Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 61
Filtrar
1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We characterised the phenotypic consequence of genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus and compared findings with recent trials of pharmacological inhibitors of PCSK9. METHODS: Published and individual participant level data (300,000+ participants) were combined to construct a weighted PCSK9 gene-centric score (GS). Seventeen randomized placebo controlled PCSK9 inhibitor trials were included, providing data on 79,578 participants. Results were scaled to a one mmol/L lower LDL-C concentration. RESULTS: The PCSK9 GS (comprising 4 SNPs) associations with plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels were consistent in direction with treatment effects. The GS odds ratio (OR) for myocardial infarction (MI) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.42; 0.68), compared to a PCSK9 inhibitor effect of 0.90 (95% CI 0.86; 0.93). For ischemic stroke ORs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.57; 1.22) for the GS, compared to 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.93) in the drug trials. ORs with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 1.29 (95% CI 1.11; 1.50) for the GS, as compared to 1.00 (95% CI 0.96; 1.04) for incident T2DM in PCSK9 inhibitor trials. No genetic associations were observed for cancer, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or Alzheimer's disease - outcomes for which large-scale trial data were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus recapitulates the effects of therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 on major blood lipid fractions and MI. While indicating an increased risk of T2DM, no other possible safety concerns were shown; although precision was moderate.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495604

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, but the evidence from individual case-control studies remains inconclusive. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed, followed by standardized multistage data extraction, quality control, and meta-analyses on eligible data for brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Results were compared with miRNAs reported in the abstracts of eligible studies or recent qualitative reviews to assess novelty. RESULTS: Data from 147 independent data sets across 107 publications were quantitatively assessed in 461 meta-analyses. Twenty-five, five, and 32 miRNAs showed studywide significant differential expression (α < 1·08 × 10-4) in brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood-derived specimens, respectively, with 5 miRNAs showing differential expression in both brain and blood. Of these 57 miRNAs, 13 had not been reported in the abstracts of previous original or review articles. DISCUSSION: Our systematic assessment of differential miRNA expression is the first of its kind in Alzheimer's disease and highlights several miRNAs of potential relevance.

3.
Neurology ; 93(15): e1412-e1424, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine causal associations between risky behavior phenotypes and Parkinson disease using a mendelian randomization approach. METHODS: We used 2-sample mendelian randomization to generate unconfounded estimates using summary statistics from 2 independent, large meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies on risk-taking behaviors (n = 370,771-939,908) and Parkinson disease (cases n = 9,581, controls n = 33,245). We used the inverse variance weighted method as the main method for judging causality. RESULTS: Our results support a strong protective association between the tendency to smoke and Parkinson disease (odds ratio [OR] 0.714 per log odds of ever smoking, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.568-0.897, p = 0.0041, Cochran Q test p = 0.238; I 2 index 6.3%). Furthermore, we observed risk association trends between automobile speed propensity and the number of sexual partners and Parkinson disease after removal of overlapping loci with other risky traits (OR 1.986 for each 1-SD increase in normalized automobile speed propensity, 95% CI 1.215-3.243, p = 0.0066; OR 1.635 for each 1-SD increase in number of sexual partners, 95% CI 1.165-2.293, p = 0.0049). CONCLUSION: These findings provide support for a causal relationship between general risk tolerance and Parkinson disease and may provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the development of Parkinson disease.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 85(6): 835-851, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated (dys)regulation of gene expression has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), although results of miRNA expression studies remain inconclusive. We aimed to identify miRNAs that show consistent differential expression across all published expression studies in PD. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on miRNA expression studies in PD and extracted data from eligible publications. After stratification for brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived specimen, we performed meta-analyses across miRNAs assessed in three or more independent data sets. Meta-analyses were performed using effect-size- and p-value-based methods, as applicable. RESULTS: After screening 599 publications, we identified 47 data sets eligible for meta-analysis. On these, we performed 160 meta-analyses on miRNAs quantified in brain (n = 125), blood (n = 31), or CSF (n = 4). Twenty-one meta-analyses were performed using effect sizes. We identified 13 significantly (Bonferroni-adjusted α = 3.13 × 10-4 ) differentially expressed miRNAs in brain (n = 3) and blood (n = 10) with consistent effect directions across studies. The most compelling findings were with hsa-miR-132-3p (p = 6.37 × 10-5 ), hsa-miR-497-5p (p = 1.35 × 10-4 ), and hsa-miR-133b (p = 1.90 × 10-4 ) in brain and with hsa-miR-221-3p (p = 4.49 × 10-35 ), hsa-miR-214-3p (p = 2.00 × 10-34 ), and hsa-miR-29c-3p (p = 3.00 × 10-12 ) in blood. No significant signals were found in CSF. Analyses of genome-wide association study data for target genes of brain miRNAs showed significant association (α = 9.40 × 10-5 ) of genetic variants in nine loci. INTERPRETATION: We identified several miRNAs that showed highly significant differential expression in PD. Future studies may assess the possible role of the identified brain miRNAs in pathogenesis and disease progression as well as the potential of the top blood miRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis, progression, or prediction of PD. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:835-851.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
Mov Disord ; 34(1): 133-137, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD. METHODS: We searched for variants either within genes listed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature or rare homozygous variants in novel candidate genes. Further, exome data from 1148 European PD patients (International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium) were used for association testing. RESULTS: Seven patients (14%) carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in Parkin, PLA2G6, or GBA. In addition, rare missense variants in DNAJC13:p.R1830C and in PPM1K:p.Y352C were detected. SPG7:p.A510V and PPM1K:p.Y352C revealed significant association with PD risk (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although we identified pathogenic variants in 14% of our early-onset PD patients, the majority remain unexplained, and novel candidates need to be validated independently to better further evaluate their role in PD. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

7.
Mov Disord ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357936

RESUMO

This comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the three autosomal-dominant PD forms: PARK-SNCA, PARK-LRRK2, and PARK-VPS35. It follows MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol, screened a total of 2,972 citations, and is based on fully curated phenotypic and genotypic data on 937 patients with dominantly inherited PD attributed to 44 different mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, or VPS35. All of these data are also available in an easily searchable online database (www.mdsgene.org), which additionally provides descriptive summary statistics on phenotypic and genetic data. Despite the high degree of missingness of phenotypic features and unsystematic reporting of genotype data in the original literature, the present review recapitulates many of the previously described findings including later onset of disease (median age at onset: ∼49 years) compared to recessive forms of PD of an overall excellent treatment response. Our systematic review validates previous reports showing that SNCA mutation carriers have a younger age at onset compared to LRRK2 and VPS35 (P < 0.001). SNCA mutation carriers often have additional psychiatric symptoms, and although not exclusive to only LRRK2 or VPS35 mutation carriers, LRRK2 mutation carriers have a typical form of PD, and, lastly, VPS35 mutation carriers have good response to l-dopa.

8.
J Autoimmun ; 94: 83-89, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143393

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of genetic risk loci for autoimmune diseases. However, the functional variants underlying these disease associations remain largely unknown. There is evidence that microRNA-mediated regulation may play an important role in this context. Therefore, we assessed whether autoimmune disease loci unfold their effects via altering microRNA expression in relevant immune cells. To this end, we performed comprehensive data integration of many large and publicly available datasets to combine information on autoimmune disease risk loci with RNA-Seq-based microRNA expression data. Specifically, we carried out microRNA expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses across 115 GWAS regions associated with 12 autoimmune diseases using next-generation sequencing data of 345 lymphoblastoid cell lines. Statistical analyses included the application and extension of a recently proposed framework (joint likelihood mapping) to microRNA expression data and microRNA target gene enrichment analyses of relevant GWAS data. Overall, only a minority of autoimmune disease risk loci may exert their pathophysiologic effects by altering microRNA expression based on JLIM. However, detailed functional fine-mapping revealed two independent GWAS regions harboring autoimmune disease risk SNPs with significant effects on microRNA expression. These relate to SNPs associated with Crohn's disease (CD; rs102275) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; rs968567), which affect the expression of miR-1908-5p (prs102275 = 1.44e-20, prs968567 = 2.54e-14). In addition, an independent CD risk SNP, rs3853824, was found to alter the expression of miR-3614-5p (p = 5.70e-7). To support these findings, we demonstrate that GWAS signals for RA and CD were enriched in genes predicted to be targeted by both microRNAs (all with p < 0.05). In summary, our study points towards a potential pathophysiological role of miR-1908-5p and miR-3614-5p in autoimmunity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dystonia is a genetically complex disease with both monogenic and polygenic causes. For the latter, numerous genetic associations studies have been performed with largely inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to perform a field synopsis including systematic meta-analyses of genetic association studies in isolated dystonia. METHODS: For the field synopsis we systematically screened and scrutinized the published literature using NCBI's PubMed database. For genetic variants with sufficient information in at least two independent datasets, random-effects meta-analyses were performed, including meta-analyses stratified by ethnic descent and dystonia subtypes. RESULTS: A total of 3575 articles were identified and scrutinized resulting in the inclusion of 42 independent publications allowing 134 meta-analyses on 45 variants across 17 genes. While our meta-analyses pinpointed several association signals with variants in TOR1A, DRD1, and ARSG, no single variant displayed compelling association with dystonia in the available data. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an up-to-date summary of the status of dystonia genetic association studies. Additional large-scale studies are needed to better understand the genetic causes of isolated dystonia.

10.
Mov Disord ; 33(5): 730-741, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644727

RESUMO

This first comprehensive MDSGene review is devoted to the 3 autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease forms: PARK-Parkin, PARK-PINK1, and PARK-DJ1. It followed MDSGene's standardized data extraction protocol and screened a total of 3652 citations and is based on fully curated phenotypic and genotypic data on >1100 patients with recessively inherited PD because of 221 different disease-causing mutations in Parkin, PINK1, or DJ1. All these data are also available in an easily searchable online database (www.mdsgene.org), which also provides descriptive summary statistics on phenotypic and genetic data. Despite the high degree of missingness of phenotypic features and unsystematic reporting of genotype data in the original literature, the present review recapitulates many of the previously described findings including early onset (median age at onset of ∼30 years for carriers of at least 2 mutations in any of the 3 genes) of an overall clinically typical form of PD with excellent treatment response, dystonia and dyskinesia being relatively common and cognitive decline relatively uncommon. However, when comparing actual data with common expert knowledge in previously published reviews, we detected several discrepancies. We conclude that systematic reporting of phenotypes is a pressing need in light of increasingly available molecular genetic testing and the emergence of first gene-specific therapies entering clinical trials. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

11.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518763541, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows substantial inter-individual variability. The underlying determinants of disease severity likely involve genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of APOE and HLA polymorphisms as well as smoking and body mass index (BMI) in the very early MS course. METHODS: Untreated patients ( n = 263) with a recent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS or clinically isolated syndrome underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Genotyping was performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3135388 tagging the HLA-DRB1*15:01 haplotype and rs7412 (Ɛ2) and rs429358 (Ɛ4) in APOE. Linear regression analyses were applied based on the three SNPs, smoking and BMI as exposures and MRI surrogate markers for disease severity as outcomes. RESULTS: Current smoking was associated with reduced gray matter fraction, lower brain parenchymal fraction and increased cerebrospinal fluid fraction in comparison to non-smoking, whereas no effect was observed on white matter fraction. BMI and the SNPs in HLA and APOE were not associated with structural MRI parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking may have an unfavorable effect on the gray matter fraction as a potential measure of MS severity already in early MS. These findings may impact patients' counseling upon initial diagnosis of MS.

12.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(3): 360-366, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340614

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic factors have a well-known influence on Parkinson disease (PD) susceptibility. The largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 26 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PD risk. Among patients, the course and severity of symptom progression is variable, and little is known about the potential association of genetic factors with phenotypic variance. Objective: To assess whether GWAS-identified PD risk SNPs also have a cumulative association with the progression of cognitive and motor symptoms in patients with PD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal population-based cohort study of 285 patients of European ancestry with incident PD genotyped 23 GWAS SNPs. One hundred ninety-nine patients were followed up for a mean (SD) of 5.3 (2.1) years for progression (baseline: June 1, 2001, through November 31, 2007; follow-up: June 1, 2007, through August 31, 2013, with mortality surveillance through December 31, 2016); 57 patients had died or were too ill for follow-up, and 29 withdrew or could not be contacted. Movement disorder specialists repeatedly assessed PD symptom progression. Main Outcomes Measures: The combined association of PD risk loci, after creating a weighted polygenic risk score (PRS), with cognitive decline, motor progression, and survival, relying on Cox proportional hazards regression models and inverse probability weights to account for censoring. Results: Of the 285 patients undergoing genotyping, 160 were men (56.1%) and 125 were women (43.9%); the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 69.1 (10.4) years. The weighted PRS was associated with significantly faster cognitive decline, measured by change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00-2.07). The PRS was also associated with faster motor decline, measured by time to Hoehn & Yahr Scale stage 3 (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.79) and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III score (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.01). Conclusions and Relevance: Susceptibility SNPs for PD combined with a cumulative PRS were associated with faster motor and cognitive decline in patients. Thus, these genetic markers may be associated with not only PD susceptibility but also disease progression in multiple domains.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 82(5): 655-664, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory response plays an important role in Parkinson disease (PD). Previous studies have reported an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and the risk of PD. There has also been growing interest in investigating whether inflammation-related genes interact with environmental factors such as smoking to influence PD risk. We performed a pooled analysis of the interaction between HLA-DRB1 and smoking in PD in 3 population-based case-control studies from Denmark and France. METHODS: We included 2,056 cases and 2,723 controls from 3 PD studies (Denmark, France) that obtained information on smoking through interviews. Genotyping of the rs660895 polymorphism in the HLA-DRB1 region was based on saliva or blood DNA samples. To assess interactions, we used logistic regression with product terms between rs660895 and smoking. We performed random-effects meta-analysis of marginal associations and interactions. RESULTS: Both carrying rs660895-G (AG vs AA: odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; GG vs AA: OR = 0.56; p-trend = 0.003) and ever smoking (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001) were inversely associated with PD. A multiplicative interaction was observed between rs660895 and smoking using codominant, additive (interaction parameter = 1.37, p = 0.005), and dominant (interaction parameter = 1.54, p = 0.001) genetic models without any heterogeneity (I² = 0.0%); the inverse association of rs660895-(AG+GG) with PD seen in never smokers (OR = 0.64, p < 0.001) disappeared among ever smokers (OR = 1.00, p = 0.99). Similar interactions were observed when we investigated light and heavy smokers separately. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides the first evidence that smoking modifies the previously reported inverse association of rs660895-G with PD, and suggests that smoking and HLA-DRB1 are involved in common pathways, possibly related to neuroinflammation. Ann Neurol 2017;82:655-664.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fumar/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Acta Diabetol ; 54(11): 1031-1038, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866807

RESUMO

AIMS: Inverse relationships have been described between the largely genetically determined levels of serum/plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], type 2 diabetes (T2D) and fasting insulin. Here, we aimed to evaluate the nature of these relationships with respect to causality. METHODS: We tested whether we could replicate the recent negative findings on causality between Lp(a) and T2D by employing the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach using cross-sectional data from three independent cohorts, Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II; n = 2012), LIFE-Adult (n = 3281) and LIFE-Heart (n = 2816). Next, we explored another frequently discussed hypothesis in this context: Increasing insulin levels during the course of T2D disease development inhibits hepatic Lp(a) synthesis and thereby might explain the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association. We used two fasting insulin-associated variants, rs780094 and rs10195252, as instrumental variables in MR analysis of n = 4937 individuals from BASE-II and LIFE-Adult. We further investigated causality of the association between fasting insulin and Lp(a) by combined MR analysis of 12 additional SNPs in LIFE-Adult. RESULTS: While an Lp(a)-T2D association was observed in the combined analysis (meta-effect of OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.87-0.96] per quintile, p = 1.3x10-4), we found no evidence of causality in the Lp(a)-T2D association (p = 0.29, fixed effect model) when using the variant rs10455872 as the instrumental variable in the MR analyses. Likewise, no evidence of a causal effect of insulin on Lp(a) levels was found. CONCLUSIONS: While these results await confirmation in larger cohorts, the nature of the inverse Lp(a)-T2D association remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas A/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Cell Probes ; 30(6): 386-396, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27818248

RESUMO

Almost two decades after the identification of SNCA as the first causative gene in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the subsequent understanding that genetic factors play a substantial role in PD development, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying this disease has vastly improved. Approximately 5-10% of patients suffer from a monogenic form of PD where autosomal dominant mutations in SNCA, LRRK2, and VPS35 and autosomal recessive mutations in PINK1, DJ-1, and Parkin cause the disease with high penetrance. Furthermore, recent whole-exome sequencing have described autosomal recessive DNAJC6 mutations in predominately atypical, but also cases with typical PD. In addition, several other genes have been linked to atypical Parkinsonian phenotypes. However, the vast majority of PD is genetically complex, i.e. it is caused by the combined action of common genetic variants in concert with environmental factors. By the application of genome-wide association studies, 26 PD risk loci have been established to date. Similar to other genetically complex diseases, these show only moderate effects on PD risk. Increasing this etiologic complexity, many of the involved genetic and environmental risk factors likely interact in an intricate fashion. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge in PD genetics.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
17.
Environ Res ; 151: 713-720, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27640071

RESUMO

Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1ß). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94µg/m3 increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 32: 25-30, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic factors and environmental exposures, including pesticides, contribute to the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). There have been few studies of gene and pesticide exposure interactions in PD, and all of the prior studies used a candidate gene approach. METHODS: We performed the first genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis of pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease. Analyses were performed using data on >700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 364 discordant sibling pairs. In addition to testing for SNP-pesticide interaction effects, we also performed exploratory analyses of gene-pesticide interactions at the gene level. RESULTS: None of the gene-environment interaction results were significant after genome-wide correction for multiple testing (α = 1.5E-07 for SNP-level tests; α = 2.1E-06 for gene-level tests). Top results in the SNP-level tests provided suggestive evidence (P < 5.0E-06) that the effect of pesticide exposure on PD risk may be modified by SNPs in the ERCC6L2 gene (P = 2.4E-06), which was also supported by suggestive evidence in the gene-level analysis (P = 4.7E-05). None of the candidate genes assessed in prior studies of gene-pesticide interactions reached statistical support in this genome-wide screen. CONCLUSION: Although no significant interactions were identified, several of the genes with suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction effects have biological plausibility for PD risk. Further investigation of the role of those genes in PD risk, particularly in the context of pesticide exposure, in large and carefully recruited samples is warranted.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética/genética , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Idoso , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(7): 2073-9, 2016 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194806

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prevalent neurological disease of complex etiology. Here, we describe the characterization of a multi-incident MS family that nominated a rare missense variant (p.G420D) in plasminogen (PLG) as a putative genetic risk factor for MS. Genotyping of PLG p.G420D (rs139071351) in 2160 MS patients, and 886 controls from Canada, identified 10 additional probands, two sporadic patients and one control with the variant. Segregation in families harboring the rs139071351 variant, identified p.G420D in 26 out of 30 family members diagnosed with MS, 14 unaffected parents, and 12 out of 30 family members not diagnosed with disease. Despite considerably reduced penetrance, linkage analysis supports cosegregation of PLG p.G420D and disease. Genotyping of PLG p.G420D in 14446 patients, and 8797 controls from Canada, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, and Austria failed to identify significant association with disease (P = 0.117), despite an overall higher prevalence in patients (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 0.93-1.87). To assess whether additional rare variants have an effect on MS risk, we sequenced PLG in 293 probands, and genotyped all rare variants in cases and controls. This analysis identified nine rare missense variants, and although three of them were exclusively observed in MS patients, segregation does not support pathogenicity. PLG is a plausible biological candidate for MS owing to its involvement in immune system response, blood-brain barrier permeability, and myelin degradation. Moreover, components of its activation cascade have been shown to present increased activity or expression in MS patients compared to controls; further studies are needed to clarify whether PLG is involved in MS susceptibility.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/química , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Plasminogênio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Linhagem , Fatores de Risco , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA