Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 209
Filtrar
1.
J Neurol ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate quality of life (QoL) in a large multicenter cohort of adult patients affected by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) during nusinersen treatment. METHODS: We included adult (≥ 18 years) patients clinically and genetically defined as SMA2, SMA3 and SMA4, who started nusinersen treatment in adulthood. QoL was rated by the Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life (INQoL) questionnaire. Concurrent motor function evaluation included the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE), the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM), the 6 min walking test (6MWT). RESULTS: 189 completed questionnaires were collected during a 14 months' treatment period. 78 patients were included (7 SMA2 and 69 SMA3 and 2 SMA4) with mean disease duration at first nusinersen administration of 33.2 years (± 12.5 years). All the scores for each INQoL domain (weakness, fatigue, activities, independence, social relationship, emotions, body images) and the derived QoL total score, significantly improved during the observation period, except the muscle locking and pain items. Exploratory analyses suggested that emotions and social relationships were more relevant issues for females compared to males. Social relationships were affected also by a longer disease duration (> 30 years). In SMA3 non-walker patients, activities ameliorate better compared to walkers. The HFMSE and RULM significantly improved from baseline; however, no associations with QoL total score and weakness, activities or independence were demonstrated. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, adult SMA patients showed a global improvement at the INQoL assessment over 14 months of nusinersen treatment. QoL assessment is relevant to SMA multidisciplinary evaluation.

2.
Heart ; 108(1): 54-60, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the ECG in the differential diagnosis between Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study, 111 AFD patients with left ventricular hypertrophy were compared with 111 patients with HCM, matched for sex, age and maximal wall thickness by propensity score. Independent ECG predictors of AFD were identified by multivariate analysis, and a multiparametric ECG score-based algorithm for differential diagnosis was developed. RESULTS: Short PR interval, prolonged QRS duration, right bundle branch block (RBBB), R in augmented vector left (aVL) ≥1.1 mV and inferior ST depression independently predicted AFD diagnosis. A point-by-point ECG score was then derived with the following diagnostic performances: c-statistic 0.80 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.86) for discrimination, the Hosmel-Lemeshow χ2 6.14 (p=0.189) for calibration, sensitivity 69%, specificity 84%, positive predictive value 82% and negative predictive value 72%. After bootstrap resampling, the mean optimism was 0.025, and the internal validated c-statistic for the score was 0.78. CONCLUSIONS: Standard ECG can help to differentiate AFD from HCM while investigating unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Short PR interval, prolonged QRS duration, RBBB, R in aVL ≥1.1 mV and inferior ST depression independently predicted AFD. Their systematic evaluation and the integration in a multiparametric ECG score can support AFD diagnosis.

3.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885938

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A gene (GLA) mutations, resulting in loss of activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). As a result, the main glycosphingolipid substrates, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3), accumulate in plasma, urine, and tissues. Here, we propose a simple, fast, and sensitive method for plasma quantification of lyso-Gb3, the most promising secondary screening target for FD. Assisted protein precipitation with methanol using Phree cartridges was performed as sample pre-treatment and plasma concentrations were measured using UHPLC-MS/MS operating in MRM positive electrospray ionization. Method validation provided excellent results for the whole calibration range (0.25-100 ng/mL). Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV%) were calculated as <10%. The method was successfully applied to 55 plasma samples obtained from 34 patients with FD, 5 individuals carrying non-relevant polymorphisms of the GLA gene, and 16 healthy controls. Plasma lyso-Gb3 concentrations were larger in both male and female FD groups compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Normal levels of plasma lyso-Gb3 were observed for patients carrying non-relevant mutations of the GLA gene compared to the control group (p = 0.141). Dropping the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) to 0.25 ng/mL allowed us to set the optimal plasma lyso-Gb3 cut-off value between FD patients and healthy controls at 0.6 ng/mL, with a sensitivity of 97.1%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 0.998 expressed by the area under the ROC curve (C.I. 0.992 to 1.000, p-value < 0.001). Based on the results obtained, this method can be a reliable tool for early phenotypic assignment, assessing diagnoses in patients with borderline GalA activity, and confirming non-relevant mutations of the GLA gene.

4.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported skin phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn) deposits in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients but not in patients with parkinsonism due to tauopathies, although data on the latter are limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the presence of skin p-syn deposits in patients with clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism usually due to tauopathy and PD. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 26 patients, 18 fulfilling clinical diagnostic criteria of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and 8 of corticobasal syndrome (CBS), 26 patients with PD, and 26 healthy controls (HC). All subjects underwent skin biopsy to study p-syn deposits in skin nerves by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Skin p-syn deposits were present in only two of the PSP/CBS patients and none of the HC. Conversely, all PD patients showed p-syn deposition (p <  0.001, Chi-square). The two p-syn positive patients were diagnosed with PSP and CBS, respectively. Although clinical and MRI findings supported these diagnoses, both patients had some atypical features more typical of synucleinopathies. CONCLUSION: The detection of skin p-syn deposits may help in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Indeed, in this study, all PD patients and only two out of 26 with a clinical diagnosis of PSP/CBS had skin p-syn deposits. Furthermore, these two patients showed clinical features that could suggest an atypical synucleinopathy presentation or a mixed pathology.

5.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916127

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) m.3243A > G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene results in a multi-systemic disease, that is commonly associated with neurodegenerative changes in the brain. METHODS: Seventeen patients harboring the m3243A > G mutation were enrolled (age 43.1 ± 11.4 years, 10 M/7F). A panel of plasma biomarkers including lactate acid, alanine, L-arginine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and circulating cell free -mtDNA (ccf-mtDNA), as well as blood, urine and muscle mtDNA heteroplasmy were evaluated. Patients also underwent a brain standardized MR protocol that included volumetric T1-weighted images and diffusion-weighted MRI. Twenty sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included. Voxel-wise analysis was performed on T1-weighted and diffusion imaging, respectively with VBM (voxel-based morphometry) and TBSS (Tract-based Spatial Statistics). Ventricular lactate was also evaluated by 1H-MR spectroscopy. RESULTS: A widespread cortical gray matter (GM) loss was observed, more severe (p < 0.001) in the bilateral calcarine, insular, frontal and parietal cortex, along with infratentorial cerebellar cortex. High urine mtDNA mutation load, high levels of plasma lactate and alanine, low levels of plasma arginine, high levels of serum FGF-21 and ventricular lactate accumulation significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the reduced brain GM density. Widespread microstructural alterations were highlighted in the white matter, significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with plasma alanine and arginine levels, with mtDNA mutation load in urine, with high level of serum GDF-15 and with high content of plasma ccf-mtDNA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the synergy of two pathogenic mechanisms, mtDNA-related mitochondrial respiratory deficiency and defective nitric oxide metabolism, contributes to the brain neurodegeneration in m.3243A > G patients.

6.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829852

RESUMO

Objective: To assess whether phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) can discriminate different upper motor neuron (UMN) syndromes, namely, ALS, UMN-predominant ALS, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and hereditary spastic paraparesis (hSP) and to test the prognostic value of pNfH in UMN diseases. Methods: CSF and serum pNfH were measured in 143 patients presenting with signs of UMN and later diagnosed with classic/bulbar ALS, UMNp-ALS, hSP, and PLS. Between-group comparisons were drawn by ANOVA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The prognostic value of pNfH was tested by the Cox regression model. Results: ALS and UMNp-ALS patients had higher CSF pNfH compared to PLS and hSP (p < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that CSF pNfH could differentiate ALS, UMNp-ALS included, from PLS and hSP (AUC = 0.75 and 0.95, respectively), while serum did not perform as well. In multivariable survival analysis among the totality of UMN patients and classic/bulbar ALS, CSF pNfH independently predicted survival. Among UMNp-ALS patients, only the progression rate (HR4.71, p = 0.01) and presence of multifocal fasciculations (HR 15.69, p = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: CSF pNfH is significantly higher in classic and UMNp-ALS compared to UMN diseases with a better prognosis such as PLS and hSP. Its prognostic role is confirmed in classic and bulbar ALS, but not among UMNp, where clinical signs remained the only independent prognostic factors.

7.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 753242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744694

RESUMO

Background: Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a validated biofluid marker of neuroaxonal damage with great potential for monitoring patients with neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to further validate the clinical utility of plasma (p) vs. CSF (c) NfL for distinguishing patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) from ALS mimics. We also assessed the association of biomarker values with clinical variables and survival and established the longitudinal changes of pNfL during the disease course. Methods: We studied 231 prospectively enrolled patients with suspected ALS who underwent a standardized protocol including neurological examination, electromyography, brain MRI, and lumbar puncture. Patients who received an alternative clinical diagnosis were considered ALS mimics. We classified the patients based on the disease progression rate (DPR) into fast (DPR > 1), intermediate (DPR 0.5-1), and slow progressors (DPR < 0.5). All patients were screened for the most frequent ALS-associated genes. Plasma and CSF samples were retrospectively analyzed; NfL concentrations were measured with the SIMOA platform using a commercial kit. Results: ALS patients (n = 171) showed significantly higher pNfL (p < 0.0001) and cNfL (p < 0.0001) values compared to ALS mimics (n = 60). Both cNfL and pNfL demonstrated a good diagnostic value in discriminating the two groups, although cNfL performed slightly better (cNfL: AUC 0.924 ± 0.022, sensitivity 86.8%, specificity 92.4; pNfL: AUC 0.873 ± 0.036, sensitivity 84.7%, specificity 83.3%). Fast progressors showed higher cNfL and pNfL as compared to intermediate (p = 0.026 and p = 0.001) and slow progressors (both p < 0.001). Accordingly, ALS patients with higher baseline cNfL and pNfL levels had a shorter survival (highest tertile of cNfL vs. lowest tertile, HR 4.58, p = 0.005; highest tertile of pNfL vs. lowest tertile, HR 2.59, p = 0.015). Moreover, there were positive associations between cNfL and pNfL levels and the number of body regions displaying UMN signs (rho = 0.325, p < 0.0001; rho = 0.308, p = 0.001). Finally, longitudinal analyses in 57 patients showed stable levels of pNfL during the disease course. Conclusion: Both cNfL and pNfL have excellent diagnostic and prognostic performance for symptomatic patients with ALS. The stable longitudinal trajectory of pNfL supports its use as a marker of drug effect in clinical trials.

8.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell (mRGC)-mediated pupillary light reflex (PLR) abnormalities have been documented in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. Overall, isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) represents the strongest prodromal risk factor for impending α-synucleinopathies. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively compare PLR and mRGC-mediated contribution to PLR in 16 iRBD patients and 16 healthy controls. METHODS: iRBD and controls underwent extensive neuro-ophthalmological evaluation and chromatic pupillometry. In iRBD, PLR metrics were correlated with clinical variables and with additional biomarkers including REM atonia index (RAI), DaTscan, and presence of phosphorylated-α-synuclein (p-α-syn) deposition in skin biopsy. RESULTS: We documented higher baseline pupil diameter and decreased rod-transient PLR amplitude in iRBD patients compared to controls. PLR rod-contribution correlated with RAI. Moreover, only iRBD patients with evidence of p-α-syn deposition at skin biopsy showed reduced PLR amplitude compared to controls. CONCLUSION: The observed PLR abnormalities in iRBD might be considered as potential biomarkers for the risk stratification of phenoconversion of the disease. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

9.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(12): 3183-3189, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates diagnostic accuracy of the proposed 'Gold Coast' (GC) diagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Five European centres retrospectively sampled consecutive patients referred for electromyography on suspicion of ALS. Patients were classified according to the GC criteria, the revised El Escorial (rEE) criteria and the Awaji (AW) criteria without and with the 'Possible' category (+ Poss). Reference standard was ALS confirmed by disease progression at follow-up. RESULTS: Of 404 eligible patients 272 were diagnosed as ALS, 94 had mimicking disorders, 35 were lost for follow-up, and three had insufficient data. Sensitivity for the GC criteria was 88.2% (95% CI: 83.8-91.8%), which was higher than for previous criteria, of which the AW + Poss criteria reached the highest sensitivity of 77.6% (95% CI: 72.2-82.4%) (p < 0.001). Specificity was high for all criteria. The increase in sensitivity for the GC criteria was mainly due to the inclusion of 28 patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). CONCLUSIONS: The simpler GC criteria increase the sensitivity, primarily due to considering PMA as a form of ALS with high specificity preserved. SIGNIFICANCE: This validation study supports that GC criteria should be used in clinical practice and may be used for inclusion in trials.

10.
Brain Res Bull ; 175: 158-167, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339779

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterized by glycosphingolipid accumulation due to deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) enzyme. Chronic pain and mood disorders frequently coexist in FD clinical setting, however underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigated the mechanical and thermal sensitivity in α-Gal A (-/0) hemizygous male and the α-Gal A (-/-) homozygous female mice. We also characterized the gene expression of dynorphinergic, nociceptinergic and CRFergic systems, known to be involved in pain control and mood disorders, in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and thalamus of α-Gal A (-/0) hemizygous male and the α-Gal A (-/-) homozygous female mice. Moreover, KOP receptor protein levels were evaluated in the same areas. Fabry knock-out male, but not female, mice displayed a decreased pain threshold in both mechanical and thermal tests compared to their wild type littermates. In the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, we observed a decrease of pDYN mRNA levels in males, whereas an increase was assessed in females, thus suggesting sex-related dysregulation of stress coping and pain mechanisms. Elevated mRNA levels for pDYN/KOP and CRF/CRFR1 systems were observed in male and female thalamus, a critical crossroad for both painful signals and cognitive/emotional processes. KOP receptor protein level changes assessed in the investigated areas, appeared mostly in agreement with KOP gene expression alterations. Our data suggest that α-Gal A enzyme deficiency in male and female mice is associated with distinct neuropeptide gene and protein expression dysregulations of investigated systems, possibly related to the neuroplasticity underlying the neurological features of FD.

11.
Mitochondrion ; 60: 142-149, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Isolated complex I deficiency causes several clinical syndromes, including Leigh syndrome (LS), Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Here we reported two new patients carrying the rare m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 (p.Arg195Gln) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pathogenic variant, revisited another two previously reported cases, and reviewed the remaining published cases, to refine the clinical and neuroimaging features. We also quantitatively assessed the mtDNA heteroplasmy in all available tissues. CASES PRESENTATION: The first patient was a 25-year-old male presenting with axonal polyneuropathy, optic atrophy consistent with LHON, gaze palsy and parkinsonism. MRI correlates included transient centromedullary T2 hyperintensity in the conus medullaris, transient signal intensity and increased lactate in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, and late atrophy of the optic nerves and chiasm, dorsal midbrain and conus medullaris. The second patient was a 65-year-old woman with a classical LHON phenotype and a normal MRI. DISCUSSION: Including the previously published cases, the clinical spectrum ranged from LHON to Leigh-like syndrome with peculiar CNS lesions and encephalopatic clinical symptoms. The most severe and complex cases were associated with very high heteroplasmy, or nearly homoplasmic m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 pathogenic variant in skeletal muscle, displaying neurological symptoms/signs consistent with Leigh-like lesions on brain MRI. Lower heteroplasmic mutational loads were instead associated with isolated LHON-like optic neuropathy of variable severity. CONCLUSION: The m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 mtDNA pathogenic variant increasingly impairs complex I function dependent on heteroplasmic loads, leading to a spectrum of LHON and Leigh-like encephalopathy with distinguishing MRI features.

12.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 80(9): 868-874, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402516

RESUMO

Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is characterized by the involvement of Aδ and C fibers leading to sensory, mainly pain, and/or autonomic symptoms. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS) is an incompletely defined condition characterized by the onset of various symptoms in patients after exposure to several chemical substances. Pain is a common symptom in these patients. In this study, we report the histological and clinical data of a cohort of 21 patients who had been diagnosed as having MCS and who were referred to us with the suspicion of SFN because of chronic pain. All patients underwent neurological clinical examination, (including scales for pain and autonomic disorders), and a skin biopsy. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as controls for the skin biopsies. Nerve conduction studies and serum screening to exclude possible causes of peripheral neuropathy were also performed. Skin biopsies disclosed a somatic SFN in all patients. Although the majority (18 out of 21) of patients also had autonomic symptoms. we found sparing of autonomic innervation in the biopsies. These observations suggest that chronic pain in MCS could be secondary to the presence of somatic SFN, although more data are needed to confirm these observations.

13.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(10): 2416-2421, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of needle electromyography (EMG) genioglossus involvement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at diagnosis. METHODS: We separately explored the prognostic value of clinical bulbar lower motor neuron (LMN) signs and EMG genioglossus involvement using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, diagnostic delay, presence of bulbar upper motor neuron (UMN) signs, EMG cervical and lumbosacral region involvement, ALSFRS-R score and C9Orf72 gene status. Then, we compared the prognostic value of EMG masseter and genioglossus abnormalities in a subset of patients in whom both muscles were analysed. RESULTS: 103 ALS patients were included in the study. Neurophysiological genioglossus involvement was associated with a shorter survival (p = 0.002), a shorter time to moderate dysphagia (p = 0.0001) and to severe dysarthria (p = 0.012). Its prognostic value was still evident in patients without clinical bulbar LMN signs. Bulbar clinical LMN signs were only associated with an earlier onset of moderate dysphagia (p = 0.0001). EMG masseter abnormalities did not reach statistical significance with regard to all the clinical milestones. CONCLUSIONS: Genioglossus EMG at diagnosis could provide important information about ALS progression rate. The masseter muscle seems to be less involved in ALS. SIGNIFICANCE: EMG genioglossus involvement is a prognostic factor in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculos Faciais/fisiopatologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Músculos Faciais/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Língua/inervação
14.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439654

RESUMO

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the target of a variety of immune-mediated disorders, usually classified as presynaptic and postsynaptic, according to the site of the antigenic target and consequently of the neuromuscular transmission alteration. Although less common than the classical autoimmune postsynaptic myasthenia gravis, presynaptic disorders are important to recognize due to the frequent association with cancer. Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome is due to a presynaptic failure to release acetylcholine, caused by antibodies to the presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels. Acquired neuromyotonia is a condition characterized by nerve hyperexcitability often due to the presence of antibodies against proteins associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. This review will focus on the recent developments in the autoimmune presynaptic disorders of the NMJ.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(4): 1467-1473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151798

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis between primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be difficult if based on clinical grounds alone. We evaluated the combination of proton MR spectroscopy of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and quantitative structural imaging asymmetries to differentiate PPA from AD patients. A greater left-lateralized temporo-parietal atrophy (higher accuracy for the PCC, 81.4%) and metabolic neurodegenerative changes in PCC (accuracy 76.8%) was demonstrated in PPA versus AD. The combined multiparametric approach increased the accuracy to 94%in the differential diagnosis between these two neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Afasia Primária Progressiva , Atrofia/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/diagnóstico , Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(6): 1200-1211, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) findings with serum biomarkers and heteroplasmy of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. This study enrolled patients carrying mtDNA mutations associated with Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and MELAS-Spectrum Syndrome (MSS). METHODS: Consecutive patients carrying mtDNA mutations associated with MELAS and MSS were recruited and their serum concentrations of lactate, alanine, and heteroplasmic mtDNA mutant load were evaluated. The brain protocol included single-voxel 1 H-MRS (1.5T) in the medial parieto-occipital cortex (MPOC), left cerebellar hemisphere, parieto-occipital white matter (POWM), and lateral ventricles. Relative metabolite concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) were estimated relative to creatine (Cr), using LCModel 6.3. RESULTS: Six patients with MELAS (age 28 ± 13 years, 3 [50%] female) and 17 with MSS (age 45 ± 11 years, 7 [41%] female) and 39 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. These patients demonstrated a lower NAA/Cr ratio in MPOC compared to HC (p = 0.006), which inversely correlated with serum lactate (p = 0.021, rho = -0.68) and muscle mtDNA heteroplasmy (p < 0.001, rho = -0.80). Similarly, in the cerebellum patients had lower NAA/Cr (p < 0.001), Cho/Cr (p = 0.002), and NAA/mI (p = 0.001) ratios, which negatively correlated with mtDNA blood heteroplasmy (p = 0.001, rho = -0.81) and with alanine (p = 0.050, rho = -0.67). Ventricular lactate was present in 78.3% (18/23) of patients, correlating with serum lactate (p = 0.024, rho = 0.58). CONCLUSION: Correlations were found between the peripheral and biochemical markers of mitochondrial dysfunction and brain in vivo markers of neurodegeneration, supporting the use of both biomarkers as signatures of MELAS and MSS disease, to evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments.

18.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 557-577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007229

RESUMO

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a lifelong sleep disorder, primarily characterized clinically by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and pathologically by the loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Despite being a rare disorder, the NT1-related burden for patients and society is relevant due to the early onset and chronic nature of this condition. Although the etiology of narcolepsy is still unknown, mounting evidence supports a central role of autoimmunity. To date, no cure is available for this disorder and current treatment is symptomatic. Based on the hypothesis of the autoimmune etiology of this disease, immunotherapy could possibly represent a valid therapeutic option. However, contrasting and limited results have been provided so far. This review discusses the evidence supporting the use of immunotherapy in narcolepsy, the outcomes obtained so far, current issues and future directions.

20.
Mov Disord ; 36(9): 2173-2177, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that skin represents a suitable matrix for demonstrating α-synuclein oligomers as a diagnostic biomarker for Lewy body disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of skin α-syn real-time quaking-induced conversion assay in patients with Lewy body disease. METHODS: We analyzed skin punches taken in vitam (n = 69) or postmortem (n = 49) from patients with PD, dementia with Lew bodies (DLB), incidental Lewy body pathology, and neurological controls. Seventy-nine patients underwent both CSF and skin α-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. RESULTS: Overall, the skin α-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay distinguished Lewy body disease patients with 94.1% accuracy (sensitivity, 89.2%; specificity, 96.3%). Assay sensitivity reached 94.1% in the 17 Lewy body disease patients analyzed in the cervical region. In patients with both CSF and skin samples, the 2 real-time quaking-induced conversion assay protocols yielded similar diagnostic accuracy (skin, 97.5%; CSF, 98.7%). CONCLUSION: Skin punch biopsies might represent a valid and convenient alternative to CSF analysis to demonstrate Lew body-related α-synuclein deposition in patients with Lewy body disease. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Doença por Corpos de Lewy , alfa-Sinucleína , Autopsia , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Pele
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...