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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020121705, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the extent to which the genetic and environmental etiology of suicide attempt and suicide death is shared or unique. METHODS: The authors used Swedish national registry data for a large cohort of twins, full siblings, and half siblings (N=1,314,990) born between 1960 and 1990 and followed through 2015. They conducted twin-family modeling of suicide attempt and suicide death to estimate heritability for each outcome, along with genetic and environmental correlations between them. They further assessed the relationship between suicide attempt by young people compared with adults. RESULTS: In bivariate models, suicide attempt and death were moderately heritable among both women (attempt: additive genetic variance component [A]=0.52, 95% CI=0.44, 0.56; death: A=0.45, 95% CI=0.39, 0.59) and men (attempt: A=0.41, 95% CI=0.38, 0.49; death: A=0.44, 95% CI=0.43, 0.44). The outcomes were substantially, but incompletely, genetically correlated (women: rA=0.67, 95% CI=0.55, 0.67; men: rA=0.74, 95% CI=0.63, 0.87). Environmental correlations were weaker (women: rE=0.36, 95% CI=0.29, 0.45; men: rE=0.21, 95% CI=0.19, 0.27). Heritability of suicide attempt was stronger among people ages 10-24 (A=0.55-0.62) than among those age 25 and older (A=0.36-0.38), and the genetic correlation between attempt during youth and during adulthood was stronger for women (rA=0.79, 95% CI=0.72, 0.79) than for men (rA=0.39, 95% CI=0.26, 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic and environmental etiologies of suicide attempt and death are partially overlapping, exhibit modest sex differences, and shift across the life course. These differences must be considered when developing prevention efforts and risk prediction algorithms. Where feasible, suicide attempt and death should be considered separately rather than collapsed, including in the context of gene identification efforts.

2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests increased risk of several physical health conditions in people with ADHD. Only a few physical conditions have been thoroughly studied in relation to ADHD, and there is little knowledge on associations in older adults in particular. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic and aetiological associations between ADHD and a wide range of physical health conditions across adulthood. METHODS: We did a register study in Sweden and identified full-sibling and maternal half-sibling pairs born between Jan 1, 1932, and Dec 31, 1995, through the Population and Multi-Generation Registers. We excluded individuals who died or emigrated before Jan 1, 2005, and included full-siblings who were not twins and did not have half-siblings. ICD diagnoses were obtained from the National Patient Register. We extracted ICD diagnoses for physical conditions, when participants were aged 18 years or older, from inpatient (recorded 1973-2013) and outpatient (recorded 2001-13) services. Diagnoses were regarded as lifetime presence or absence. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between ADHD (exposure) and 35 physical conditions (outcomes) in individuals and across sibling pairs. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors accounted for the associations with ADHD. FINDINGS: 4 789 799 individuals were identified (2 449 146 [51%] men and 2 340 653 [49%] women), who formed 4 288 451 unique sibling pairs (3 819 207 full-sibling pairs and 469 244 maternal half-sibling pairs) and 1 841 303 family clusters (siblings, parents, cousins, spouses). The mean age at end of follow-up was 47 years (range 18-81; mean birth year 1966); ethnicity data were not available. Adults with ADHD had increased risk for most physical conditions (34 [97%] of 35) compared with adults without ADHD; the strongest associations were with nervous system disorders (eg, sleep disorders, epilepsy, dementia; odds ratios [ORs] 1·50-4·62) and respiratory diseases (eg, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ORs 2·42-3·24). Sex-stratified analyses showed similar patterns of results in men and women. Stronger cross-disorder associations were found between full-siblings than between half-siblings for nervous system, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and metabolic diseases (p<0·007). Quantitative genetic modelling showed that these associations were largely explained by shared genetic factors (60-69% of correlations), except for associations with nervous system disorders, which were mainly explained by non-shared environmental factors. INTERPRETATION: This mapping of aetiological sources of cross-disorder overlap can guide future research aiming to identify specific mechanisms contributing to risk of physical conditions in people with ADHD, which could ultimately inform preventive and lifestyle intervention efforts. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing the presence of physical conditions in patients with ADHD. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council; Swedish Brain Foundation; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life, and Welfare; Stockholm County Council; StratNeuro; EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme; National Institute of Mental Health.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114076, 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247062

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown an association between IQ and adaptive global functioning, i.e. how well a person is functioning in different domains of life. However, it is unclear to what extent such an association applies in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The study group consisted of 550 population-screened children assessed with the K-SADS, WISC-IV, and the C-GAS. Approximately half of the sample had been diagnosed with one or several NDDs (ADHD, autism, language disorder and tic disorder). A factorial ANOVA with IQ level and the presence of NDD was conducted, with C-GAS score as the dependent variable. Results revealed a significant interaction effect between IQ-group and NDD-status. In the non-NDD group (49% girls), higher IQ scores were clearly linked with better global adaptive functioning. Among children with NDDs (35% girls), however, higher IQ scores were not clearly associated with better functioning. Thus, the association between IQ and adaptive functioning were found to differ depending on the presence of NDD. These results have implications for the interpretation of IQ test results in neurodevelopmental assessments and point towards the importance of providing support based on an assessment of needs and functioning rather than scores from IQ tests.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) are frequent features of autism, yet little is known about why these conditions co-occur. One possibility is that they share etiological factors, yet this hypothesis remains to be tested using quantitative genetic designs. We thus investigated etiological links between autism and DIMS using familial co-aggregation and twin methods. METHODS: Twins, siblings, half-siblings, and cousins of 50,097 individuals with autism were identified from Swedish population registries. Their risk of DIMS, defined through diagnoses of insomnia and/or melatonin prescriptions, was then estimated. Twin analyses conducted on 15,279 child and adolescent twin pairs investigated etiological links between DIMS and ASD. RESULTS: 22.8% of autistic individuals had DIMS. Monozygotic co-twins of individuals with autism were most at risk of DIMS compared to the reference group (OR = 6.6 [2.5-17.4]), followed by dizygotic co-twins (OR = 2.6 [1.5-4.5]) and full siblings (OR = 2.5 [2.4-2.6]). Half-siblings and cousins of individuals with autism were least likely to have DIMS relative to the reference group (OR range = 1.3-1.5). Twin analyses estimated a correlation of 0.57 (0.53-0.61) between autism and DIMS, with a genetic correlation of 0.62 (0.60-0.68). These overlapping genetic factors explained 94% of the covariance between these conditions. Autistic traits also showed genetic overlap with DIMS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that shared genetic mechanisms underlie autism and DIMS, which may lead them to co-occur. Untangling the etiological overlap between these conditions has potential to assist in understanding the etiology of each condition, as well as their associated outcomes.

5.
Addiction ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed medications for patients with anxiety/depression. These patients often have problems with substance use, but it remains unclear whether the risk of substance misuse is influenced by SSRI treatment. We aimed to determine whether SSRI treatment is associated with a decreased risk of acute substance misuse-related outcomes. DESIGN: Cohort study following individuals through Swedish nation-wide registers between July 2005 and December 2013 and comparing the risk of substance misuse outcomes during periods on- versus off-treatment within the same individual. SETTING: Swedish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with a newly dispensed prescription of SSRIs between July 2006 and December 2013 and an ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety/depressive disorder before the first treatment initiation. The cohort included 146 114 individuals (60.7% women). MEASUREMENTS: Substance misuse outcomes included ICD-10 diagnoses of acute intoxications (F10.0-F19.0), accidental poisonings by alcohol or drugs (X41-X42, X45-X46) and substance-related criminal offenses. FINDINGS: The absolute rate of substance misuse increased sharply before the onset of SSRI treatment and decreased after treatment initiation. Stratified Cox regression models showed an elevated risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-1.78] of substance misuse outcomes during a 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, compared with the reference period of more than 1 month before treatment start. The on-treatment estimates (1-30 days, HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.23-1.37; 31-120 days, HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.24-1.35; and > 120 days, HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.30 after treatment initiation] were consistently lower than the 1-month pre-treatment estimate, but still elevated compared with the reference period. CONCLUSIONS: For people with anxiety/depression, the risk of substance misuse appears to be particularly elevated immediately before initiating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, which may reflect the emergence or worsening of substance use problems concurrently with anxiety/depression. SSRI treatment appears to be associated with a lower risk of substance misuse compared with the 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, but causality remains uncertain.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171098

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Neurodevelopmental disorders are more prevalent in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes than in the general population, and the symptoms may limit the individual's ability of diabetes management. It remains unknown whether comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with long-term glycaemic control and risk of diabetic complications. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used longitudinally collected data from Swedish registers. We identified 11,326 individuals born 1973-2013, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes 1990-2013 (median onset age: 9.6 years). Out of them, 764 had a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. We used multinomial logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of having poor glycaemic control (assessed by mean of glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c]) and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of nephropathy and retinopathy. RESULTS: The median of follow-up was 7.5 (IQR 3.9, 11.2) years. Having any neurodevelopmental disorder (ORadjusted 1.51 [95%CI 1.13, 2.03]), or ADHD (ORadjusted 2.31 [95%CI 1.54, 3.45]) was associated with poor glycaemic control (mean HbA1c >8.5%). Increased risk of diabetic complications was observed in patients with comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders (HRadjusted 1.72 [95%CI 1.21, 2.44] for nephropathy, HRadjusted 1.18 [95%CI 1.00, 1.40] for retinopathy) and patients with ADHD (HRadjusted 1.90 [95%CI 1.20, 3.00] for nephropathy, HRadjusted 1.33 [95%CI 1.07, 1.66] for retinopathy). Patients with intellectual disability have a particularly higher risk of nephropathy (HRadjusted 2.64 [95%CI 1.30, 5.37]). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders, primarily ADHD and intellectual disability, were associated with poor glycaemic control and a higher risk of diabetic complications in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113014, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156453

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge of the health challenges and mortality in people with intellectual disability (ID) should guide health policies and practices in contemporary society. Objective: To examine premature mortality in individuals with ID. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based longitudinal cohort study obtained data from several national health care, education, and population registers in Sweden. Two registers were used to identify individuals with ID: the National Patient Register and the Halmstad University Register on Pupils With Intellectual Disability. Two cohorts were created: cohort 1 comprised young adults (born between 1980 and 1991) with mild ID, and cohort 2 comprised individuals (born between 1932 and 2013) with mild ID or moderate to profound ID; each cohort had matched reference cohorts. Data analyses were conducted between June 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. Exposures: Mild or moderate to profound ID. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was overall (all-cause) mortality, and the secondary outcomes were cause-specific mortality and potentially avoidable mortality. Results: Cohort 1 included 13 541 young adults with mild ID (mean [SD] age at death, 24.53 [3.66] years; 7826 men [57.8%]), and its matched reference cohort consisted of 135 410 individuals. Cohort 2 included 24 059 individuals with mild ID (mean [SD] age at death, 52.01 [16.88] years; 13 649 male individuals [56.7%]) and 26 602 individuals with moderate to profound ID (mean [SD] age at death, 42.16 [21.68] years; 15 338 male individuals [57.7%]); its matched reference cohorts consisted of 240 590 individuals with mild ID and 266 020 with moderate to profound ID. Young adults with mild ID had increased overall mortality risk compared with the matched reference cohort (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; 95% CI, 2.33-3.50), specifically excess mortality in neoplasms (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.02-6.35), diseases of the nervous system (OR, 40.00; 95% CI, 18.43-86.80) and circulatory system (OR, 9.24; 95% CI, 4.76-17.95). Among deaths that were amenable to health care (OR, 7.75; 95% CI, 4.85-12.39), 55% were attributed to epilepsy. In cohort 2, increased risk of overall mortality was observed among both individuals with mild ID (OR, 6.21; 95% CI, 5.79-6.66) and moderate to profound ID (OR, 13.15; 95% CI, 12.52-13.81) compared with the matched reference cohorts. Those with moderate to profound ID had a higher risk in several cause-of-death categories compared with those with mild ID or the matched reference cohort. Adjustment for epilepsy and congenital malformations attenuated the associations. The relative risk of premature death was higher in women (OR, 6.23; 95% CI, 4.42-8.79) than in men (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.53-2.60), but the absolute risk of mortality was similar (0.9% for women vs 0.9% for men). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found excess premature mortality and high risk of deaths with causes that were potentially amenable to health care intervention among people with ID. This finding suggests that this patient population faces persistent health challenges and inequality in health care encounters.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) co-occur with bipolar disorder (BD) relatively frequently. Individuals with BD often report symptoms of mania and hypomania during adolescence, prior to the age of onset for BD. It is unknown whether these symptoms are associated with ASDs. We examined whether diagnoses of ASDs and autistic traits were associated with hypomania in a large, population-based Swedish twin sample. METHODS: Parental structured interviews assessed autistic traits, and were used to assign screening diagnoses of ASDs, when twins were aged 9 or 12 (N = 13 533 pairs). Parents then completed questionnaires assessing hypomania when the twins were aged 15 and 18 (N = 3852 pairs at age 15, and 3013 pairs at age 18). After investigating the phenotypic associations between these measures, we used the classical twin design to test whether genetic and environmental influences on autistic traits influence variation in adolescent hypomania. RESULTS: Autistic traits and ASD diagnoses in childhood were associated with elevated scores on the measures of adolescent hypomania. Twin analyses indicated that 6-9% of the variance in hypomania was explained by genetic influences that were shared with autistic traits in childhood. When repeating these analyses for specific autistic trait domains, we found a stronger association between social interaction difficulties and hypomania than for other autistic trait domains. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a genetic link between autistic traits and hypomania in adolescence. This adds to the growing evidence base of genetic factors associated with ASDs showing links with psychiatric outcomes across childhood and into adulthood.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial co-aggregation studies of eating disorders (EDs) and schizophrenia reveal shared genetic and environment factors, yet their etiological and clinical relationship remains unclear. We evaluate the influence of schizophrenia family history on clinical outcomes of EDs. METHODS: We conducted a cohort evaluation of the association between family history of schizophrenia and ED clinical features, psychiatric comorbidities, and somatic and mental health burden in individuals born in Sweden 1977-2003 with anorexia nervosa (AN) or other EDs (OED: bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and ED not otherwise specified). RESULTS: Of 12 424 individuals with AN and 20 716 individuals with OED, 599 (4.8%) and 1118 (5.4%), respectively, had a family history of schizophrenia (in up to third-degree relatives). Among individuals with AN, schizophrenia in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with increased comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [HR(95% CI) 2.26 (1.27-3.99)], substance abuse disorder (SUD) [HR (95% CI) 1.93 (1.25-2.98)], and anxiety disorders [HR (95% CI) 1.47 (1.08-2.01)], but higher lowest illness-associated body mass index (BMI) [1.14 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.19-2.10)]. Schizophrenia in any relative (up to third-degree) in AN was significantly associated with higher somatic and mental health burden, but lower ED psychopathology scores [-0.29, 95% CI (-0.54 to -0.04)]. Schizophrenia in first-degree relatives in individuals with OED was significantly associated with increased comorbid ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, SUD, anxiety disorders, somatic and mental health burden, and suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: We observed different patterns of ED-related outcomes, psychiatric comorbidity, and illness burden in individuals with EDs with and without family histories of schizophrenia and provide new insights into the diverse manifestations of EDs.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 163, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723211

RESUMO

Individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) have a 2-3-fold higher risk of mortality than the general population. Heritability of mortality in psychiatric disorders has been proposed; however, few have investigated SCZ family history and genetic variation, with all-cause and specific causes of death. We aimed to identify correlates of SCZ mortality using genetic epidemiological and genetic modelling in two samples: a Swedish national population sample and a genotyped subsample. In the Swedish national population sample followed from the first SCZ treatment contact until emigration, death or end of the follow-up, we investigated a standardised measure of SCZ family history. In a subgroup with comprehensive genetic data, we investigated the impact of common and rare genetic variation. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between various factors and mortality (all and specific causes). A total of 13727 SCZ cases fulfilled criteria for the population-based analyses (1268 deaths, 9.2%). The genomic subset contained 4991 cases (1353 deaths, 27.1%). Somatic mutations associated with clonal hematopoiesis with unknown drivers were associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.49). No other heritable measures were associated with all-cause mortality nor with any specific causes of death. Future studies in larger, comparable cohorts are warranted to further understand the association between hereditary measures and mortality in SCZ.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Esquizofrenia/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Autism ; 25(5): 1422-1432, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645260

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Individuals diagnosed with autism often describe that they process sensory information differently from others, and many experience sensory issues as problematic. For instance, an increased sensitivity to smells or sounds can make participating in social settings challenging. While sensory issues are now part of the diagnostic criteria for autism, they also co-occur with other psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the relationship between autism and alterations in sensory processing are due to genetics or environment. In addition, more research is needed on how autism, as compared to other diagnoses, is associated with sensory issues. Using a twin study, we found that genetic factors influenced self-reported reactivity to sensory stimuli in autism while environmental factors influenced other sensory issues (e.g. difficulties in detecting or differentiating sensory input). Hence, sensory hyper-reactivity might be an early onset core feature of autism, while other domains of alterations in sensory processing might develop later, influenced by the environment. Moreover, autism was more strongly associated with sensory issues related to increased sensitivity/reactivity as compared to other psychiatric diagnoses. However, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was more strongly related to deficits in detecting/differentiating sensory stimuli and with an increased drive to seek sensory input. Our results indicate that sensory issues are not specific to autism, but that some aspects of altered sensory processing are more relevant for autism than for other diagnoses.

13.
Dyslexia ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759268

RESUMO

The primary aim of this study was to explore the overlaps between dyslexia and a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and problems (NDPs), specifically symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, atypical sensory perception and developmental coordination disorder. Capitalizing on a population-based sample of twins, secondary aims included estimating the heritability of dyslexia and reporting on the measurement characteristics of the scale used to assess dyslexia. A telephone interview regarding symptoms of dyslexia and other NDPs was conducted with parents of 1,688 nine-year-old twins. The prevalence and the heritability of dyslexia were estimated at 8 and 52%, respectively. The boy: girl ratio was 1.5:1. Results revealed that there was more than an eight-fold increase in (diagnostic proxy) NDPs prevalence in the dyslexia group as compared to typical readers. Quantitatively measured symptoms of inattention, oral language problems and atypical sensory perception significantly predicted dyslexia status in a multivariate analysis. By contrast, ASD-related inflexibility was inversely associated with dyslexia in the multivariate model. In sum, dyslexia often overlaps with other NDPs. The current study provides new knowledge supporting the position to move beyond isolated diagnostic categories into behavioural profiles of co-occurring problems when trying to understand the pattern of strengths and needs in individuals with dyslexia.

14.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766859

RESUMO

Hamer et al argue that the variable "ever versus never had a same-sex partner" does not capture the complexity of human sexuality. We agree and said so in our paper. But Hamer et al neglect to mention that we also reported follow-up analyses showing substantial overlap of the genetic influences on our main variable and on more nuanced measures of sexual behavior, attraction, and identity.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247724, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for poor occupational outcomes. Educational attainment and psychiatric comorbidity may be important contributing factors for these outcomes, but the role of these factors is not well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the associations between ADHD and occupational outcomes, and to examine the influence of educational attainment, comorbid developmental disorders and intellectual disability on these associations. METHODS: We linked the Swedish population graduating from compulsory school 1998-2008 (N = 1.2 millions) to population-wide register-based data on clinical psychiatric diagnoses and medications, objective annual measures of educational, and occupational outcomes. Individuals were followed for between 6 to 16 years after graduation. RESULTS: Individuals with ADHD had annually on average 17 percent lower income, ratio = 0.83 (95% CI 0.83-0.84), 12.19 (11.89-12.49) more days of unemployment, and a higher likelihood of receiving disability pension, odds-ratio = 19.0 (18.4-19.6), compared to controls. Comorbid diagnoses of intellectual disability and developmental disorder explained most of the association between ADHD and disability pension, while lifetime educational attainment partially explained associations between ADHD and all occupational outcomes. Analyses of occupational trajectories found that income was lower and unemployment elevated relative to controls with the same educational attainment. Higher educational attainment correlated with higher income similarly among individuals with ADHD and controls after accounting for individual background factors. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational burden associated with ADHD is substantial. Comorbid developmental disorders, intellectual disability and educational difficulties (e.g., failing grades) from childhood to adulthood are important factors to consider when designing interventions to improve occupational outcomes in individuals with ADHD.

16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with psychiatric disorders who are prescribed antipsychotics have lower rates of violence and crime but the differential effects of specific antipsychotics are not known. We investigated associations between 10 specific antipsychotic medications and subsequent risks for a range of criminal outcomes. METHODS: We identified 74 925 individuals who were ever prescribed antipsychotics between 2006 and 2013 using nationwide Swedish registries. We tested for five specific first-generation antipsychotics (levomepromazine, perphenazine, haloperidol, flupentixol, and zuclopenthixol) and five second-generation antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole). The outcomes included violent, drug-related, and any criminal arrests and convictions. We conducted within-individual analyses using fixed-effects Poisson regression models that compared rates of outcomes between periods when each individual was either on or off medication to account for time-stable unmeasured confounders. All models were adjusted for age and concurrent mood stabilizer medications. RESULTS: The relative risks of all crime outcomes were substantially reduced [range of adjusted rate ratios (aRRs): 0.50-0.67] during periods when the patients were prescribed antipsychotics v. periods when they were not. We found that clozapine (aRRs: 0.28-0.44), olanzapine (aRRs: 0.46-0.72), and risperidone (aRRs: 0.53-0.64) were associated with lower arrest and conviction risks than other antipsychotics, including quetiapine (aRRs: 0.68-0.84) and haloperidol (aRRs: 0.67-0.77). Long-acting injectables as a combined medication class were associated with lower risks of the outcomes but only risperidone was associated with lower risks of all six outcomes (aRRs: 0.33-0.69). CONCLUSIONS: There is heterogeneity in the associations between specific antipsychotics and subsequent arrests and convictions for any drug-related and violent crimes.

17.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113794, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596506

RESUMO

Adolescent internalizing problems such as anxiety and depression have been associated with subsequent educational underachievement. However, it has not been investigated if the association is accounted for by neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs, i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, tic disorder, learning disorder). This study is the first to describe the relationship between internalizing problems at age 15 and educational outcomes in later adolescence while controlling for a wide range of NDDs in childhood, and applying a genetically sensitive design. We used the nation-wide population-based Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, comprising 4997 fifteen-year-old Swedish twins born between 1994 and 1998. Internalizing problems and NDDs were measured with parental report. Educational outcomes were merit rating and upper secondary education eligibility, retrieved from the National School Register. Internalizing problems at age 15 were found to be negatively associated with educational outcomes in later adolescence. Additive genetics accounted for 89% of the covariation between internalizing problems and merit rating, out of which roughly half were unique genetic effects of internalizing problems and the remaining half due to NDDs. In conclusion, internalizing problems form an important risk factor for subsequent educational underachievement, going beyond the risk conferred by childhood NDDs.

18.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to psychiatric morbidity, but few studies have assessed general population comparators. We aimed to investigate the risk of psychiatric morbidity and suicide in adult-onset IBD patients. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study in Sweden (1973-2013). We studied the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide in 69,865 adult-onset IBD patients (ulcerative colitis, UC: n=43,557; Crohn's disease, CD: n=21,245; and IBD-unclassified: n=5063) compared to 3,472,913 general population references and 66,292 siblings. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years, we found 7,465 (10.7%) first psychiatric disorders in IBD (incidence rate, IR/1000 person-years 8.4) and 306,911 (9.9%) in the general population (IR 6.6), resulting in 1.8 extra psychiatric morbidity per 100 patients followed-up for 10 years and a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI=1.2-1.3). The highest risk of overall psychiatric morbidity was seen in the first year after IBD diagnosis (HR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.6) and in patients with extraintestinal manifestations (HR=1.6, 95%CI=1.5-1.7). Psychiatric morbidity was more common in all IBD subtypes (HRs 1.3 to 1.5). An increased risk of suicide attempts was observed among all IBD types (HRs=1.2 to 1.4), whereas completed suicide was explicitly associated with CD (HR=1.5) and elderly-onset (diagnosed at the age of >60 years) IBD (HR=1.7). CONCLUSION: Adult-onset IBD was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts. Psychological follow-up should be provided to patients with IBD, especially those with extraintestinal manifestations and elderly-onset IBD. This follow-up should transpire within the first year after IBD diagnosis.

19.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the magnitude of an independent association between bullying victimization and self-harm and suicide attempt in adolescence after adjusting for unmeasured and measured confounding factors. METHODS: Using the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, we examined twins born between 1994 and 1999 (n = 13,852). Twins self-reported bullying victimization at age 15 years and self-harm and suicide attempt at age 18 years. We created a factor score of 13 bullying items, on which self-harm and suicide attempt items were regressed in three models: (1) among unrelated individuals; (2) among co-twins, in which a twin exposed to more bullying was compared with his/her co-twin who was exposed to less; and (3) among co-twins while adjusting for indicators of childhood psychopathology. RESULTS: Among unrelated individuals, a one standard deviation increase in bullying victimization was associated with increased odds for self-harm (odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.36]) and suicide attempt (OR, 1.68 [1.53-1.85]). Among co-twins, the odds attenuated for self-harm (OR, 1.19 [1.09-1.30]) and suicide attempt (OR, 1.39 [1.17-1.66]). Finally, when accounting for childhood psychopathology, there was a 14% (1.04-1.25) and 25% (1.03-1.52) relative increase in odds of self-harm and suicide attempt, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that bullying victimization was uniquely associated with self-harm and suicide attempt over and above the confounding because of unmeasured and measured factors (i.e., familial vulnerability and pre-existing psychopathy). However, magnitudes were small, suggesting that additional interventions and screenings are needed to address suicidality apart from bullying interventions.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 189-196, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493948

RESUMO

Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but evidence for specific types of CVD is limited. This population-based, sibling-controlled cohort study investigated the risk of specific CVD in individuals with OCD. Linking data from various Swedish population-based registers, we explored the risk of a range of CVD in a cohort of individuals diagnosed with OCD between 1973 and 2013 (n = 33,561), compared to matched (1:10) unaffected individuals (n = 335,610). Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for history of somatic diseases. To control for familial confounders, we analyzed 23,263 clusters of full siblings discordant for OCD. Individuals with psychiatric comorbidities were systematically excluded to assess the impact of these comorbidities. Over an average follow-up time of 27 years, OCD was associated with an increased risk of a broad range of CVD (adjusted HR [aHR] for any CVD = 1.25 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.29]). These associations were strongest for the subtypes venous thrombo-embolism (aHR = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.38-1.58]) and heart failure (aHR = 1.37 [95% CI, 1.28-1.46]). When comparing OCD-exposed individuals with their non-exposed full siblings, results were largely similar. Exclusion of several groups of psychiatric comorbidities resulted in comparable results, albeit attenuated. Individuals with OCD have a moderately increased risk of CVD-related morbidity, independent from history of somatic diseases, familial confounders, and psychiatric comorbidities. The time may be ripe for the development and evaluation of lifestyle interventions to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in OCD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
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