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1.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377840

RESUMO

As connectomic datasets exceed hundreds of terabytes in size, accurate and efficient skeleton generation of the label volumes has evolved into a critical component of the computation pipeline used for analysis, evaluation, visualization, and error correction. We propose a novel topological thinning strategy that uses biological-constraints to produce accurate centerlines from segmented neuronal volumes while still maintaining biologically relevant properties. Current methods are either agnostic to the underlying biology, have non-linear running times as a function of the number of input voxels, or both. First, we eliminate from the input segmentation biologically-infeasible bubbles, pockets of voxels incorrectly labeled within a neuron, to improve segmentation accuracy, allow for more accurate centerlines, and increase processing speed. Next, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) detects cell bodies from the input segmentation, allowing us to anchor our skeletons to the somata. Lastly, a synapse-aware topological thinning approach produces expressive skeletons for each neuron with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between endpoints and synapses. We simultaneously estimate geometric properties of neurite width and geodesic distance between synapse and cell body, improving accuracy by 47.5% and 62.8% over baseline methods. We separate the skeletonization process into a series of computation steps, leveraging data-parallel strategies to increase throughput significantly. We demonstrate our results on over 1250 neurons and neuron fragments from three different species, processing over one million voxels per second per CPU with linear scalability.

2.
Curr Biol ; 32(1): 176-189.e5, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822765

RESUMO

All animals need to differentiate between exafferent stimuli, which are caused by the environment, and reafferent stimuli, which are caused by their own movement. In the case of mechanosensation in aquatic animals, the exafferent inputs are water vibrations in the animal's proximity, which need to be distinguishable from the reafferent inputs arising from fluid drag due to locomotion. Both of these inputs are detected by the lateral line, a collection of mechanosensory organs distributed along the surface of the body. In this study, we characterize in detail how hair cells-the receptor cells of the lateral line-in zebrafish larvae discriminate between such reafferent and exafferent signals. Using dye labeling of the lateral line nerve, we visualize two parallel descending inputs that can influence lateral line sensitivity. We combine functional imaging with ultra-structural EM circuit reconstruction to show that cholinergic signals originating from the hindbrain transmit efference copies (copies of the motor command that cancel out self-generated reafferent stimulation during locomotion) and that dopaminergic signals from the hypothalamus may have a role in threshold modulation, both in response to locomotion and salient stimuli. We further gain direct mechanistic insight into the core components of this circuit by loss-of-function perturbations using targeted ablations and gene knockouts. We propose that this simple circuit is the core implementation of mechanosensory reafferent suppression in these young animals and that it might form the first instantiation of state-dependent modulation found at later stages in development.


Assuntos
Sistema da Linha Lateral , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Larva , Sistema da Linha Lateral/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
3.
Nature ; 596(7871): 257-261, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349261

RESUMO

An animal's nervous system changes as its body grows from birth to adulthood and its behaviours mature1-8. The form and extent of circuit remodelling across the connectome is unknown3,9-15. Here we used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct the full brain of eight isogenic Caenorhabditis elegans individuals across postnatal stages to investigate how it changes with age. The overall geometry of the brain is preserved from birth to adulthood, but substantial changes in chemical synaptic connectivity emerge on this consistent scaffold. Comparing connectomes between individuals reveals substantial differences in connectivity that make each brain partly unique. Comparing connectomes across maturation reveals consistent wiring changes between different neurons. These changes alter the strength of existing connections and create new connections. Collective changes in the network alter information processing. During development, the central decision-making circuitry is maintained, whereas sensory and motor pathways substantially remodel. With age, the brain becomes progressively more feedforward and discernibly modular. Thus developmental connectomics reveals principles that underlie brain maturation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Conectoma , Modelos Neurológicos , Vias Neurais , Sinapses/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/ultraestrutura , Individualidade , Interneurônios/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neurônios/citologia , Comportamento Estereotipado
4.
Dev Neurobiol ; 81(5): 746-757, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977655

RESUMO

Dendritic spines are membranous protrusions that receive essentially all excitatory inputs in most mammalian neurons. Spines, with a bulbous head connected to the dendrite by a thin neck, have a variety of morphologies that likely impact their functional properties. Nevertheless, the question of whether spines belong to distinct morphological subtypes is still open. Addressing this quantitatively requires clear identification and measurements of spine necks. Recent advances in electron microscopy enable large-scale systematic reconstructions of spines with nanometer precision in 3D. Analyzing ultrastructural reconstructions from mouse neocortical neurons with computer vision algorithms, we demonstrate that the vast majority of spine structures can be rigorously separated into heads and necks, enabling morphological measurements of spine necks. We then used a database of spine morphological parameters to explore the potential existence of different spine classes. Without exception, our analysis revealed unimodal distributions of individual morphological parameters of spine heads and necks, without evidence for subtypes of spines. The postsynaptic density size was strongly correlated with the spine head volume. The spine neck diameter, but not the neck length, was also correlated with the head volume. Spines with larger head volumes often had a spine apparatus and pairs of spines in a post-synaptic cell contacted by the same axon had similar head volumes. Our data reveal a lack of morphological subtypes of spines and indicate that the spine neck length and head volume must be independently regulated. These results have repercussions for our understanding of the function of dendritic spines in neuronal circuits.


Assuntos
Espinhas Dendríticas , Neurônios , Animais , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Dendritos/fisiologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35128463

RESUMO

Tissue clearing of gross anatomical samples was first described over a century ago and has only recently found widespread use in the field of microscopy. This renaissance has been driven by the application of modern knowledge of optical physics and chemical engineering to the development of robust and reproducible clearing techniques, the arrival of new microscopes that can image large samples at cellular resolution and computing infrastructure able to store and analyze large data volumes. Many biological relationships between structure and function require investigation in three dimensions and tissue clearing therefore has the potential to enable broad discoveries in the biological sciences. Unfortunately, the current literature is complex and could confuse researchers looking to begin a clearing project. The goal of this Primer is to outline a modular approach to tissue clearing that allows a novice researcher to develop a customized clearing pipeline tailored to their tissue of interest. Further, the Primer outlines the required imaging and computational infrastructure needed to perform tissue clearing at scale, gives an overview of current applications, discusses limitations and provides an outlook on future advances in the field.

7.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv ; 12265: 66-76, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283212

RESUMO

Electron microscopy (EM) allows the identification of intracellular organelles such as mitochondria, providing insights for clinical and scientific studies. However, public mitochondria segmentation datasets only contain hundreds of instances with simple shapes. It is unclear if existing methods achieving human-level accuracy on these small datasets are robust in practice. To this end, we introduce the MitoEM dataset, a 3D mitochondria instance segmentation dataset with two (30µm)3 volumes from human and rat cortices respectively, 3, 600× larger than previous benchmarks. With around 40K instances, we find a great diversity of mitochondria in terms of shape and density. For evaluation, we tailor the implementation of the average precision (AP) metric for 3D data with a 45× speedup. On MitoEM, we find existing instance segmentation methods often fail to correctly segment mitochondria with complex shapes or close contacts with other instances. Thus, our MitoEM dataset poses new challenges to the field. We release our code and data: https://donglaiw.github.io/page/mitoEM/index.html.

8.
Cell ; 182(6): 1372-1376, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946777

RESUMO

Large scientific projects in genomics and astronomy are influential not because they answer any single question but because they enable investigation of continuously arising new questions from the same data-rich sources. Advances in automated mapping of the brain's synaptic connections (connectomics) suggest that the complicated circuits underlying brain function are ripe for analysis. We discuss benefits of mapping a mouse brain at the level of synapses.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos
9.
Nat Protoc ; 15(9): 2773-2784, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737465

RESUMO

Spherical aberration (SA) occurs when light rays entering at different points of a spherical lens are not focused to the same point of the optical axis. SA that occurs inside the lens elements of a fluorescence microscope is well understood and corrected for. However, SA is also induced when light passes through an interface of refractive index (RI)-mismatched substances (i.e., a discrepancy between the RI of the immersion medium and the RI of the sample). SA due to RI mismatches has many deleterious effects on imaging. Perhaps most important for 3D imaging is that the distance the image plane moves in a sample is not equivalent to the distance traveled by an objective (or stage) during z-stack acquisition. This non-uniform translation along the z axis gives rise to artifactually elongated images (if the objective is immersed in a medium with a higher RI than that of the sample) or compressed images (if the objective is immersed in a medium with a lower RI than that of the sample) and alters the optimal axial sampling rate. In this tutorial, we describe why this distortion occurs, how it impacts quantitative measurements and axial resolution, and what can be done to avoid SA and thereby prevent distorted images. In addition, this tutorial aims to better inform researchers of how to correct RI mismatch-induced axial distortions and provides a practical ImageJ/Fiji-based tool to reduce the prevalence of volumetric measurement errors and lost axial resolution.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Espalhamento de Radiação , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Microesferas
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18780-18787, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699144

RESUMO

Macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel), a late-onset macular degeneration, has been linked to a loss in the retina of Müller glial cells and the amino acid serine, synthesized by the Müller cells. The disease is confined mainly to a central retinal region called the MacTel zone. We have used electron microscopic connectomics techniques, optimized for disease analysis, to study the retina from a 48-y-old woman suffering from MacTel. The major observations made were specific changes in mitochondrial structure within and outside the MacTel zone that were present in all retinal cell types. We also identified an abrupt boundary of the MacTel zone that coincides with the loss of Müller cells and macular pigment. Since Müller cells synthesize retinal serine, we propose that a deficiency of serine, required for mitochondrial maintenance, causes mitochondrial changes that underlie MacTel development.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Retina , Doenças Retinianas , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/citologia , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
11.
Dev Cell ; 53(5): 577-588.e7, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516597

RESUMO

Axons connect neurons together, establishing the wiring architecture of neuronal networks. Axonal connectivity is largely built during embryonic development through highly constrained processes of axon guidance, which have been extensively studied. However, the inability to control axon guidance, and thus neuronal network architecture, has limited investigation of how axonal connections influence subsequent development and function of neuronal networks. Here, we use zebrafish motor neurons expressing a photoactivatable Rac1 to co-opt endogenous growth cone guidance machinery to precisely and non-invasively direct axon growth using light. Axons can be guided over large distances, within complex environments of living organisms, overriding competing endogenous signals and redirecting axons across potent repulsive barriers to construct novel circuitry. Notably, genetic axon guidance defects can be rescued, restoring functional connectivity. These data demonstrate that intrinsic growth cone guidance machinery can be co-opted to non-invasively build new connectivity, allowing investigation of neural network dynamics in intact living organisms.


Assuntos
Orientação de Axônios , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Optogenética/métodos , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Neuron ; 106(3): 468-481.e2, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142646

RESUMO

One way to assess a neuron's function is to describe all its inputs and outputs. With this goal in mind, we used serial section electron microscopy to map 899 synaptic inputs and 623 outputs in one inhibitory interneuron in a large volume of the mouse visual thalamus. This neuron innervated 256 thalamocortical cells spread across functionally distinct subregions of the visual thalamus. All but one of its neurites were bifunctional, innervating thalamocortical and local interneurons while also receiving synapses from the retina. We observed a wide variety of local synaptic motifs. While this neuron innervated many cells weakly, with single en passant synapses, it also deployed specialized branches that climbed along other dendrites to form strong multi-synaptic connections with a subset of partners. This neuron's diverse range of synaptic relationships allows it to participate in a mix of global and local processing but defies assigning it a single circuit function.


Assuntos
Interneurônios/fisiologia , Inibição Neural , Sinapses/fisiologia , Tálamo/citologia , Córtex Visual/citologia , Animais , Interneurônios/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico , Tálamo/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
13.
J Surg Res ; 242: 207-213, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve assessment has traditionally been studied through histological and immunological staining techniques in a limited cross-sectional modality, making detailed analysis difficult. A new application of serial section electron microscopy is presented to overcome these limitations. METHODS: Direct nerve repairs were performed on the posterior auricular nerve of transgenic YFP-H mice. Six weeks postoperatively the nerves were imaged using confocal fluorescent microscopy then excised and embedded in resin. Resin blocks were sequentially sectioned at 100 nm, and sections were serially imaged with an electron microscope. Images were aligned and autosegmented to allow for 3D reconstruction. RESULTS: Basic morphometry and axonal counts were fully automated. Using full 3D reconstructions, the relationships between the axons, the Nodes of Ranvier, and Schwann cells could be fully appreciated. Interactions of individual axons with their surrounding environment could be visualized and explored in a virtual three-dimensional space. CONCLUSIONS: Serial section electron microscopy allows the detailed pathway of the regenerating axon to be visualized in a 3D virtual space in comparison to isolated individual traditional histological techniques. Fully automated histo-morphometry can now give accurate axonal counts, provide information regarding the quality of nerve regeneration, and reveal the cell-to-cell interaction at a super-resolution scale. It is possible to fully visualize and "fly-through" the nerve to help understand the behavior of a regenerating axon within its environment. This technique provides future opportunities to evaluate the effect different treatment modalities have on the neuroregenerative potential and help us understand the impact different surgical techniques have when treating nerve injuries.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Regeneração Nervosa , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Nós Neurofibrosos/fisiologia , Nós Neurofibrosos/ultraestrutura
14.
Front Neural Circuits ; 13: 29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133819

RESUMO

Recent improvements in correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) technology have led to dramatic improvements in the ability to observe tissues and cells. Fluorescence labeling has been used to visualize the localization of molecules of interest through immunostaining or genetic modification strategies for the identification of the molecular signatures of biological specimens. Newer technologies such as tissue clearing have expanded the field of observation available for fluorescence labeling; however, the area of correlative observation available for electron microscopy (EM) remains restricted. In this study, we developed a large-area CLEM imaging procedure to show specific molecular localization in large-scale EM sections of mouse and marmoset brain. Target molecules were labeled with antibodies and sequentially visualized in cryostat sections using fluorescence and gold particles. Fluorescence images were obtained by light microscopy immediately after antibody staining. Immunostained sections were postfixed for EM, and silver-enhanced sections were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and embedded in resin. Ultrathin sections for EM were prepared from fully polymerized resin blocks, collected on silicon wafers, and observed by multibeam scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Multibeam SEM has made rapid, large-area observation at high resolution possible, paving the way for the analysis of detailed structures using the CLEM approach. Here, we describe detailed methods for large-area CLEM in various tissues of both rodents and primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Animais , Callithrix , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2160, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073140

RESUMO

Affiliation 4 incorrectly read 'University of the Basque Country (Ikerbasque), University of the Basque Country and Donostia International Physics Center, San Sebastian 20018, Spain.'Also, the affiliations of Ignacio Arganda-Carreras with 'IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, 48013, Spain' and 'Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), San Sebastian, 20018, Spain' were inadvertently omitted.Additionally, the third sentence of the first paragraph of the Results section entitled 'Multicontrast organ-scale imaging with ChroMS microscopy' incorrectly read 'For example, one can choose lambda1 = 850 and lambda2 = 110 nm for optimal two-photon excitation of blue and red chromophores.'. The correct version reads 'lambda2 = 1100 nm' instead of 'lambda2 = 110 nm'. These errors have now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1662, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971684

RESUMO

Large-scale microscopy approaches are transforming brain imaging, but currently lack efficient multicolor contrast modalities. We introduce chromatic multiphoton serial (ChroMS) microscopy, a method integrating one-shot multicolor multiphoton excitation through wavelength mixing and serial block-face image acquisition. This approach provides organ-scale micrometric imaging of spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins and label-free nonlinear signals with constant micrometer-scale resolution and sub-micron channel registration over the entire imaged volume. We demonstrate tridimensional (3D) multicolor imaging over several cubic millimeters as well as brain-wide serial 2D multichannel imaging. We illustrate the strengths of this method through color-based 3D analysis of astrocyte morphology and contacts in the mouse cerebral cortex, tracing of individual pyramidal neurons within densely Brainbow-labeled tissue, and multiplexed whole-brain mapping of axonal projections labeled with spectrally distinct tracers. ChroMS will be an asset for multiscale and system-level studies in neuroscience and beyond.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Cor , Dependovirus , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Animais , Nestina/genética , Técnicas de Rastreamento Neuroanatômico/métodos , Parvovirinae/genética , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Transfecção
17.
Ann Anat ; 223: 127-135, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Animal models for the study of facial paralysis have been well developed, but concern has arisen regarding the accuracy of eye closure and whisker movement as outcome measures due to new data regarding interconnectivity between facial nerve branches and autonomic innervation. The posterior auricular nerve (PAN) is an isolated branch of the facial nerve which has been confirmed as the sole motor innervat or of the interscutularis muscle. This study was designed to develop a model for facial nerve palsy utilizing the PAN and interscutularis muscle. METHODS: A custom-made automated video capture system was built into a poly methyl methacrylate cage using a high definition monochrome digital camera and image sensor to record the animal as it drank from a water feeder. A copper floor pad and copper collar around the water feeder were connected to an electrical circuit for automatic saving of the video recording 10 s prior to and 30 s following the drinking event. A pre-operative baseline recording of ear movement during drinking was captured. Female YFP-16 mice at 6 weeks were assigned to sham (Sh, n = 5), nerve excision (Ex, n = 10), or nerve crush (Cr, n = 10) groups with all interventions performed on the right PAN. Sh mice were irrigated with 10 ml normal saline as were the Ex and Cr mice following operative intervention. In Ex mice, a 3 mm section of the PAN was sharply excised and nerve gap was confirmed with fluorescent microscopy. In Cr mice, the PAN was crushed 3 mm from the origin of the facial nerve trunk with size 5 jeweler's forceps for two periods of 20 s. Post-operative video recordings were collected on post-operative days (POD) 1, 10, 20, and 30. To determine the change in ear movement, the right ear was graphically compared to the left control side. RESULTS: Sh animals exhibited a statistically significant reduction in ear movement at POD01 compared to other POD recordings (p < 0.05), but no significant change in right ear movement following POD05. Ex animals had a significant reduction in right ear movement at all PODs in comparison to the left ear (p < 0.05) with no significant change in right ear movement during the study period (p = 0.94). Cr animals showed a significant reduction in right ear movement compared to the left at POD01, POD10, and POD20 (p < 0.05). At POD30, there was no significant difference between ear movement on either side (p = 0.35). There was a significant change in right ear movement during the data collection period (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results show that significant differences were demonstrated between the experimental groups and that significant changes within the crush group were identifiable making this an acceptable model to develop as an accurate outcome measure following rodent facial nerve surgery.


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais/inervação , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Modelos Animais , Vibrissas/inervação , Animais , Lesões por Esmagamento/fisiopatologia , Orelha Externa/inervação , Orelha Externa/fisiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Movimento , Projetos Piloto , Placebos , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
Bioinformatics ; 35(18): 3544-3546, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715234

RESUMO

SUMMARY: This note describes nTracer, an ImageJ plug-in for user-guided, semi-automated tracing of multispectral fluorescent tissue samples. This approach allows for rapid and accurate reconstruction of whole cell morphology of large neuronal populations in densely labeled brains. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: nTracer was written as a plug-in for the open source image processing software ImageJ. The software, instructional documentation, tutorial videos, sample image and sample tracing results are available at https://www.cai-lab.org/ntracer-tutorial. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Software , Animais , Encéfalo , Documentação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , Neurônios
19.
Front Neural Circuits ; 12: 88, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386216

RESUMO

Recent developments in serial-section electron microscopy allow the efficient generation of very large image data sets but analyzing such data poses challenges for software tools. Here we introduce Volume Annotation and Segmentation Tool (VAST), a freely available utility program for generating and editing annotations and segmentations of large volumetric image (voxel) data sets. It provides a simple yet powerful user interface for real-time exploration and analysis of large data sets even in the Petabyte range.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Software , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos
20.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(10): 1495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915196

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published online, the wrong version of Fig. 5 was used. There were errors in the statistical comparison brackets in Fig. 5c and the left-hand error bar in Fig. 5f. The errors have been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of this article. In the version of this article initially published online and in print, the wrong version of Fig. 3h was used. There was a slight error in the alignment of the traces in the top right panel. The error has been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of this article. The original and corrected figures are shown in the accompanying Publisher Correction.

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