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2.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Relação Cintura-Quadril
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(6): 463-472, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617535

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with manifold consequences for mammalian pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of TNF-α biology may enhance treatment precision. Objective: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of blood-derived DNA methylation and TNF-α levels and to assess the clinical relevance of findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed epigenome-wide associations in circulating TNF-α concentrations from 5 cohort studies and 1 interventional trial, with replication in 3 additional cohort studies. Follow-up analyses investigated associations of identified methylation loci with gene expression and incident coronary heart disease; this meta-analysis included 11 461 participants who experienced 1895 coronary events. Exposures: Circulating TNF-α concentration. Main Outcomes and Measures: DNA methylation at approximately 450 000 loci, neighboring DNA sequence variation, gene expression, and incident coronary heart disease. Results: The discovery cohort included 4794 participants, and the replication study included 816 participants (overall mean [SD] age, 60.7 [8.5] years). In the discovery stage, circulating TNF-α levels were associated with methylation of 7 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, 3 of which were located in or near DTX3L-PARP9 at cg00959259 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.003]; P = 7.36 × 10-8), cg08122652 (ß [SE] = -0.008 [0.002]; P = 2.24 × 10-7), and cg22930808(ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 6.92 × 10-8); NLRC5 at cg16411857 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 2.14 × 10-13) and cg07839457 (ß [SE] = -0.02 [0.003]; P = 6.31 × 10-10); or ABO, at cg13683939 (ß [SE] = 0.04 [0.008]; P = 1.42 × 10-7) and cg24267699 (ß [SE] = -0.009 [0.002]; P = 1.67 × 10-7), after accounting for multiple testing. Of these, negative associations between TNF-α concentration and methylation of 2 loci in NLRC5 and 1 in DTX3L-14 PARP9 were replicated. Replicated TNF-α-linked CpG sites were associated with 9% to 19% decreased risk of incident coronary heart disease per 10% higher methylation per CpG site (cg16411857: hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-1.95; P = .003; cg07839457: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94; P = 3.1 × 10-5; cg00959259: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .002; cg08122652: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P = 2.0 × 10-5). Conclusions and Relevance: We identified and replicated novel epigenetic correlates of circulating TNF-α concentration in blood samples and linked these loci to coronary heart disease risk, opening opportunities for validation and therapeutic applications.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 559-571, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632382

RESUMO

We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10-7); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 888-902, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198723

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP), but sequence variation accounts for a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Epigenetic changes may alter the expression of genes involved in BP regulation and explain part of the missing heritability. We therefore conducted a two-stage meta-analysis of the cross-sectional associations of systolic and diastolic BP with blood-derived genome-wide DNA methylation measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 17,010 individuals of European, African American, and Hispanic ancestry. Of 31 discovery-stage cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, 13 replicated after Bonferroni correction (discovery: N = 9,828, p < 1.0 × 10-7; replication: N = 7,182, p < 1.6 × 10-3). The replicated methylation sites are heritable (h2 > 30%) and independent of known BP genetic variants, explaining an additional 1.4% and 2.0% of the interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization among up to 4,513 individuals of European ancestry from 4 cohorts suggested that methylation at cg08035323 (TAF1B-YWHAQ) influences BP, while BP influences methylation at cg00533891 (ZMIZ1), cg00574958 (CPT1A), and cg02711608 (SLC1A5). Gene expression analyses further identified six genes (TSPAN2, SLC7A11, UNC93B1, CPT1A, PTMS, and LPCAT3) with evidence of triangular associations between methylation, gene expression, and BP. Additional integrative Mendelian randomization analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation suggested that the expression of TSPAN2 is a putative mediator of association between DNA methylation at cg23999170 and BP. These findings suggest that heritable DNA methylation plays a role in regulating BP independently of previously known genetic variants.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Tetraspaninas/genética , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
9.
Diabetologia ; 60(10): 1951-1960, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721436

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes, and to assess whether this association is independent of potential mediators. METHODS: We included 3639 postmenopausal women from the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study. Age at natural menopause was self-reported retrospectively and was treated as a continuous variable and in categories (premature, <40 years; early, 40-44 years; normal, 45-55 years; and late menopause, >55 years [reference]). Type 2 diabetes events were diagnosed on the basis of medical records and glucose measurements from Rotterdam Study visits. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounding factors; in another model, they were additionally adjusted for potential mediators, including obesity, C-reactive protein, glucose and insulin, as well as for levels of total oestradiol and androgens. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.2 years, we identified 348 individuals with incident type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for confounders, HRs for type 2 diabetes were 3.7 (95% CI 1.8, 7.5), 2.4 (95% CI 1.3, 4.3) and 1.60 (95% CI 1.0, 2.8) for women with premature, early and normal menopause, respectively, relative to those with late menopause (p trend <0.001). The HR for type 2 diabetes per 1 year older at menopause was 0.96 (95% CI 0.94, 0.98). Further adjustment for BMI, glycaemic traits, metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein, endogenous sex hormone levels or shared genetic factors did not affect this association. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Early onset of natural menopause is an independent marker for type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 37(6): 1222-1227, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-1ß represents a key cytokine in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). IL-1ß is counter-regulated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), an endogenous inhibitor. This study aimed to identify population-based studies on circulating IL-1RA and incident CVD in a systematic review, estimate the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD in a meta-analysis, and to test whether the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD is explained by other inflammation-related biomarkers in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic literature search and identified 5 cohort studies on IL-1RA and incident CVD in addition to the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study for a meta-analysis based on a total of 1855 CVD cases and 18 745 noncases with follow-up times between 5 and 16 years. The pooled standardized hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident CVD was 1.11 (1.06-1.17) after adjustment for age, sex, anthropometric, metabolic, and lifestyle factors (P<0.0001). There was no heterogeneity in effect sizes (I2=0%; P=0.88). More detailed analyses in the MONICA/KORA study showed that the excess risk for CVD was attenuated by ≥10% after additional separate adjustment for serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble E-selectin, or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. CONCLUSIONS: Serum IL-1RA levels were positively associated with risk of CVD after adjustment for multiple confounders in a meta-analysis of 6 population-based cohorts. This association may at least partially reflect a response to triggers inducing subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1400-1409, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338987

RESUMO

Background: High levels of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are associated with increased risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in observational studies. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding or is a consequence of reverse causation. Methods: We used data from a prospective population-based cohort study, compromising 8611 individuals without diabetes at baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association between serum GGT levels and incident prediabetes and diabetes. A Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed using a genetic risk score consisting of 26 GGT-related variants, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on liver enzymes. Association with diabetes and glycaemic traits were investigated within the Rotterdam Study and large-scale GWAS. Results: During follow-up, 1125 cases of prediabetes (mean follow-up 5.7 years) and 811 cases of type 2 diabetes (6.9 years) were ascertained. The predicted hazard ratios per standard deviation (SD) change in GGT levels in the multivariable model were 1.10 for prediabetes [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19] and 1.19 for type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1.10-1.30). The genetic risk score associated with increased GGT levels (beta per SD log GGT = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.35-0.47), explaining 3.5% of the observed variation in GGT. MR analysis did not provide evidence for a causal role of GGT, with a causal relative risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes per SD of log GGT of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.04) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89-1.04), respectively. Multiple instrumental analysis using genetic associations with type 2 diabetes and glycaemic traits from previous GWA studies detected no causal effect of GGT. Conclusions: MR analyses did not support a causal role of GGT on the risk of prediabetes or diabetes. The association of GGT with diabetes in observational studies is likely to be driven by reverse causation or confounding bias. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering GGT levels are unlikely to be effective in preventing diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(3): 217-226, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258520

RESUMO

The immune response involved in each phase of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development might be different. We aimed to identify novel inflammatory markers that predict progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy. We used plasma levels of 26 inflammatory markers in 971 subjects from the Rotterdam Study. Among them 17 are novel and 9 previously studied. Cox regression models were built to perform survival analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During a follow-up of up to 14.7 years (between April 1, 1997, and Jan 1, 2012) 139 cases of pre-diabetes, 110 cases of T2D and 26 cases of insulin initiation were identified. In age and sex adjusted Cox models, IL13 (HR = 0.78), EN-RAGE (1.30), CFH (1.24), IL18 (1.22) and CRP (1.32) were associated with incident pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.62), IL17 (0.75), EN-RAGE (1.25), complement 3 (1.44), IL18 (1.35), TNFRII (1.27), IL1ra (1.24) and CRP (1.64) were associated with incident T2D. In multivariate models, IL13 (0.77), EN-RAGE (1.23) and CRP (1.26) remained associated with pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.67), IL17 (0.76) and CRP (1.32) remained associated with T2D. IL13 (0.55) was the only marker associated with initiation of insulin therapy in diabetics. Various inflammatory markers are associated with progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes (IL13, EN-RAGE, CRP), T2D (IL13, IL17, CRP) or insulin therapy start (IL13). Among them, EN-RAGE is a novel inflammatory marker for pre-diabetes, IL17 for incident T2D and IL13 for pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy start.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Diabetologia ; 60(5): 843-853, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224192

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. METHODS: Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). RESULTS: A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p < 0.05), and for CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2 and TRPM6 this risk was completely mediated by serum magnesium levels. We found that 29.1% of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes was mediated through insulin resistance, whereas for prediabetes 13.4% was mediated through insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Low serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and this increased risk is similar to that of diabetes. Furthermore, common variants in magnesium-regulating genes modify diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Both findings support a potential causal role of magnesium in the development of diabetes, where the hypothesised pathway is partly mediated through insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Magnésio/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Idoso , Claudinas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclinas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , Fatores de Risco , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167742, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107422

RESUMO

An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8), the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Projeto HapMap , Humanos
15.
Diabetologia ; 60(2): 280-286, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27787621

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: ADAMTS13 is a protease that breaks down von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers into smaller, less active particles. VWF has been associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we determine whether ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen are associated with incident diabetes. METHODS: This study included 5176 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Participants were free of diabetes at baseline and followed up for more than 20 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen with incident diabetes. RESULTS: ADAMTS13 activity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.08, 1.27]) after adjustment for known risk factors and VWF antigen levels. Although ADAMTS13 activity was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, the association with incident diabetes did not change when we adjusted for these covariates. ADAMTS13 activity was also associated with incident prediabetes (defined on the basis of both fasting and non-fasting blood glucose) after adjustment for known risk factors (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.03, 1.19]), while the VWF antigen level was not. VWF antigen was associated with incident diabetes, but this association was attenuated after adjustment for known risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: ADAMTS13 activity appears to be an independent risk factor for incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. As the association between ADAMTS13 and diabetes did not appear to be explained by its cleavage of VWF, ADAMTS13 may have an independent role in the development of diabetes.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS13/genética , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
16.
Diabetes Care ; 40(3): 346-351, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of serum levels of various apolipoproteins on the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from 971 individuals from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We studied the association of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA1, apoCIII, apoD, and apoE as well as the ratios of apolipoproteins with apoA1 with the risk of T2D. All apolipoproteins, ratios, and HDL-C levels were naturally log-transformed to reach normal distribution. First, their cross-sectional associations with fasting glucose and insulin were investigated by using linear regression. Second, Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine whether apolipoproteins predict the risk for T2D among individuals free of diabetes at baseline. We also studied the apolipoproteins jointly by calculating the apolipoproteinic score from the first step and then performing Cox regression with it. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, diabetes developed in 110 individuals. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, parental history of diabetes, hypertension, alcohol use, smoking, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and serum lipid-reducing agents, HDL-C (per 1 SD naturally log-transformed hazard ratio 0.74 [95% CI 0.57, 0.97], apoCIII (1.65 [1.42, 1.91]), apoE (1.36 [1.18, 1.55]), apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio (1.72 [1.51, 1.95]), apoE-to-apoA1 ratio (1.28 [1.13, 1.45]), and apolipoproteinic score (1.60 [1.39, 1.83]) remained significant. Only apoCIII (1.42 [1.03, 1.96]) and apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio (1.56 [1.04, 2.36]) survived the adjustment for triglycerides in the last model. CONCLUSIONS: Serum apoCIII levels as well as apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are associated with incident T2D. They are associated independent of known risk factors and stronger than HDL-C levels.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 255, 2016 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27955697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111). We found differential methylation at 218 CpG sites to be associated with CRP (P < 1.15 × 10-7) in the discovery panel of European ancestry and replicated (P < 2.29 × 10-4) 58 CpG sites (45 unique loci) among African Americans. To further characterize the molecular and clinical relevance of the findings, we examined the association with gene expression, genetic sequence variants, and clinical outcomes. DNA methylation at nine (16%) CpG sites was associated with whole blood gene expression in cis (P < 8.47 × 10-5), ten (17%) CpG sites were associated with a nearby genetic variant (P < 2.50 × 10-3), and 51 (88%) were also associated with at least one related cardiometabolic entity (P < 9.58 × 10-5). An additive weighted score of replicated CpG sites accounted for up to 6% inter-individual variation (R2) of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRP, independent of known CRP-related genetic variants. CONCLUSION: We have completed an EWAS of chronic low-grade inflammation and identified many novel genetic loci underlying inflammation that may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Epigênese Genética , Inflamação/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética
18.
BMC Med ; 14(1): 150, 2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of thyroid function with risk of type 2 diabetes remains elusive. We aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function with incident diabetes and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in a population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: We included 8452 participants (mean age 65 years) with thyroid function measurement, defined by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), and longitudinal assessment of diabetes incidence. Cox-models were used to investigate the association of TSH and FT4 with diabetes and progression from prediabetes to diabetes. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose at baseline, amongst others. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, 798 diabetes cases occurred. Higher TSH levels were associated with a higher diabetes risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.18, per logTSH), even within the reference range of thyroid function (HR 1.24; 95 % CI, 1.06-1.45). Higher FT4 levels were associated with a lower diabetes risk amongst all participants (HR 0.96; 95 % CI, 0.93-0.99, per 1 pmol/L) and in participants within the reference range of thyroid function (HR 0.96; 95 % CI, 0.92-0.99). The risk of progression from prediabetes to diabetes was higher with low-normal thyroid function (HR 1.32; 95 % CI, 1.06-1.64 for TSH and HR 0.91; 95 % CI, 0.86-0.97 for FT4). Absolute risk of developing diabetes type 2 in participants with prediabetes decreased from 35 % to almost 15 % with higher FT4 levels within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS: Low and low-normal thyroid function are risk factors for incident diabetes, especially in individuals with prediabetes. Future studies should investigate whether screening for and treatment of (subclinical) hypothyroidism is beneficial in subjects at risk of developing diabetes.

19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 87(12): 1336-1342, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27656045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for polyneuropathy, but the role of pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of these factors in a community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS: 1256 participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study (mean age 70.0, 54.5% females) were screened for polyneuropathy with a questionnaire, neurological examination and nerve conduction studies. Data on type 2 diabetes and components of metabolic syndrome were also collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations of diabetes, pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome and its separate components with polyneuropathy. Linear regression was used to investigate associations with nerve conduction parameters in participants without polyneuropathy. FINDINGS: Diabetes was associated with polyneuropathy (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.60 to 5.65), while impaired fasting glucose was not (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.44). Metabolic syndrome was associated with polyneuropathy (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.38), with a stronger association when more components of the syndrome were present. Analysing separate components of metabolic syndrome revealed associations for elevated waist circumference (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.35 to 5.99) and elevated triglycerides (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.62). Similar associations were found after excluding participants with diabetes. In participants without polyneuropathy, metabolic syndrome associated with lower sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity and dyslipidaemia, are strongly associated with polyneuropathy, irrespective of the presence of diabetes. Metabolic syndrome also associates with impaired nerve function in people without polyneuropathy. Our study therefore suggests that cardiometabolic disturbances have an impact on peripheral nerve function that extends beyond clinically manifest disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Vigilância da População , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS Med ; 13(7): e1002086, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27433939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI -6.1 to -0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI -9.0 to -0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated with a reduction in the number of years lived free of diabetes and an increase in the number of years lived with diabetes. Those extra years lived with morbidity might place a high toll on individuals and health care systems.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Obesidade/mortalidade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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