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3.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 58(2): 236-241, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247473

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractures have been identified as one of the 20 major health conditions for the World Health Organization's (WHO) Package of Interventions for Rehabilitation (PIR) - that includes also the needs of children and youth. The identification of existing interventions for rehabilitation and related evidence is a crucial step along the development of the PIR. The methods for the identification have been developed by WHO Rehabilitation Program and Cochrane Rehabilitation under the guidance of WHO's Guideline Review Committee Secretariat. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This paper is part of the "Best Evidence for Rehabilitation" (be4rehab) series, developed according to the methodology presented in the PIR introductory paper. It is a systematic review of the existing Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on fractures in pediatric population published between 2009 to 2019. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We identified seven relevant CPGs after title and abstract screening. According to inclusion/exclusion criteria and after checking for quality, publication time, multidisciplinarity and comprehensiveness, we have been able to include two CPGs: one addresses the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures and the other provides recommendations on the treatment of diaphyseal femur fractures. CONCLUSIONS: The selected CPGs on the management of supracondylar humerus and diaphyseal femur fractures in pediatric population include few recommendations considered as interventions for rehabilitation, of low quality of evidence and weak strength. We found several gaps in specific rehabilitative topics. High quality studies are absolutely needed to upgrade the quality of available evidence to inform future development of guidelines.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833383

RESUMO

Early osteoarthritis (EOA) still represents a challenge for clinicians. Although there is no consensus on its definition and diagnosis, a prompt therapeutic intervention in the early stages can have a significant impact on function and quality of life. Exercise remains a core treatment for EOA; however, several physical modalities are commonly used in this population. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of physical agents in the treatment of EOA. A technical expert panel (TEP) of 8 medical specialists with expertise in physical agent modalities and musculoskeletal conditions performed the review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) model. The TEP searched for evidence of the following physical modalities in the management of EOA: "Electric Stimulation Therapy", "Pulsed Electromagnetic field", "Low-Level Light Therapy", "Laser Therapy", "Magnetic Field Therapy", "Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy", "Hyperthermia, Induced", "Cryotherapy", "Vibration therapy", "Whole Body Vibration", "Physical Therapy Modalities". We found preclinical and clinical data on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation (PEMF), and whole-body vibration (WBV) for the treatment of knee EOA. We found two clinical studies about TENS and PEMF and six preclinical studies-three about ESWT, one about WBV, one about PEMF, and one about LIPUS. The preclinical studies demonstrated several biological effects on EOA of physical modalities, suggesting potential disease-modifying effects. However, this role should be better investigated in further clinical studies, considering the limited data on the use of these interventions for EOA patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Terapia de Campo Magnético , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833480

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by disproportionate regional pain, usually affecting distal limbs, that follows trauma or surgery. Athletes may develop CRPS because of exposure to traumatic or overuse injuries. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature about CRPS type 1 in athletes. Materials and Methods: We searched two online databases (PubMed and Web of Science), selecting papers aiming at investigating CRPS type 1 (algodystrophy) in athletes. The analysis of databases was made considering original articles published until 30 June 2021, written in English. Results: Fifteen papers (12 case reports, 3 case series) were selected for a total of 20 clinical cases (15 females, 5 males), aged between 10 and 46 years (mean age 18.4 ± 9.8 standard deviation years). Patients included practiced different types of sport (soccer, athletics, gymnastics, basketball). The most involved anatomical sites were lower limbs, and time to diagnosis ranged from 2 days to 4 years. The most used treatments were pharmacological and physical therapies, but sometimes invasive approaches, as regional nerve, or lumbar sympathetic blocks, were provided. The main assessed outcomes were return to activity and pain. Conclusions: Our review suggests a higher prevalence of CRPS type 1 in younger people and in lower limbs than in general population but confirms the higher prevalence in females. However, the number of studies addressing CRPS in athletes is limited, as well as the number of involved patients, considering that only few and heterogeneous case reports were published about this topic. Moreover, the high prevalence of old studies (only 5 available studies in the last 10 years) might have influenced the choice of both assessment tools and management strategies. Despite these limitations, athletes showing disproportionate pain after sport-related injury should be promptly evaluated and treated through a multidimensional approach to avoid long-term consequences of algodystrophy.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Criança , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684052

RESUMO

Muscle is one of the main targets for the biological effects of vitamin D. This hormone modulates several functions of skeletal muscles, from development to tissue repair after injury, through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation seem to significantly affect muscle strength in different populations, including athletes, although optimal serum 25(OH)D3 level for sport performance has not been defined so far. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency results in myopathy characterized by fast-twitch fiber atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis. However, less is known about regenerative effects of vitamin D supplementation after sport-related muscle injuries. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is particularly expressed in the embryonic mesoderm during intrauterine life and in satellite cells at all stages of life for recovery of the skeletal muscle after injury. Vitamin D supplementation enhances muscle differentiation, growth, and regeneration by increasing the expression of myogenic factors in satellite cells. The objective of this narrative review is to describe the role of vitamin D in sport-related muscle injury and tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Receptores de Calcitriol , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684077

RESUMO

Muscle injuries occur frequently in athletes, accounting for more than one-third of sport-related trauma. Athletes most affected by these injuries are those practicing football and track and field, with hamstrings and gastrocnemius-soleus as the mainly involved sites. Muscle injuries lead to loss of competitions, long recovery times and risk of re-injury with a consequent increase of the management costs. It is therefore advisable to make an accurate and timely diagnosis to establish appropriate interventions for proper healing in the shortest time. In this context, ultrasound imaging is widely used for diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders because of several advantages including absence of radiation, portability, good spatial resolution, and the ability to perform dynamic tests. The aim of this review is to address the role of US in the evaluation of athletes with muscle injuries. US may play a pivotal role for the management of sport-related muscle injuries because it is fast and relatively cheap, allowing dynamic muscle assessment and time series evaluation of the healing process.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684125

RESUMO

Tendinopathy is a complex clinical condition with a rising incidence and prevalence, particularly during sports practice. For the return to play in affected patients, adequate functional and structural recovery of the tendon is the ultimate goal, avoiding the high risk of recurrence. In this perspective, local therapies alongside exercise are showing promising results. Despite evidence suggesting hyaluronic acid (HA) injections as effective in the treatment of tendinopathy, current recommendations about the management of this condition do not include this intervention. HA seems to be an effective therapeutic option for the management of sport-related tendinopathies, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm available findings. In this narrative review, we analyzed available literature about the rationale of the use of HA in the management of tendon injury and, particularly, in sport-related tendinopathies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Tendinopatia , Traumatismos em Atletas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Volta ao Esporte , Tendinopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Tendões
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684155

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Sport-related musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) are a common health issue in athletes that can lead to reduced performance. The aim of this scoping review was to synthetize available evidence on injury incidence rates (IIRs), types, and sites that affect the musculoskeletal (MSK) system of adult athletes. Materials and Methods: We performed a scoping review on the Pubmed database limiting our search to 33 Olympic sports. Results: We identified a total of 1022 papers, and of these 162 were examined in full for the purpose of this review. Archery was the sport with the highest risk of injuries to the upper extremities, marathons for the lower extremities, and triathlon and weightlifting for the body bust. In the majority of the sports examined, muscle/tendon strain and ligament sprain were the most common MSK-Is diagnoses, while athletics, karate, and football were the sports with the highest IIRs, depending on the methods used for their calculations. Conclusions: Our scoping review highlighted the general lack and dishomogeneity in the collection of data on MSK-Is in athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573938

RESUMO

Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I)-or algodystrophy-is a rare disease that usually occurs after a traumatic event. It is characterized by typical clinical findings such as severe and disabling pain disproportionate to the injury, functional limitations, as well as sensory and vasomotor alterations. However, some people do not report any injury associated with algodystrophy onset in personal history. We describe the management of an unusual case of CRPS I which occurred during the long-term follow-up of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and performed a narrative review of algodystrophy in non-orthopedic surgery. A clinical case of a 44-year-old man with a spontaneous onset of CRPS I of the right ankle is presented. He did not refer to history of any memorable significant trigger event. Approximately 5 months before the onset of clinical manifestations, he received a PTCA via the right femoral approach. We suppose an association between CRPS and this procedure and propose a possible pathophysiologic mechanism. The patient was treated with intramuscular neridronate, which resulted in significant pain relief and improved his quality of life. A comprehensive clinical and instrumental evaluation in patients with CRPS is challenging but mandatory for a correct diagnosis. An extensive analysis of patient history is important for identifying any potential trigger event, including non-orthopedic procedures. Bone scan could have a pivotal role for improving diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in CRPS I. Neridronate was a safe and effective therapeutic approach for this patient, confirming the results of the high-quality evidence available.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576321

RESUMO

The role of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid (EC/EV) system in bone metabolism has recently received attention. Current literature evidences the modulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through the activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in various pathological conditions with secondary involvement of bone tissue. However, this role is still unclear in primary bone diseases. Paget's disease of the bone (PDB) could be considered a disease model for analyzing the role of the EC/EV system on osteoclasts (OCs), speculating the potential use of specific agents targeting this system for managing metabolic bone disorders. The aim of the study is to analyze OCs expression of EC/EV system in patients with PDB and to compare OCs activity between this population and healthy people. Finally, we investigate whether specific agents targeting EC/EV systems are able to modulate OCs activity in this metabolic bone disorder. We found a significant increase in cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) protein expression in patients with PDB, compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we found a significant reduction in multi-nucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive OCs and resorption areas after treatment with JWH-133. CB2 could be a molecular target for reducing the activity of OCs in PDB, opening new therapeutic scenarios for the management of this condition.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Osteíte Deformante/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo
12.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 49(3): 481-489, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with Parkinson disease (PD), severe postural and gait impairments are rarely observed in early stage of disease and non-motor symptoms (NMS) are often overlooked. OBJECTIVE: This observational study aimed to characterize the impact of non-motor impairments on walking kinematics in early stages PD patients, and to assess the differences of gait parameters and NMS between PD patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with Modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale score≤2 were evaluated for NMS using Kings Parkinson's Pain Scale, Parkinson Fatigue Severity scale, Parkinson Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, kinematic parameters through an inertial sensor and cognitive performance by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. RESULTS: Fatigue had a moderate negative correlation with step cadence, and a moderate to strong positive correlation with gait duration, Timed Up and Go (TUG) and TUG Dual Task (p < 0.01). Pain showed positive moderate correlation with gait duration (p < 0.01). Twelve patients resulted affected by MCI and reported significantly worse scores in gait duration, pain and fatigue (p < 0.05). According to cognitive z scores, PD-MCI group showed a moderate negative correlation between visuospatial abilities and fatigue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NMS significantly affect walking kinematics whereas a limited role of cognitive status on motor performance occur in the early PD stages.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Doença de Parkinson , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Caminhada
13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356257

RESUMO

(1) Background. Scoliosis is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and it might be dystrophic (D) or non-dystrophic (ND) depending on the presence of dysplastic changes of the spine. The aim of our study was to describe the characteristics and natural history of patients with NF1 and scoliosis. (2) Methods. We retrospectively reviewed records from patients with NF1 and scoliosis. Scoliosis was classified as D if at least two dystrophic changes were documented at imaging. (3) Results. Of the 438 patients reviewed, 43 fulfilled inclusion criteria; 17 were classified in D group and 26 in ND. The groups did not differ in age and localization of scoliosis curvature. Surgery was needed more often in D group, but the between-group difference was not significant. Male-to-female ratios of 3:1 and 4:1 were reported in surgically treated NF1 patients with ND and D scoliosis, respectively. (4) Conclusions. Our data suggests independently by the presence of dysplastic changes affecting the spine that males with NF1 are more often affected by scoliosis that requires surgery.

15.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 6623651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012496

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to validate Italian versions of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) scale and Pain DETECT questionnaire (PD-Q) and evaluate the ability of these questionnaires to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Design: Multicenter prospective validation cohort study. Subjects and Setting. One hundred patients were included with a diagnosis formulated by a specialist in outpatient settings (50 affected by knee osteoarthritis as nociceptive pain and 50 affected by trigeminal or postherpetic neuralgia as neuropathic pain). Methods: The Italian versions of both questionnaires according to Italian cultural characteristics were performed according to the following steps: (1) translation of the questionnaires from English into Italian; (2) review by a bilingual individual for consistency; (3) proposed version after a mail round between experts; (4) backward translation; (5) comparison with the original English version by the experts; (6) approved version of the questionnaires. One hundred patients were enrolled and completed the two questionnaires administered by a specialist or blinded nursing staff, at the baseline and after 24/48 hours. Internal consistency, stability, validity, and discriminative power were analyzed. Results: Statistically significant differences were reported about the ability of both questionnaires to discriminate between patients affected by neuropathic or nociceptive pain. Internal consistency for the Italian version of the LANSS was 0.76, and for PD-Q, it was 0.80, assessed by Cronbach's α; LANSS showed a good test-retest reliability with an ICC of 0.76, and PD-Q showed a high test-retest reliability with an ICC of 0.96. For interrater reliability, there was a concordance rate of 83.3% between reference diagnosis and LANSS (Cohen's kappa = 0.67, CI 95% 0.52-0.75). Conclusions: This study validated the Italian versions of LANSS and PD-Q as reliable instruments with good psychometric characteristics, for pain evaluation, discriminating between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Our findings were similar to those observed in the original study. Furthermore, we have reported the test-retest reliability for both questionnaires, not addressed in original validation studies.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Dor Nociceptiva/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological therapeutic approaches have been proposed to manage osteoarthritis (OA), including intra-articular (IA) injections. Although the discovery of clodronate, a bisphosphonate, dates back to the 1960s and the effects of its IA administration have been investigated for decades in animal models, mechanisms of action of this drug are not quite clear, particularly in OA. This scoping review is an overview of the biological as well as the clinical role of clodronic acid in OA. METHOD: A scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews) model was performed to characterize the mechanisms of action of IA clodronate in OA and to evaluate its efficacy from a clinical point of view. RESULTS: Several effects of clodronate have been observed in animal models of OA, including depletion of synovial lining cells that results in reduced production of chemokines (IL-1, TNF- α), growth factors (TGF-ß, BMP 2/4), and metalloproteases (MMP 2/3/9); prevention of cartilage damage, synovial hyperplasia, and proteoglycans loss; reduction in joint inflammation, joint swelling, and osteophyte formation. From a clinical perspective, patients with knee OA treated with IA clodronate experienced improvements in pain and joint mobility. CONCLUSION: Clodronate appears to have different mechanisms of action interfering with the pathogenic processes contributing to OA development and progression. This intervention demonstrated positive effects for patients affected by knee OA.


Assuntos
Ácido Clodrônico/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácido Clodrônico/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Camundongos , Coelhos
18.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 57(2): 273-279, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650841

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People affected by osteoporosis and fragility fractures often report disability and poor health-related quality of life. Albeit rehabilitation has a crucial role in older people, post-menopausal women and other subjects with high risk of fragility fractures, the rehabilitation perspective has been poorly investigated in the available guidelines for osteoporosis. The aim of this systematic review was to systematically evaluate the quality of guidelines for osteoporosis from a rehabilitation perspective. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: On May 2020, we performed a systematic search on medical literature of all guidelines published in the last 10 years on PubMed, Pedro, and international guideline databases. The study selection was based on key terms "exercise," "physical activity" or "rehabilitation." All authors independently assessed the methodological quality through the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, consisting of six domains (scope, stakeholder involvement, rigor and development, clarity of presentation, applicability, editorial independence). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Out of 331 documents retrieved, a total of 34 guidelines were selected after the screening phases. Twenty (58.8%) high quality guidelines were reported. According to AGREE II instrument, a mean score of 78.1±21.8% was reported for "scope and purpose" domain; for stakeholder involvement, the mean score was 58.1±22.1%; the rigor of development was good (mean score of 61.3±27.3%); for clarity of presentation the mean score was 79.4±20.3%; the applicability was poor (mean score of 30.9±25.2%); for editorial independence the mean score was 75.1±24.6%. Rehabilitation recommendations for osteoporotic patients were reported in 21 (61.8%) of the selected guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic analysis evaluating quality of the guidelines for osteoporosis using AGREE II instrument. Starting from a state of the art of the currently available evidence, we could conclude that therapeutic exercise at moderate to high intensity is encouraged by several guidelines for the management of people with osteoporosis and fragility fractures. More than half of guidelines were of high-quality. However, most guidelines are lacking specific indications about exercise features. This study might support the implementation of a rehabilitation perspective in the guidelines for osteoporotic patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoporose/reabilitação , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
19.
Front Neurol ; 12: 626319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679588

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide with a huge impact on the healthcare system. Compared to the previous coronaviruses-related pandemics, COVID-19 is more transmissible with potential systemic involvement and peculiar neurological manifestations, such as Guillan-Barrè syndrome up to critical illness myopathy, occurring in the intensive care setting. In this clinical scenario, people living with a neuromuscular disease (NMD) represent a vulnerable category with a high risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Moreover, in the NMD population, the management of respiratory and muscular impairments after SARS-CoV-2 infection might be troubling in terms of both pharmacological and rehabilitative approaches. To date, rehabilitation is still an unmet need in this population with several implications on NMD progression with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, rehabilitation intervention for patients with NMD after COVID-19 are lacking. Therefore, in the current paper, we analyze the critical issues of COVID-19 on NMDs patients and propose a home-based rehabilitation program targeted for this population after mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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