. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is associated with risk of suicidality. However, studies have relied on small and/or specialist samples and largely focussed on adults, despite these difficulties commonly emerging in youth. Furthermore, the aetiology of the relationship remains unknown. METHODS: Two independent twin samples were identified through the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, at ages 18 (N = 6027) and 24 (N = 3454). Participants completed a self-report measure of BDD symptom severity. Young people and parents completed items assessing suicidal ideation/behaviours. Logistic regression models tested the association of suicidality outcomes with: (a) probable BDD, classified using an empirically derived cut-off; and (b) continuous scores of BDD symptoms. Bivariate genetic models examined the aetiology of the association between BDD symptoms and suicidality at both ages. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation and behaviours were common among those with probable BDD at both ages. BDD symptoms, measured continuously, were linked with all aspects of suicidality, and associations generally remained significant after adjusting for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between BDD symptoms and suicidality (72.9 and 77.7% at ages 18 and 24, respectively), but with significant non-shared environmental influences (27.1 and 22.3% at ages 18 and 24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: BDD symptoms are associated with a substantial risk of suicidal ideation and behaviours in late adolescence and early adulthood. This relationship is largely explained by common genetic liability, but non-shared environmental effects are also significant and could provide opportunities for prevention among those at high-risk.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that individuals who identify as a sexual minority (e.g., gay/lesbian, bisexual) are at increased risk for suicidality-related outcomes. However, previous research is primarily limited by the lack of adjustment for unmeasured (i.e., genetic and environmental) confounding factors and previous psychopathology. METHODS: Using the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, we employed a co-twin control design to examine the extent to which the association between sexual orientation and adolescent suicide attempt and self-harm (SA/SH) was independent of genetic and environmental factors shared by twins, as well as measured symptoms of childhood psychopathology. RESULTS: Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (i.e., gay/lesbian, bisexual, or other sexual orientation) were at two-fold increased odds for SA/SH (OR, 2.01 [95% confidence interval, 1.63-2.49) compared to heterosexual adolescents. When adjusting for all genetic and shared environmental factors that make twins similar and for measured childhood psychopathology, the association remained positive but attenuated to OR, 1.55 (1.11-2.16). CONCLUSIONS: Identifying as a sexual minority was associated with approximately 50% increased odds of SA/SH in adolescence after adjusting for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors shared by twins and for childhood psychopathology. The results support that environmental factors specifically associated with identifying as a sexual minority likely increase risk for SA/SH. Our findings highlight the need to monitor suicidality risk among this group.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113384, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823201

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between the ability to maintain prolonged (2-minute) fixation on a visual target and ADHD traits in a sample consisting of 120 monozygotic and 120 dizygotic twin pairs, aged 9 to 14 years. More intrusive saccades during the task was associated with higher level of parent-reported ADHD traits. Both intrusive saccades and ADHD symptoms had high heritability estimates, and there was a moderate genetic correlation between number of intrusive saccades and ADHD. This study suggests that inability to maintain ocular fixation for longer times is etiologically linked to ADHD traits in the general population.

6.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(4): 446-453, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the claim that interventions to improve academic achievement can reduce the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHOD: Using nationwide data for individuals born in Sweden from 1972 to 1981 (n = 930,182), we conducted instrumental variable and co-relative analyses of the association between academic achievement and AUD with a mean 21.4-year follow-up. Our instrument, used in the instrumental variable analyses, was month of birth. Co-relative analyses were conducted in cousins, full siblings, and monozygotic twins discordant for AUD, with observed results fitted to a genetic model. The academic achievement-AUD association was modeled in Cox regression. AUD was assessed using national medical, criminal, or pharmacy registries. RESULTS: Later month of birth was significantly associated with poorer academic achievement. Lower standardized academic achievement had a strong relationship with the risk for subsequent AUD registration: hazard ratio (HR) [per SD] = 2.14 [2.11, 2.17]. Instrumental variable analysis produced a substantial but moderately attenuated association: HR = 1.52 [1.28, 1.80]. Controlling for modest associations between month of birth and parental education and AUD risk reduced the association to HR = 1.43 [1.20, 1.69]. Our genetic co-relative model fitted the observed data relatively well and estimated the academic achievement-AUD association in monozygotic twins discordant for academic achievement to equal an HR of 1.44 [1.35, 1.52]. Results were broadly similar when analyzed separately in males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct methods with different assumptions produced results suggesting that the association observed between academic achievement at age 16 and the risk for AUD into middle adulthood is partly causal, thereby providing support for interventions to improve academic achievement as a means to prevent later AUD risk.

7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797146

RESUMO

Importance: Concerns about adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesic prescription have led to major guideline and policy changes. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, regarding the association between opioid prescription initiation and increased risk of subsequent substance-related morbidity. Objective: To examine the association of opioid initiation among adolescents and young adults with subsequent broadly defined substance-related morbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed population-register data from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2013, on Swedish individuals aged 13 to 29 years by January 1, 2013, who were naive to opioid prescription. To account for confounding, the analysis compared opioid prescription recipients with recipients of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an active comparator, compared opioid-recipient twins and other multiple birth individuals with their nonrecipient co-multiple birth offspring (co-twin control), examined dental prescription as a specific indication, and included individual, parental, and socioeconomic covariates. Data were analyzed from March 30, 2019, to January 22, 2020. Exposures: Opioid prescription initiation, defined as first dispensed opioid analgesic prescription. Main Outcomes and Measures: Substance-related morbidity, assessed as clinically diagnosed substance use disorder or overdose identified from inpatient or outpatient specialist records, substance use disorder or overdose cause of death, dispensed pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder, or conviction for substance-related crime. Results: Among the included cohort (n = 1 541 862; 793 933 male [51.5%]), 193 922 individuals initiated opioid therapy by December 31, 2013 (median age at initiation, 20.9 years [interquartile range, 18.2-23.6 years]). The active comparator design included 77 143 opioid recipients without preexisting substance-related morbidity and 229 461 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug recipients. The adjusted cumulative incidence of substance-related morbidity within 5 years was 6.2% (95% CI, 5.9%-6.5%) for opioid recipients and 4.9% (95% CI, 4.8%-5.1%) for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug recipients (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.23-1.35). The co-twin control design produced comparable results (3013 opioid recipients and 3107 nonrecipients; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.01), as did restriction to analgesics prescribed for dental indications and additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults analyzed in this study, initial opioid prescription receipt was associated with an approximately 30% to 40% relative increase in risk of subsequent substance-related morbidity in multiple designs that adjusted for confounding. These findings suggest that this increase may be smaller than previously estimated in some other studies.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Academic achievement (AA) is associated with smoking rates. Can we determine the degree to which this relationship is likely a causal one? METHODS: We predict smoking in male conscripts (mean age 18.2) assessed from 1984-1991 (N = 233,248) and pregnant females (mean age 27.7) receiving prenatal care 1972-1990 (N = 494,995) from AA assessed in all students at 16. Instrumental variable (IV) analyses used the instrument month-of-birth as in each school year, older children have high AA. Co-relative analyses used AA-smoking associations in the population, cousins and siblings to predict the AA-smoking relationship in MZ twins, thereby controlling for familial confounding. RESULTS: In males, higher AA was associated with a substantial decrease in risk for smoking [OR (95% CIs) per SD =0.41 (0.40-0.41)] while the parallel figures obtain from our IV and co-relative analyses were 0.47 (0.39-0.57) and 0.51 (0.43-0.60), respectively. In females, these figures for pre-pregnancy smoking were, respectively, 0.39 (0.39-0.39), 0.50 (0.46-0.54) and 0.54 (0.51-0.58). Results for heavy versus light smoking suggested a causal effect but were inconsistent across methods. However, among females smoking prior to pregnancy, AA predicted a reduced risk for continued smoking with ORs for uncontrolled, IV and co-relative analyses equaling, respectively, were 0.54 (0.53-0.55) 0.68 (0.56-0.82) and 0.78 (0.66-0.91), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two different methods produced consistent evidence that higher AA has a causal effect on reducing smoking rates and increasing cessation rates in smoking pregnant females. Improving academic achievement may result in meaningful gains in population health through reduced smoking. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides consistent evidence across two different methods that high academic achievement is causally related to reduced rates of smoking and increasing rates of smoking cessation among pregnant women. Our results suggest that interventions which improve educational achievement in adolescence would reduce tobacco consumption thereby improving public health.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pathways from internalizing psychopathology to substance misuse remain largely unclear. We estimated associations between childhood internalizing problems and subsequent substance misuse in two family-based samples. We also investigated sex differences and the role of externalizing comorbidity. METHOD: We studied associations of childhood internalizing psychopathology with register-based substance misuse after age 13. Sample 1 included all individuals born in Sweden 1984-2000 (N=1,768,516). Depressive and anxiety disorders were included as register-based ICD-9/10 diagnoses before age 13. Sample 2 was a sub-sample within the population sample, the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) twin cohort (n=12,408; born 1992-1998), with mood and anxiety problems assessed at age 9/12 by parents. In both samples, substance misuse was defined as an ICD-9/10 alcohol/drug use disorder or an alcohol/drug-related criminal conviction until December 2013. To account for familial effects, stratified analyses were conducted within siblings and twin pairs. RESULTS: In the population sample, both depressive (HR=2.75 [95% CI: 2.36-3.20]) and anxiety disorders (HR=1.52 [1.35-1.73]) were associated with substance misuse. Childhood mood problems (HR=2.28 [1.69-3.08]) were associated with substance misuse in the CATSS sample. The associations were partially explained by familial factors, and comorbid externalizing disorders explained the associations in men but not in women. CONCLUSION: Childhood mood problems were associated with substance misuse but familial factors shared by siblings partially explained the associations. The relationship of anxiety with substance misuse was complex and depended on measurement and the type of anxiety disorder. Internalizing problems may be especially important for substance misuse risk in women.

10.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649776

RESUMO

AIM: Neonatal jaundice is associated with higher risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it is unclear if the association is influenced by genetic and other familial factors. In this large population-based study, we investigated the association between neonatal jaundice and ADHD while adjusting for familial factors. METHODS: We linked several Swedish registers to identify all singleton births without congenital malformations between 1992 and 2000 (n = 814 420, including 384 290 full siblings) and followed them up until 2009. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between neonatal jaundice and ADHD, adjusting for pregnancy, delivery and neonatal characteristics including prematurity, and parental age and education. We repeated the analyses among siblings to adjust for shared familial factors. RESULTS: At a population level, children treated for neonatal jaundice had an increased risk of ADHD (adjusted HR (aHR): 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.22). In the sibling comparisons, there was no clear association between neonatal jaundice and ADHD (aHR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.82-1.29). CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of an independent association between neonatal jaundice and ADHD within siblings in this large population-based study, suggesting that the association is probably influenced by shared familial factors, such as parental genetic and/or lifestyle effects.

11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520326

RESUMO

Importance: The hypothesis that disrupted immune function is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and suicide is gaining traction, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Primary humoral immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are rare deficiencies of the immune system-mainly dysfunction of antibody production-and are associated with adverse health problems, such as recurrent infections and autoimmune diseases. Objective: To establish whether PIDs that affect antibody function and level are associated with lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior and whether this association is explained by the co-occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population- and sibling-based cohort study included more than 14 million individuals living in Sweden from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2013. Register-based data on exposure, outcomes, and covariates were collected through December 31, 2013. Individuals with a record of PID were linked to their full siblings, and a family identification number was created. Data were analyzed from May 17, 2019, to February 21, 2020. Exposures: Lifetime records of PID and autoimmune disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime records of 12 major psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior, including suicide attempts and death by suicide. Results: A lifetime diagnosis of PID affecting immunoglobulin levels was identified in 8378 patients (4947 women [59.0%]; median age at first diagnosis, 47.8 [interquartile range, 23.8-63.4] years). A total of 4776 clusters of full siblings discordant for PID was identified. After adjusting for comorbid autoimmune diseases, PIDs were associated with greater odds of any psychiatric disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.81-2.01) and any suicidal behavior (AOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.66-2.04). The associations were also significant for all individual psychiatric disorders (range of AORs, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.17-1.54] for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders to 2.99 [95% CI, 2.42-3.70] for autism spectrum disorders), death by suicide (AOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25-2.71), and suicide attempts (AOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.66-2.04). In the sibling comparisons, the associations were attenuated but remained significant for aggregated outcomes (AOR for any psychiatric disorder, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.48-1.83]; AOR for any suicidal behavior, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.14-1.66]), most individual disorders (range of AORs, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.23-1.73] for substance use disorders to 2.29 [95% CI, 1.43-3.66] for autism spectrum disorders), and suicide attempts (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.71). Joint exposure for PID and autoimmune disease resulted in the highest odds for any psychiatric disorder (AOR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.52-3.05) and any suicidal behavior (AOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.32-3.27). The associations with psychiatric outcomes (AORs, 2.42 [95% CI, 2.24-2.63] vs 1.65 [95% CI, 1.48-1.84]) and suicidal behavior (AORs, 2.43 [95% CI, 2.09-2.82] vs 1.40 [95% CI, 1.12-1.76]) were significantly stronger for women than for men with PID. Conclusions and Relevance: Primary humoral immunodeficiencies were robustly associated with psychopathology and suicidal behavior, particularly in women. The associations could not be fully explained by co-occurring autoimmune diseases, suggesting that antibody dysfunction may play a role, although other mechanisms are possible. Individuals with both PID and autoimmune disease had the highest risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide, suggesting an additive effect. Future studies should explore the underlying mechanisms of these associations.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. METHOD: We studied aggression and academic performance in over 27,000 individuals from four European twin cohorts participating in the ACTION consortium (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies). Individual level data on aggression at ages 7-16 were assessed by three instruments (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) including parental, teacher and self-reports. Academic performance was measured with teacher-rated grade point averages (ages 12-14) or standardized test scores (ages 12-16). Random effect meta-analytical correlations with academic performance were estimated for parental ratings (in all four cohorts) and self-ratings (in three cohorts). RESULTS: All between-family analyses indicated significant negative aggression-academic performance associations with correlations ranging from -.06 to -.33. Results were similar across different ages, instruments and raters and either with teacher-rated grade point averages or standardized test scores as measures of academic performance. Meta-analytical r's were -.20 and -.23 for parental and self-ratings, respectively. In within-family analyses of all twin pairs, the negative aggression-academic performance associations were statistically significant in 14 out of 17 analyses (r = -.17 for parental- and r = -.16 for self-ratings). Separate analyses in monozygotic (r = -.07 for parental and self-ratings), same-sex dizygotic (r's = -.16 and -.17 for parental and self-ratings) and opposite-sex dizygotic (r's = -.21 and -.19 for parental and self-ratings) twin pairs suggested partial confounding by genetic effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust negative association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. Part of these associations were explained by shared genetic effects, but some evidence of a negative association between aggression and academic performance remained even in within-family analyses of monozygotic twin pairs.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be phenotypically and etiologically linked. However, due to the absence of prospective studies, it remains unclear whether the elevation of autistic traits in AN is evident in early childhood. Here, we prospectively investigated autistic traits before and after the first diagnosis of AN. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 5,987 individuals (52.4% female) from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, parents reported autistic traits at ages 9 and 18. AN and ASD diagnoses were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. In addition, AN diagnoses were ascertained by parent-reported treatment for AN. We compared whether individuals with and without AN differed in autistic traits before the first diagnosis of AN (age 9) and after the first diagnosis of AN (age 18). RESULTS: We did not find evidence for elevated autistic traits in 9-year-old children later diagnosed with AN. At age 18, however, there was a marked elevation in restricted/repetitive behavior and interests, but only in the subgroup of individuals with acute AN. A less pronounced elevation was observed for social communication problems. CONCLUSIONS: Coping strategies in individuals with ASD and the somewhat different female ASD phenotype may explain why we did not find elevated autistic traits in children who later developed AN. Alternatively, it is possible that elevated autistic traits were not present prior to the onset of AN, thus questioning the previously reported elevated prevalence of ASD in AN. Future studies should use tailored measurements in order to investigate whether autistic traits in individuals with AN are best conceptualized as an epiphenomenon of the acute AN phase or whether these symptoms indeed represent ASD as a clinically verifiable neurodevelopmental disorder.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 173, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474571

RESUMO

We examined the extent to which genetic factors shared across generations, measured covariates, and environmental factors associated with parental suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicide) account for the association between parental and offspring suicidal behavior. We used a Swedish cohort of 2,762,883 offspring born 1973-2001. We conducted two sets of analyses with offspring of half- and full-siblings: (1) quantitative behavior genetic models analyzing maternal suicidal behavior and (2) fixed-effects Cox proportional hazard models analyzing maternal and paternal suicidal behavior. The analyses also adjusted for numerous measured covariates (e.g., parental severe mental illness). Quantitative behavior genetic analyses found that 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.29, 53.12%) of the intergenerational association was due to environmental factors associated with exposure to maternal suicidal behavior, with the remainder due to genetic factors. Statistical adjustment for parental behavioral health problems partially attenuated the environmental association; however, the results were no longer statistically significant. Cox hazard models similarly found that offspring were at a 2.74-fold increased risk [95% CI, 2.67, 2.83]) of suicidal behavior if their mothers attempted/died by suicide. After adjustment for familial factors and measured covariates, associations attenuated but remained elevated for offspring of discordant half-siblings (HR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.45, 1.71]) and full-siblings (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.57, 1.67]). Cox hazard models demonstrated a similar pattern between paternal and offspring suicidal behavior. This study found that the intergenerational transmission of suicidal behavior is largely due to shared genetic factors, as well as factors associated with parental behavioral health problems and environmental factors associated with parental suicidal behavior.

15.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 36: 1-9, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475742

RESUMO

This study identified individuals ever dispensed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) aged 15-60 years during 2006-2013, using Swedish national registers. The outcome was violent crime conviction. The main statistical analyses assessed risks of violent crime during periods on compared to off SSRI treatment within individuals. Further analyses investigated risk over time in relation to treatment initiation and discontinuation. The study identified 785,337 individuals (64.2% female), experiencing 32,203 violent crimes in 5,707,293 person-years. Between-individual analyses found statistically significantly elevated Hazard Ratios (HRs) overall (HR = 1.10), and in 15-24 and 25-34 year-olds (HR = 1.19 and 1.16), but non-significant HRs in 35-44 and 45-60-year-olds (HR = 1.02 and 1.04). In within-individual analyses, where 2.6% of SSRI users were informative, hazards were elevated overall (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.34), and across age groups (HR of 1.35 [95% CI = 1.19, 1.54] in 25-34-year-olds to 1.15 [95% CI = 0.99, 1.33] in 35-44-year-olds). In the overall cohort, the within-individual HRs were significantly elevated throughout treatment (HRs of 1.24 to 1.35) and for up to 12 weeks post-discontinuation (HRs of 1.37 and 1.20). While questions on causality remain, these results indicate that there may be an increased risk of violent crime during SSRI treatment in a small group of individuals. It may persist throughout medicated periods, across age groups, and after treatment discontinuation. Further confirmation is needed from studies with different designs, and clinical focus should be on high-risk individuals, as a majority of SSRI-users (around 97% in our cohort) will not commit violent crimes.

16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetically informed studies have provided mixed findings as to what extent parental substance misuse is associated with offspring substance misuse and antisocial behavior due to shared environmental and genetic factors. METHODS: We linked data from nationwide registries for a cohort of 2 476 198 offspring born in Sweden 1958-1995 and their parents. Substance misuse was defined as International Classification of Diseases diagnoses of alcohol/drug use disorders or alcohol/drug-related criminal convictions. Quantitative genetic offspring-of-siblings analyses in offspring of monozygotic and dizygotic twin, full-sibling, and half-sibling parents were conducted. RESULTS: Both maternal and paternal substance misuse were robustly associated with offspring substance misuse [maternal adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80-1.87); paternal aHR = 1.96 (1.94-1.98)] and criminal convictions [maternal aHR = 1.56 (1.54-1.58); paternal aHR = 1.66 (1.64-1.67)]. Additive genetic effects explained 42% (95% CI 25-56%) and 46% (36-55%) of the variance in maternal and paternal substance misuse, respectively, and between 36 and 44% of the variance in substance misuse and criminality in offspring. The associations between parental substance misuse and offspring outcomes were mostly due to additive genetic effects, which explained 54-85% of the parent-offspring covariance. However, both nuclear and extended family environmental factors also contributed to the associations, especially with offspring substance misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from a large offspring-of-siblings study indicate that shared genetic influences mostly explain the associations between parental substance misuse and both offspring substance misuse and criminality, but we also found evidence for the contribution of environmental factors shared by members of nuclear and extended families.

17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(10): 1736-1743, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Using Swedish nationwide registry data, we investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental risk factors to the etiology of smoking status across stages of pregnancy with increasing degrees of social and psychological pressure to reduce or quit smoking, by twin and sibling modeling. AIMS AND METHODS: Smoking status was available before, and during early and late pregnancy from the Medical Birth Register. Twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs, both reared together and apart, born between 1960 and 1990 were obtained from national twin and genealogical registers. Genetic structural equation modeling in OpenMx was applied to the population-based data to estimate shared genetic and/or environmental covariance across stages of pregnancy, accounting for maternal birth cohort and age at pregnancy. RESULTS: Analyses of paired data on 258 749 individuals suggested that risk factors for smoking status changed across stages of pregnancy. Results predicted substantial heritability (60-70%) and moderate contributions of shared environmental factors (10-15%) for smoking status. Whilst the same shared environmental factors were amplified from before pregnancy to late pregnancy, new primarily unique environmental factors explained ~10% of the variance during early pregnancy which was carried forward to late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Using registry data on women across pregnancy, we replicated that smoking status is highly heritable. Furthermore, we found support for increased impact of shared environmental factors during pregnancy of factors already present prior to pregnancy, and an independent set of mostly new unique environmental factors that may be triggered by increased social pressure to reduce or quit smoking during pregnancy. IMPLICATIONS: As new factors partially explain smoking status during pregnancy and the effects of familial factors increase across pregnancy, efforts to prevent or reduce smoking during pregnancy should receive continued attention, with a focus on both the individual and the family unit.

18.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 16: 25-48, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384000

RESUMO

The goal of this review is to enable clinical psychology researchers to more rigorously test competing hypotheses when studying risk factors in observational studies. We argue that there is a critical need for researchers to leverage recent advances in epidemiology/biostatistics related to causal inference and to use innovative approaches to address a key limitation of observational research: the need to account for confounding. We first review theoretical issues related to the study of causation, how causal diagrams can facilitate the identification and testing of competing hypotheses, and the current limitations of observational research in the field. We then describe two broad approaches that help account for confounding: analytic approaches that account for measured traits and designs that account for unmeasured factors. We provide descriptions of several such approaches and highlight their strengths and limitations, particularly as they relate to the etiology and treatment of behavioral health problems.

19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382133

RESUMO

Eating disorders and schizophrenia are both moderately to highly heritable and share significant genetic risk despite distinct diagnostic criteria. Large-scale family studies on the co-aggregation of these disorders are lacking. Thus, we aimed to estimate the co-occurrence and familial co-aggregation of these disorders within the entire Swedish and Danish population. The proband cohort consisted of individuals born in Sweden (1977-2003) and Denmark (1984-2006) and still residing in their respective country at age six (NSweden = 2,535,191, NDenmark = 1,382,367). Probands were linked to their biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles/aunts, and cousins. Diagnoses for anorexia nervosa (AN) and other eating disorders (OED: bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified) for probands and schizophrenia diagnoses for both probands and relatives were obtained. The likelihood of having schizophrenia in those with AN or OED and their relatives was compared with individuals without eating disorder diagnoses and their relatives. Probands with AN or OED were more likely to have schizophrenia than probands without these disorders. All relatives of probands with AN or OED (except parents and uncles/aunts of probands with AN) were at increased risk of schizophrenia. In general, the magnitude of odds ratios attenuated with decreasing genetic relatedness. These results suggest familial liability contributes to the association between eating disorders and schizophrenia. Clinicians should be mindful of this comorbid and co-aggregation pattern as it may influence case conceptualization and treatment decisions.

20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(9): 936-943, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374377

RESUMO

Importance: The frequency with which autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are diagnosed has shown a marked increase in recent years. One suggestion is that this is partly because of secular changes in the environment, yet to our knowledge this hypothesis lacks evidence. Objective: To assess whether the relative importance of genetic and environmental associations with ASD and autistic traits has changed over a 16-year and 26-year period. Design, Setting, and Participants: A twin design was used to assess whether the heritability of ASD and autistic traits has changed over time. Data from 2 nationwide Swedish twin cohorts was used: the Swedish Twin Registry (STR; participants born between January 1982 and December 2008) and the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; participants born between January 1992 and December 2008). Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were identified for twins in the STR, with follow-up to 2013. Questionnaires assigned screening diagnoses of ASD to CATSS participants and assessed autistic traits. Analyses were performed from September 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Exposures: Each sample was divided into several birth cohorts covering 1982 to 1991 (for the STR only), 1992-1995, 1996-1999, 2000-2003, and 2004-2008. Outcomes: We assessed whether the genetric and environment variance underlying autistic traits changed across birth cohorts and examined whether the relative contribution of genetics and environment to liability for autism changed across birth cohorts. Results: Data were available for 22 678 twin pairs (5922 female same-sex pairs [26.1%], 5563 male same-sex pairs [24.5%], and 11193 opposite-sex pairs [49.4%]) in the STR and 15 280 pairs (4880 female same-sex pairs [31.9%], 5092 male same-sex pairs [33.3%], and 5308 opposite-sex pairs [34.7%]) in CATSS. The heritability of ASD diagnoses in the STR ranged from 0.88 (95% CI, 0.74-0.96) to 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99). The heritability of screening diagnoses in CATSS varied from 0.75 (95% CI, 0.58-0.87) to 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-0.98). Autistic traits showed a modest variance increase over time that was associated with increases in genetic and environmental variance, with the total variance increasing from 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.98) to 1.17 (95% CI, 1.13-1.21) over time. Conclusions and Relevance: Weak evidence was found for changes in the genetic and environmental factors underlying ASD and autistic traits over time. Genetic factors played a consistently larger role than environmental factors. Environmental factors are thus unlikely to explain the increase in the prevalence of ASD.

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