Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 cases have a detrimental hyper-inflammatory host response and different cytokine-blocking biologic agents were explored to improve outcomes. Anakinra blocks the activity of both IL-1α and IL­1ß and is approved for different autoinflammatory disorders, but it is used off-label for conditions characterized by an excess of cytokine production. Several studies on anakinra in COVID-19 patients reported positive effects. We performed a meta-analysis of all published evidence on the use of anakinra in COVID19 to investigate its effect on survival and need for mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We searched for any study performed on adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection, receiving anakinra versus any comparator. Primary endpoint was mortality at the longest available follow-up. Adverse effects, need for mechanical ventilation and discharge at home with no limitations were also analysed. RESULTS: Four observational studies involving 184 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with anakinra was significantly lower than mortality in the control group (95% CI 0.14-0.48, p<0.0001). Moreover, patients treated with anakinra had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation than controls (95% CI 0.250.74, p=0.002). No difference in adverse events and discharge at home with no limitations was observed. The Trial Sequential Analysis z-cumulative line reached the monitoring boundary for benefit and the required sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of anakinra in COVID-19 patients was safe and might be associated with reductions in both mortality and need for mechanical ventilation. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in patients with 2019-nCoV (novel coronavirus 2019) infection still are debated. Because large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a well-conducted meta-analysis on the use of corticosteroids, focused on patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in intensive care units, recently were published, a meta-analysis of RCTs on corticosteroids therapy in patients with different disease severity was performed to evaluate the effect on survival. DESIGN: A meta-analyses of RCTs was performed. SETTING: Patients admitted to hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with coronavirus disease. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of corticosteroids. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A search was performed for RCTs of adult patients with acute hypoxemic failure related to 2019-nCoV infection who received corticosteroids versus any comparator. The primary endpoint was mortality rate. Five RCTs involving 7,692 patients were included. Overall mortality of patients treated with corticosteroids was slightly but significantly lower than mortality of controls (26% v 28%, relative risk {RR} = 0.89 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.82-0.96], p = 0.003). The same beneficial effect was found in the subgroup of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (RR = 0.85 [95% CI 0.72-1.00], p = 0.05 number needed to treat {NNT} = 19). Remarkably, corticosteroids increased mortality in the subgroup of patients not requiring oxygen (17% v 13%, RR = 1.23 [95% CI 1.00-1.62], p = 0.05 number needed to harm {NNH} = 29). Tests for comparison between mechanically ventilated subgroups and those not requiring oxygen confirmed that treatment with corticosteroids had a statistically significant different effect on survival. Patients treated with corticosteroids had a significantly lower risk of need for mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids may be considered in severe critically ill patients with COVID-19 but must be discouraged in patients not requiring oxygen therapy. Urgently, further trials are warranted before implementing this treatment worldwide.

3.
Resuscitation ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to the directly attributed mortality, COVID-19 is also likely to increase mortality indirectly. In this systematic review, we investigate the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. METHODS: We searched PubMed, BioMedCentral, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring during the pandemic and a non-pandemic period. Risk of bias was assessed with the ROBINS-I tool. The primary endpoint was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints were bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival to hospital discharge, and survival with favourable neurological outcome. RESULTS: We identified six studies. In two studies, rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge decreased significantly during the pandemic. Especially in Europe, bystander-witnessed cases, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation attempted by emergency medical services were reduced during the pandemic. Also, ambulance response times were significantly delayed across all studies and patients presenting with non-shockable rhythms increased in two studies. In 2020, 3.9-5.9% of tested patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 4.8-26% had suggestive symptoms (fever and cough or dyspnoea). CONCLUSIONS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests had worse short-term outcomes during the pandemic than a non-pandemic period suggesting direct effects of COVID-19 infection and indirect effects from lockdown and disruption of healthcare systems. Patients at high risk of deterioration should be identified outside the hospital to promptly initiate treatment and reduce fatalities. Study registration PROSPERO CRD42020195794.

4.
Pathog Glob Health ; : 1-3, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241776

RESUMO

COVID-19 already caused more than 1,260,000 deaths around the world. However, mortality rates are not equal amongst the different countries. Mortality rates are ranging from less than 1 death per million in Taiwan, Vietnam and Thailand to 1,112 deaths per million in Belgium. In the present article, we report a striking difference in mean per million mortality between Asian and European countries (2.7 vs 197 deaths per million population, p < 0.001). In addition, we confirmed that the later a specific country was hit by the epidemic, the milder the impact on mortality during the first 50 days was. We analyzed several factors that may have contributed to this discrepancy including population age, previous experience of epidemics in the modern era, social acceptance of physical distancing and face masks, percentage of active smokers and lastly genetic prothrombotic mutations.

5.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989964

RESUMO

The interest in percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures has increased in recent years together with its safety and efficacy. In fragile patients, procedural sedation and analgesia are used to perform most of the procedures. General anesthesia remains the technique of choice during the team learning curve and might be required in selected patients or in emergent situations. Despite the high costs of percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures, the decrease in length of hospital stay, rate of intensive care admission and complications, balance the increase in devices costs. In fragile patients who undergo percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures, the primary role of the anesthesiologist is to prevent the need forpostprocedural intensive care unit and complications rate. Starting from the experience of a large university third level hospital we identified the eight most commonly performed contemporary percutaneous high tech cardiac procedures (ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, protected percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, MitraClip®, percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure, left atrial appendage closure, and dysfunctional lead extraction), discuss the role of procedural sedation and analgesia in this setting, and explore future perspectives.

6.
J Crit Care ; 58: 89-95, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Perioperative myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently in cardiac surgery, and is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Levosimendan has been suggested to reduce mortality of patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction. However, long-term outcome data on its efficacy in cardiac surgery are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac surgery patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction were randomized to levosimendan or placebo, in addition to standard inotropic care. One-year mortality data were collected. RESULTS: We randomized 506 patients (248 to levosimendan 258 to placebo). At 1-year follow-up, 41 patients (16.5%) died in the levosimendan group, while 47 (18.3%) died in the placebo group (absolute risk difference -1.8; 95% CI -8.4 to 4.9; P = .60). Female sex, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous myocardial infarction, serum creatinine, hematocrit, mean arterial pressure, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass were independently associated with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan administration does not improve 1-year survival in cardiac surgery patients with perioperative myocardial dysfunction. One-year mortality in these patients is 17%. Six predictive factors for long-term mortality were identified. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00994825 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

7.
Crit Care Med ; 48(7): 1047-1054, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of the application of therapeutic hypothermia (32-35°C) on survival and major clinical endpoints in critically ill patients. DATA SOURCES: We searched online database and clinical trial registries dated up to April 30, 2019, and references of relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Low risk of bias randomized trials which compared hypothermia applied for at least 24 hours and conventional therapy in critically ill patients were included. We excluded trials investigating therapeutic hypothermia in indications already supported by international guidelines (adult cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborns) or intraoperative hypothermia. DATA EXTRACTION: Titles and abstracts were reviewed independently by two authors. If the articles seemed eligible, full-text articles were reviewed, and data were abstracted using a structured template. DATA SYNTHESIS: Our search retained 14 low risk of bias randomized trials (2,670 patients) performed in three different settings: traumatic brain injury, serious infections, and stroke. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with an increase in mortality at longest follow-up available (432/1,375 [31%] vs 330/1,295 [25%]; risk ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; p = 0.0004; I = 0%). Pooled results showed no difference of good neurologic outcome among survivors between the two treatment arms (493/1,142 [43%] vs 486/1,067 [46%]; risk ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12; p = 0.27; I = 1%). Arrhythmias were significantly increased among patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. We found no difference between groups in pneumonia, serious infections, any infection, hemorrhage, renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, and uncontrollable intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality randomized evidence indicates that therapeutic hypothermia is associated with higher mortality and no difference in good neurologic outcome compared with normothermia in critically ill patients. Although there still might be a possibility that therapeutic hypothermia is beneficial in a specific setting, routine application of therapeutic hypothermia would better be avoided outside the settings indicated by international guidelines (adult cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborns).

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist on the effect of dexmedetomidine on delirium. For the present study, a randomized trial was performed to investigate the effect of perioperative dexmedetomidine on the rate of postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (n = 169) undergoing elective cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, valve surgery, or combined surgery) with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received a sevoflurane-based general anesthesia and were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive a dexmedetomidine infusion that started in the operating room (0.7 µg/kg/h) and continued into the intensive care unit (0.4 µg/kg/h) or an equivolume infusion of placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A decrease in the rate of delirium in the dexmedetomidine group compared with the placebo group was demonstrated (6 of 84 [7.1%] v 16 of 85 [18.8%]; p = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] 0.33 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.12-0.90]). Reduced intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay also were observed (18 [18-22] hours v 22 [18-39] hours; p = 0.002 and 17 [7-20] days v 19 [8-21] days; p = 0.04, respectively). Mortality at 30 days was 2 (2.4%) in both groups. On multivariate analysis, only dexmedetomidine administration (OR 0.24 [95% CI 0.08-0.74]) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03] for increases of 1 min) were independent predictors of delirium development. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine administered during and after general anesthesia for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass decreased the rate of postoperative delirium and intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1622-1635, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276758

RESUMO

SEPARATION from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after cardiac surgery is a progressive transition from full mechanical circulatory and respiratory support to spontaneous mechanical activity of the lungs and heart. During the separation phase, measurements of cardiac performance with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provide the rationale behind the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process. In many cases, it is possible to predict a complex separation from CPB, such as when there is known preoperative left or right ventricular dysfunction, bleeding, hypovolemia, vasoplegia, pulmonary hypertension, or owing to technical complications related to the surgery. Prompt diagnosis and therapeutic decisions regarding mechanical or pharmacologic support have to be made within a few minutes. In fact, a complex separation from CPB if not adequately treated leads to a poor outcome in the vast majority of cases. Unfortunately, no specific criteria defining complex separation from CPB and no management guidelines for these patients currently exist. Taking into account the above considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe the most common scenarios associated with a complex CPB separation and to suggest strategies, pharmacologic agents, and para-corporeal mechanical devices that can be adopted to manage patients with complex separation from CPB. The routine management strategies of complex CPB separation of 17 large cardiac centers from 14 countries in 5 continents will also be described.

10.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020168, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525216

RESUMO

Background and aim of the work The effect of tobacco smoking on COVID-19 disease is debated with common sense and experts suggesting a deleterious effect and manuscripts worldwide reporting a low prevalence of active tobacco smokers among intensive care unit patients. Methods We categorized countries worldwide into three groups with <25%; 25-45%; >45% of active male smokers with data expressed as median and interquartile range [IQR] and extracted data on SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 deaths per million inhabitants. We also applied multivariate regression techniques to adjust for several epidemiological factors. Results COVID-19 mortality was 13 (5-24) per million inhabitants in countries with male smokers >45% and 33 (4-133) in countries where male smokers were <25%. SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were 436 (217-954) and 1139 (302-4084) with data confirmed when dividing data for each continent and when controlling for confounding factors. Conclusions We found a counterintuitive low COVID-19 mortality and SARS-CoV-2 infection in countries with high prevalence of male smokers at the global level and within each continent, suggesting that active smoking habit is protective. Further research should urgently investigate which is the possible mechanism of action.

11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Internet , Mortalidade/tendências
12.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
13.
N. Engl. j. med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
14.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Simendana/administração & dosagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1063645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/métodos , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade
18.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 2080-2085, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the release of plasma nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to assess the relationship between nuclear DNA level and acute kidney injury occurrence in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. SETTING: Cardiovascular anesthesiology and intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care university hospital. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Nuclear DNA concentration was measured in the plasma. The relationship between the level of nuclear DNA and the incidence of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting was investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cardiac surgery leads to significant increase in plasma nuclear DNA with peak levels 12 hours after surgery (median [interquartile range] 7.0 [9.6-22.5] µg/mL). No difference was observed between off-pump and on-pump surgical techniques. Nuclear DNA was the only predictor of acute kidney injury between baseline and early postoperative risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The authors found an increase of nuclear DNA in the plasma of patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, with a peak after 12 hours and an association of nuclear DNA with postoperative acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , DNA/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless, small randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whether volatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable. DESIGN: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n=10,600) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetic as part of the anesthetic plan, or total intravenous anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point of the study will be one-year mortality (any cause). Secondary endpoints will be 30-day mortality; 30-day death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint); cardiac mortality at 30day and at one year; incidence of hospital re-admission during the one year follow-up period and duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The sample size is based on the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics will reduce 1-year unadjusted mortality from 3% to 2%, using a two-sided alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will determine whether the simple intervention of adding a volatile anesthetic, an intervention that can be implemented by all anesthesiologists, can improve one-year survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Volatilização
20.
N Engl J Med ; 376(21): 2021-2031, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute left ventricular dysfunction is a major complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. Meta-analyses of small trials suggest that levosimendan may result in a higher rate of survival among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients in whom perioperative hemodynamic support was indicated after cardiac surgery, according to prespecified criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (in a continuous infusion at a dose of 0.025 to 0.2 µg per kilogram of body weight per minute) or placebo, for up to 48 hours or until discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), in addition to standard care. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The trial was stopped for futility after 506 patients were enrolled. A total of 248 patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 258 to receive placebo. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality between the levosimendan group and the placebo group (32 patients [12.9%] and 33 patients [12.8%], respectively; absolute risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.7 to 5.9; P=0.97). There were no significant differences between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in the durations of mechanical ventilation (median, 19 hours and 21 hours, respectively; median difference, -2 hours; 95% CI, -5 to 1; P=0.48), ICU stay (median, 72 hours and 84 hours, respectively; median difference, -12 hours; 95% CI, -21 to 2; P=0.09), and hospital stay (median, 14 days and 14 days, respectively; median difference, 0 days; 95% CI, -1 to 2; P=0.39). There was no significant difference between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in rates of hypotension or cardiac arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who required perioperative hemodynamic support after cardiac surgery, low-dose levosimendan in addition to standard care did not result in lower 30-day mortality than placebo. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; CHEETAH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00994825 .).


Assuntos
Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial , Simendana , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Falha de Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA