Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 212
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 133, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) often develop kidney stones and chronic kidney disease. Noninvasive urine markers reflective of active kidney injury could be useful to gauge the effectiveness of ongoing treatments. METHODS: A panel of biomarkers that reflect different nephron sites and potential mechanisms of injury (clusterin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), 8-isoprostane (8IP), monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and osteopontin (OPN)) were measured in 114 urine specimens from 30 PH patients over multiple visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess associations between biomarkers and 24 h urine excretions, calculated proximal tubular oxalate concentration (PTOx), and eGFR. RESULTS: Mean (±SD) age at first visit was 19.5 ± 16.6 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 68.4 ± 21.0 ml/min/1.73m2. After adjustment for age, sex, and eGFR, a higher urine MCP-1 concentration and MCP-1/creatinine ratio was positively associated with CaOx supersaturation (SS). Higher urine NGAL and NGAL/creatinine as well as OPN and OPN/creatinine were associated with higher eGFR. 8IP was negatively associated with PTOx and urinary Ox, but positively associated with CaOx SS. CONCLUSION: In PH patients greater urine MCP-1 and 8IP excretion might reflect ongoing collecting tubule crystallization, while greater NGAL and OPN excretion may reflect preservation of kidney mass and function. CaOx crystals, rather than oxalate ion may mediate oxidative stress in hyperoxaluric conditions. Further studies are warranted to determine whether urine MCP-1 excretion predicts long term outcome or is altered in response to treatment.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 108, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior papers have been inconsistent regarding how much creatinine clearance (CrCl) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A recent cross-sectional study suggested that measurement error alone could entirely account for the longstanding observation that CrCl/GFR ratio is larger when GFR is lower among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); but there have been no validation of this in other cohorts. METHODS: To fill these gaps in knowledge regarding the relation between CrCl and GFR, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study (MDRD) and African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK); and cross-sectional analysis of a clinical dataset from the Mayo Clinic of four different patient populations (CKD patients, kidney transplant recipients, post kidney donation subgroup and potential kidney donors). In the cross-sectional analyses (MDRD, AASK and Mayo Clinic cohort), we examined the relation between the CrCl/iothalamate GFR (iGFR) ratio at different categories of iGFR or different levels of CrCl. In the MDRD and AASK longitudinal analyses, we studied how the CrCl/iGFR ratio changed with those who had improvement in iGFR (CrCl) over time versus those who had worsening of iGFR (CrCl) over time. RESULTS: Observed CrCl/iGFR ratios were generally on the lower end of the range reported in the literature for CKD (median 1.24 in MDRD, 1.13 in AASK and 1.25 in Mayo Clinic cohort). Among CKD patients in whom CrCl and iGFR were measured using different timed urine collections, CrCl/iGFR ratio were higher with lower iGFR categories but lower with lower CrCl categories. However, among CKD patients in whom CrCl and iGFR were measured using the same timed urine collections (which reduces dis-concordant measurement error), CrCl/iGFR ratio were higher with both lower iGFR categories and lower CrCl categories. CONCLUSIONS: These data refute the recent suggestion that measurement error alone could entirely account for the longstanding observation that CrCl/GFR ratio increases as GFR decreases in CKD patients. They also highlight the lack of certainty in our knowledge with regard to how much CrCl actually overestimates GFR.

3.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191284
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165440

RESUMO

Patients with primary hyperoxaluria experience kidney stones from a young age and can develop progressive oxalate nephropathy. Progression to kidney failure often develops over a number of years, and is associated with systemic oxalosis, intensive dialysis, and often combined kidney and liver transplantation. There are no therapies approved by the Food and Drug Association. Thus, the Kidney Health Initiative, in partnership with the Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation, initiated a project to identify end points for clinical trials. A workgroup of physicians, scientists, patients with primary hyperoxaluria, industry, and United States regulators critically examined the published literature for clinical outcomes and potential surrogate end points that could be used to evaluate new treatments. Kidney stones, change in eGFR, urine oxalate, and plasma oxalate were the strongest candidate end points. Kidney stones affect how patients with primary hyperoxaluria feel and function, but standards for measurement and monitoring are lacking. Primary hyperoxaluria registry data suggest that eGFR decline in most patients is gradual, but can be unpredictable. Epidemiologic data show a strong relationship between urine oxalate and long-term kidney function loss. Urine oxalate is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, due to its causal role in stone formation and kidney damage in CKD stages 1-3a, and plasma oxalate is likely associated with risk of systemic oxalosis in CKD 3b-5. Change in slope of eGFR could be considered the equivalent of a clinically meaningful end point in support of traditional approval. A substantial change in urine oxalate as a surrogate end point could support traditional approval in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and CKD stages 1-3a. A substantial change in markedly elevated plasma oxalate could support accelerated approval in patients with primary hyperoxaluria and CKD stages 3b-5. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 accounts for the preponderance of available data, thus heavily influences the conclusions. Addressing gaps in data will further facilitate testing of promising new treatments, accelerating improved outcomes for patients with primary hyperoxaluria.

5.
Elife ; 92020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207686

RESUMO

By sequencing autozygous human populations, we identified a healthy adult woman with lifelong complete knockout of HAO1 (expected ~1 in 30 million outbred people). HAO1 (glycolate oxidase) silencing is the mechanism of lumasiran, an investigational RNA interference therapeutic for primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Her plasma glycolate levels were 12 times, and urinary glycolate 6 times, the upper limit of normal observed in healthy reference individuals (n = 67). Plasma metabolomics and lipidomics (1871 biochemicals) revealed 18 markedly elevated biochemicals (>5 sd outliers versus n = 25 controls) suggesting additional HAO1 effects. Comparison with lumasiran preclinical and clinical trial data suggested she has <2% residual glycolate oxidase activity. Cell line p.Leu333SerfsTer4 expression showed markedly reduced HAO1 protein levels and cellular protein mis-localisation. In this woman, lifelong HAO1 knockout is safe and without clinical phenotype, de-risking a therapeutic approach and informing therapeutic mechanisms. Unlocking evidence from the diversity of human genetic variation can facilitate drug development.

6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(3): 459-467, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an acute kidney injury (AKI) risk prediction model for hospitalized non-critically ill patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) wards at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Rochester, Minnesota, in 2013 and 2014. The cohort was divided into development and validation sets by year. The primary outcome was hospital-acquired AKI defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Cox regression was used to analyze mortality data. Comorbid risk factors for AKI were identified, and a multivariable model was developed and validated. RESULTS: The development and validation cohorts included 3816 and 3232 adults, respectively. Approximately 10% of patients in both cohorts had AKI, and patients with AKI had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% CI, 2.97-4.43; P<.001). Significant univariate determinants of AKI were preexisting kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart failure, vascular disease, coagulopathy, pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, cancer, obesity, liver disease, and weight loss (all P<.05). The final multivariable model included increased baseline serum creatinine value, admission to a medical service, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, cancer, hypertension, and vascular disease. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the development and validation cohorts were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.75) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.78), respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital-acquired AKI is common in non-ICU inpatients and is associated with worse outcomes. Patient data at admission can be used to identify increased risk; such patients may benefit from more intensive monitoring and earlier intervention and testing with emerging biomarkers.

7.
Kidney Int ; 97(4): 786-792, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093915

RESUMO

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare monogenic disorder characterized by excessive hepatic production of oxalate leading to recurrent nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive kidney damage. Most patients with primary hyperoxaluria are diagnosed after clinical suspicion based on symptoms. Since some patients are detected by family screening following detection of an affected family member, we compared the clinical phenotype of these two groups. Patients with primary hyperoxaluria types 1, 2, and 3 enrolled in the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium Primary Hyperoxaluria Registry were retrospectively analyzed following capture of clinical and laboratory results in the Registry. Among 495 patients with primary hyperoxaluria, 47 were detected by family screening. After excluding 150 patients with end stage kidney disease at diagnosis, 300 clinical suspicion and 45 family screening individuals remained. Compared to patients with clinical suspicion, those identified by family screening had significantly fewer stones at diagnosis (mean 1.2 vs. 3.6), although initial symptoms occurred at a similar age (median age 6.1 vs. 7.6 years). Urinary oxalate did not differ between these groups. The estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis and its decline over time were similar for the two groups. Altogether, five of 45 in family screening and 67 of 300 of clinical suspicion individuals developed end stage kidney disease at last follow-up. Thus, patients with primary hyperoxaluria identified through family screening have significant disease despite no outward clinical suspicion at diagnosis. Since promising novel treatments are emerging, genetic screening of family members is warranted because they are at significant risk for disease progression.

8.
J Endourol ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066273

RESUMO

Purpose: Cystinuria is a genetic disorder with both autosomal recessive and incompletely dominant inheritance. The disorder disrupts cystine and other dibasic amino acid transport in proximal tubules of the kidney, resulting in recurrent kidney stone formation. Currently, there are no consensus guidelines on evaluation and management of this disease. This article represents the consensus of the author panel and will provide clinicians with a stepwise framework for evaluation and clinical management of patients with cystinuria based on evidence in the existing literature. Materials and Methods: A search of MEDLINE®/PubMed® and Cochrane databases was performed using the following key words: "cystine nephrolithiasis," "cystinuria," "penicillamine, cystine," and "tiopronin, cystine." In total, as of May 2018, these searches yielded 2335 articles, which were then evaluated for their relevance to the topic of evaluation and management of cystinuria. Evidence was evaluated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Results: Twenty-five articles on the topic of cystinuria or cystine nephrolithiasis were deemed suitable for inclusion in this study. The literature supports a logical evaluation process and step-wise treatment approach beginning with conservative measures: fluid intake and dietary modification. If stone formation recurs, proceed to pharmacotherapeutic options by first alkalinizing the urine and then using cystine-binding thiol drugs. Conclusions: The proposed clinical pathways provide a framework for efficient evaluation and treatment of patients with cystinuria, which should improve overall outcomes of this rare, but highly recurrent, form of nephrolithiasis.

11.
J Biol Chem ; 295(6): 1464-1473, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852738

RESUMO

Dent disease 1 (DD1) is caused by mutations in the CLCN5 gene encoding a voltage-gated electrogenic nCl-/H+ exchanger ClC-5. Using ion-selective microelectrodes and Xenopus oocytes, here we studied Cl-/H+ coupling properties of WT ClC-5 and four DD1-associated variants (S244L, R345W, Q629*, and T657S), along with trafficking and localization of ClC-5. WT ClC-5 had a 2Cl-/H+ exchange ratio at a Vh of +40 mV with a [Cl-]out of 104 mm, but the transport direction did not reverse with a [Cl-]out of 5 mm, indicating that ClC-5-mediated exchange of two Cl- out for one H+ in is not permissible. We hypothesized that ClC-5 and H+-ATPase are functionally coupled during H+-ATPase-mediated endosomal acidification, crucial for ClC-5 activation by depolarizing endosomes. ClC-5 transport that provides three net negative charges appeared self-inhibitory because of ClC-5's voltage-gated properties, but shunt conductance facilitated further H+-ATPase-mediated endosomal acidification. Thus, an on-and-off "burst" of ClC-5 activity was crucial for preventing Cl- exit from endosomes. The subcellular distribution of the ClC-5:S244L variant was comparable with that of WT ClC-5, but the variant had a much slower Cl- and H+ transport and displayed an altered stoichiometry of 1.6:1. The ClC-5:R345W variant exhibited slightly higher Cl-/H+ transport than ClC-5:S244L, but co-localized with early endosomes, suggesting decreased ClC-5:R345W membrane trafficking is perhaps in a fully functional form. The truncated ClC-5:Q629* variant displayed the lowest Cl-/H+ exchange and was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi, but not in early endosomes, suggesting the nonsense mutation affects ClC-5 maturation and trafficking.

12.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(6): F1475-F1482, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461349

RESUMO

Randall's plaque (RP; subepithelial calcification) appears to be an important precursor of kidney stone disease. However, RP cannot be noninvasively detected. The present study investigated candidate biomarkers associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the urine of calcium stone formers (CSFs) with low (<5% papillary surface area) and high (≥5% papillary surface area) percentages of RP and a group of nonstone formers. RPs were quantitated via videotaping and image processing in consecutive CSFs undergoing percutaneous surgery for stone removal. Urinary EVs derived from cells of different nephron segments of CSFs (n = 64) and nonstone formers (n = 40) were quantified in biobanked cell-free urine by standardized and validated digital flow cytometer using fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. Overall, the number of EVs carrying surface monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were significantly lower in CSFs compared with nonstone former controls (P < 0.05) but did not differ statistically between CSFs with low and high RPs. The number of EVs associated with osteopontin did not differ between any groups. Thus, EVs carrying MCP-1 and NGAL may directly or indirectly contribute to stone pathogenesis as evidenced by the lower of these populations of EVs in stone formers compared with nonstone formers. Validation of EV-associated MCP-1 and NGAL as noninvasive biomarkers of kidney stone pathogenesis in larger populations is warranted.

13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(8): 1471-1480, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age, CKD risk factors, and kidney function are associated with larger glomerular volume and a higher percentage of globally sclerotic glomeruli. Knowledge of how these associations may differ by cortical depth is limited. METHODS: To investigate glomerular volume and glomerulosclerosis across different depths of cortex, we studied wedge sections of the renal parenchyma from 812 patients who underwent a radical nephrectomy (for a tumor), separately characterizing glomeruli in the superficial (subcapsular), middle, and deep (juxtamedullary) regions. We compared the association of mean nonsclerotic glomerular volume and of glomerulosclerosis (measured as the percentage of globally sclerotic glomeruli) with age, obesity, diabetes, smoking, kidney function, and structural pathology in the superficial, middle, and deep regions. RESULTS: The superficial, middle, and deep regions showed significant differences in glomerular volume (0.0025, 0.0031, and 0.0028 µm3, respectively) and in glomerulosclerosis (18%, 7%, and 11%, respectively). There was a marked increase in glomerulosclerosis with age in the superficial region, but larger glomerular volume was not associated with age at any cortical depth. Glomerulosclerosis associated more strongly with arteriosclerosis and ischemic-appearing glomeruli in the superficial region. Hypertension, lower eGFR, and interstitial fibrosis associated with glomerulosclerosis and glomerular volume to a similar extent at any depth. Diabetes and proteinuria more strongly associated with glomerulosclerosis in the deep and middle regions, respectively, but neither associated with glomerular volume differently by depth. Obesity associated more strongly with glomerular volume in the superficial cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical characteristic show similar associations with glomerulosclerosis and glomerulomegaly at different cortical depths. Exceptions include age-related glomerulosclerosis, which appears to be an ischemic process and is more predominant in the superficial region.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 36-46, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-cell anomalies play a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. B-cell depletion with rituximab may therefore be noninferior to treatment with cyclosporine for inducing and maintaining a complete or partial remission of proteinuria in patients with this condition. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients who had membranous nephropathy, proteinuria of at least 5 g per 24 hours, and a quantified creatinine clearance of at least 40 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and had been receiving angiotensin-system blockade for at least 3 months to receive intravenous rituximab (two infusions, 1000 mg each, administered 14 days apart; repeated at 6 months in case of partial response) or oral cyclosporine (starting at a dose of 3.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for 12 months). Patients were followed for 24 months. The primary outcome was a composite of complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 24 months. Laboratory variables and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients underwent randomization. At 12 months, 39 of 65 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 34 of 65 (52%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9 to 25; P = 0.004 for noninferiority). At 24 months, 39 patients (60%) in the rituximab group and 13 (20%) in the cyclosporine group had a complete or partial remission (risk difference, 40 percentage points; 95% CI, 25 to 55; P<0.001 for both noninferiority and superiority). Among patients in remission who tested positive for anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibodies, the decline in autoantibodies to anti-PLA2R was faster and of greater magnitude and duration in the rituximab group than in the cyclosporine group. Serious adverse events occurred in 11 patients (17%) in the rituximab group and in 20 (31%) in the cyclosporine group (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab was noninferior to cyclosporine in inducing complete or partial remission of proteinuria at 12 months and was superior in maintaining proteinuria remission up to 24 months. (Funded by Genentech and the Fulk Family Foundation; MENTOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01180036.).


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(7): 1251-1260, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meaningful interpretation of changes in radiographic kidney stone burden requires understanding how radiographic recurrence relates to symptomatic recurrence and how established risk factors predict these different manifestations of recurrence. METHODS: We recruited first-time symptomatic stone formers from the general community in Minnesota and Florida. Baseline and 5-year follow-up study visits included computed tomography scans, surveys, and medical record review. We noted symptomatic recurrence detected by clinical care (through chart review) or self-report, and radiographic recurrence of any new stone, stone growth, or stone passage (comparing baseline and follow-up scans). To assess the prediction of different manifestations of recurrence, we used the Recurrence of Kidney Stone (ROKS) score, which sums multiple baseline risk factors. RESULTS: Among 175 stone formers, 19% had symptomatic recurrence detected by clinical care and 25% detected by self-report; radiographic recurrence manifested as a new stone in 35%, stone growth in 24%, and stone passage in 27%. Among those with a baseline asymptomatic stone (54%), at 5 years, 51% had radiographic evidence of stone passage (accompanied by symptoms in only 52%). Imaging evidence of a new stone or stone passage more strongly associated with symptomatic recurrence detected by clinical care than by self-report. The ROKS score weakly predicted one manifestation-symptomatic recurrence resulting in clinical care (c-statistic, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.73)-but strongly predicted any manifestation of symptomatic or radiographic recurrence (5-year rate, 67%; c-statistic, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence after the first stone episode is both more common and more predictable when all manifestations of recurrence (symptomatic and radiographic) are considered.

16.
Kidney Int ; 95(5): 1269-1272, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010480

RESUMO

Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare glomerular disease. Kidney biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis. Recent studies have identified abundant glomerular deposition of DNAJB9 as a unique histological marker of FGN. We developed an immunoprecipitation-based multiple reaction monitoring method to measure serum levels of DNAJB9. We detected a 4-fold higher abundance of serum DNAJB9 in FGN patients when compared to controls, including patients with other glomerular diseases. Serum DNAJB9 levels were also negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with FGN. Serum DNAJB9 levels accurately predicted FGN with moderate sensitivity (67%) and with high specificity (98%) and positive and negative predictive value (89% and 95%, respectively). A receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated an AUC of 0.958. These results suggest that serum levels of DNAJB9 could be a valuable marker to predict FGN, with the potential to complement kidney biopsy for the diagnosis of FGN.

17.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dent disease type 1 (DD1) is a rare X-linked disorder caused mainly by CLCN5 mutations. Patients may present with nephrotic-range proteinuria leading to erroneous diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and unnecessary immunosuppressive treatments. METHODS: The following cohorts were screened for CLCN5 mutations: Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD; n = 112); Multicenter FSGS-Clinical Trial (FSGS-CT) (n = 96), and Novel Therapies for Resistant FSGS Trial (FONT) (n = 30). Urinary α1-microglobulin (α1M), albumin (A), total protein (TP), and creatinine (Cr) were assessed from CKiD subjects (n = 104); DD1 patients (n = 14); and DD1 carriers (DC; n = 8). TP/Cr, α1M/Cr, α1M/TP, and A/TP from the CKiD cohort were compared with DD1 and DC. RESULTS: No CLCN5 mutations were detected. TP/Cr was lower in DC and CKiD with tubulointerstitial disease than in DD1 and CKiD with glomerular disease (p < 0.002). α1M/Cr was higher in DD1 than in CKiD and DC (p < 0.001). A/TP was lower in DD1, DC, and CKiD with tubulointerstitial disease and higher in CKiD with glomerular disease (p < 0.001). Thresholds for A/TP of ≤ 0.21 and α1M/Cr of ≥ 120 mg/g (> 13.6 mg/mmol) creatinine were good screens for Dent disease. CONCLUSIONS: CLCN5 mutations were not seen in screened CKiD/FSGS cohorts. In our study, a cutoff of TP/Cr > 600 mg/g (> 68 mg/mmol) and A/TP of < 0.3 had a high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish DD1 from both CKiD glomerular and tubulointerstitial cohorts. α1M/Cr ≥ 120 mg/g (> 13.6 mg/mmol) had the highest sensitivity and specificity when differentiating DD1 and studied CKiD populations.

18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(3): 417-420, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910370

RESUMO

We report a case of systemic oxalosis involving the eyes and joints due to long-term use of high-dose vitamin C in a patient receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). This 76-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease underwent living unrelated kidney transplantation 10 years earlier. The transplant failed 6 months before presentation, and she initiated hemodialysis therapy before transitioning to PD therapy 4 months later. During the month before presentation, the patient noted worsening arthralgias and decreased vision. Ophthalmologic examination revealed proliferative retinopathy and calcium oxalate crystals. Plasma oxalate level was markedly elevated at 187 (reference range, <1.7) µmol/L, and urine oxalate-creatinine ratio was high (0.18mg/mg). The patient reported taking up to 4g of vitamin C per day for several years. Workup for causes of primary and secondary hyperoxaluria was otherwise negative. Vitamin C use was discontinued, and the patient transitioned to daily hemodialysis for 2 weeks. Plasma oxalate level before the dialysis session decreased but remained higher (30-53µmol/L) than typical for dialysis patients. Upon discharge, the patient remained on thrice-weekly hemodialysis therapy with stabilized vision and improved joint symptoms. This case highlights the risk of high-dose vitamin C use in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, especially when maintained on PD therapy.

19.
Nat Rev Urol ; 16(4): 231-244, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728476

RESUMO

An estimated 4-5 million CT scans are performed in the USA every year to investigate nephrourological diseases such as urinary stones and renal masses. Despite the clinical benefits of CT imaging, concerns remain regarding the potential risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. To assess the potential risk of harmful biological effects from exposure to ionizing radiation, understanding the mechanisms by which radiation damage and repair occur is essential. Although radiation level and cancer risk follow a linear association at high doses, no strong relationship is apparent below 100 mSv, the doses used in diagnostic imaging. Furthermore, the small theoretical increase in risk of cancer incidence must be considered in the context of the clinical benefit derived from a medically indicated CT and the likelihood of cancer occurrence in the general population. Elimination of unnecessary imaging is the most important method to reduce imaging-related radiation; however, technical aspects of medically justified imaging should also be optimized, such that the required diagnostic information is retained while minimizing the dose of radiation. Despite intensive study, evidence to prove an increased cancer risk associated with radiation doses below ~100 mSv is lacking; however, concerns about ionizing radiation in medical imaging remain and can affect patient care. Overall, the principles of justification and optimization must remain the basis of clinical decision-making regarding the use of ionizing radiation in medicine.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(3): 500-514, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713050

RESUMO

Serum cystatin C has been proposed as a kidney biomarker to inform drug dosing. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize available data for the association between serum cystatin C and drug pharmacokinetics, dosing, and clinical outcomes in adults (≥18 years). PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, and Scopus were systematically searched from 1946 to September 2017 to identify candidate studies. Studies of cystatin C as a predictor for acute kidney injury or for management of contrast-associated acute kidney injury were excluded. Also, studies were excluded if drug concentrations were unavailable and if a reference standard for drug dosing (eg, serum creatinine) was not concurrently reported. The outcomes of interest included drug clearance (L/h), concentrations (mg/L), target level achievement (%), therapeutic failure (%), and drug toxicity (%). We included 28 articles that evaluated 16 different medications in 3455 participants. Vancomycin was the most well-studied drug. Overall, cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCystatin C) was more predictive of drug levels and drug clearance than eGFRCreatinine. In only one study were target attainment and outcomes compared between 2 drug-dosing regimens, one based on eGFRCreatinine-Cystatin C and one dosed with the Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance equation. Compared with eGFRCreatinine, use of eGFRCystatin C to predict elimination of medications via the kidney was as accurate, if not superior, in most studies, but infrequently were data on target attainment or clinical outcomes reported. Drug-specific dosing protocols that use cystatin C to estimate kidney function should be tested for clinical application.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Eliminação Renal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Albumina Sérica/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA