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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445634

RESUMO

Cannabinoids have been reported as orexigenic, i.e., as promoting food intake that, among others, is controlled by the so-called "hunger" hormone, ghrelin. The aim of this paper was to look for functional and/or molecular interactions between ghrelin GHSR1a and cannabinoid CB2 receptors at the central nervous system (CNS) level. In a heterologous system we identified CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes with a particular heteromer print consisting of impairment of CB2 receptor/Gi-mediated signaling. The blockade was due to allosteric interactions within the heteromeric complex as it was reverted by antagonists of the GHSR1a receptor. Cannabinoids acting on the CB2 receptor did not affect cytosolic increases of calcium ions induced by ghrelin acting on the GHSR1a receptor. In situ proximity ligation imaging assays confirmed the expression of CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes in both heterologous cells and primary striatal neurons. We tested heteromer expression in neurons from offspring of high-fat-diet mouse mothers as they have more risk to be obese. Interestingly, there was a marked upregulation of those complexes in striatal neurons from siblings of pregnant female mice under a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Grelina/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
2.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066933

RESUMO

Neuronal survival depends on the glia, that is, on the astroglial and microglial support. Neurons die and microglia are activated not only in neurodegenerative diseases but also in physiological aging. Activated microglia, once considered harmful, express two main phenotypes: the pro-inflammatory or M1, and the neuroprotective or M2. When neuroinflammation, i.e., microglial activation occurs, it is important to achieve a good M1/M2 balance, i.e., at some point M1 microglia must be skewed into M2 cells to impede chronic inflammation and to afford neuronal survival. G protein-coupled receptors in general and adenosine receptors in particular are potential targets for increasing the number of M2 cells. This article describes the mechanisms underlying microglial activation and analyzes whether these cells exposed to a first damaging event may be ready to be preconditioned to better react to exposure to more damaging events. Adenosine receptors are relevant due to their participation in preconditioning. They can also be overexpressed in activated microglial cells. The potential of adenosine receptors and complexes formed by adenosine receptors and cannabinoids as therapeutic targets to provide microglia-mediated neuroprotection is here discussed.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803075

RESUMO

Methamphetamine is, worldwide, one of the most consumed drugs of abuse. One important side effect is neurodegeneration leading to a decrease in life expectancy. The aim of this paper was to check whether the drug affects one of the receptors involved in neurodegeneration/neuroprotection events, namely the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). First, we noticed that methamphetamine does not affect A2A functionality if the receptor is expressed in a heterologous system. However, A2AR becomes sensitive to the drug upon complexes formation with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) and the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R). Signaling via both adenosine A2AR and cannabinoid CB1R was affected by methamphetamine in cells co-expressing the two receptors. In striatal primary cultures, the A2AR-CB1R heteromer complex was detected and methamphetamine not only altered its expression but completely blocked the A2AR- and the CB1R-mediated activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, methamphetamine, with the participation of σ1R, alters the expression and function of two interacting receptors, A2AR, which is a therapeutic target for neuroprotection, and CB1R, which is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in the brain.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
4.
Addict Biol ; 26(5): e13017, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559278

RESUMO

Cocaine not only increases brain dopamine levels but also activates the sigma1 receptor (σ1 R) that in turn regulates orexigenic receptor function. Identification of interactions involving dopamine D1 (D1 R), ghrelin (GHS-R1a ), and σ1 receptors have been addressed by biophysical techniques and a complementation approach using interfering peptides. The effect of cocaine on receptor functionality was assayed by measuring second messenger, cAMP and Ca2+ , levels. The effect of acute or chronic cocaine administration on receptor complex expression was assayed by in situ proximity ligation assay. In silico procedures were used for molecular model building. σ1 R KO mice were used for confirming involvement of this receptor. Upon identification of protomer interaction and receptor functionality, a unique structural model for the macromolecular complex formed by σ1 R, D1 R, and GHS-R1a is proposed. The functionality of the complex, able to couple to both Gs and Gq proteins, is affected by cocaine binding to the σ1 R, as confirmed using samples from σ1 R-/- mice. The expression of the macromolecular complex was differentially affected upon acute and chronic cocaine administration to rats. The constructed 3D model is consistent with biochemical, biophysical, and available structural data. The σ1 R, D1 R, and GHS-R1a complex constitutes a functional unit that is altered upon cocaine binding to the σ1 R. Remarkably, the heteromer can simultaneously couple to two G proteins, thus allowing dopamine to signal via Ca2+ and ghrelin via cAMP. The anorexic action of cocaine is mediated by such complex whose expression is higher after acute than after chronic administration regimens.

5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(8): 3957-3968, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580270

RESUMO

Adenosine is one of the most ancient signaling molecules and has receptors in both animals and plants. In mammals there are four specific receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, which belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years indicates that GPCRs are often expressed as oligomeric complexes formed by a number of equal (homomers) or different (heteromers) receptors. This review presents the data showing the occurrence of heteromers formed by A1 and A2A, A2A and A2B, and A2A and A3 receptors highlighting (i) their tetrameric structural arrangements, and (ii) the functional diversity that those heteromers provide to adenosinergic signaling.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/química , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339432

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane peptidase and a component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has been found in cells of all organs, including the lungs. While ACE2 has been identified as the receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses, the mechanism underlying cell entry remains unknown. Human immunodeficiency virus infects target cells via CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, CXCR4 interacts with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26/DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves CXCL12/SDF-1, which is the chemokine that activates this receptor. By analogy, we hypothesized that ACE2 might also be capable of interactions with RAS-associated G-protein coupled receptors. Using resonance energy transfer and cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling assays, we found that human ACE2 interacts with RAS-related receptors, namely the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), and the MAS1 oncogene receptor (MasR). Although these interactions lead to minor alterations of signal transduction, ligand binding to AT1R and AT2R, but not to MasR, resulted in the upregulation of ACE2 cell surface expression. Proximity ligation assays performed in situ revealed macromolecular complexes containing ACE2 and AT1R, AT2R or MasR in adult but not fetal mouse lung tissue. These findings highlight the relevance of RAS in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of ACE2-containing complexes as potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709103

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to check the possible interaction of two of the four purinergic P1 receptors, the A2A and the A3. Discovery of the A2A-A3 receptor complex was achieved by means of immunocytochemistry and of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. The functional properties and heteromer print identification were addressed by combining binding and signaling assays. The physiological role of the novel heteromer is to provide a differential signaling depending on the pre-coupling to signal transduction components and/or on the concentration of the endogenous agonist. The main feature was that the heteromeric context led to a marked decrease of the signaling originating at A3 receptors. Interestingly from a therapeutic point of view, A2A receptor antagonists overrode the blockade, thus allowing A3 receptor-mediated signaling. The A2A-A3 receptor heteromer print was detected in primary cortical neurons. These and previous results suggest that all four adenosine receptors may interact with each other. Therefore, each adenosine receptor could form heteromers with distinct properties, expanding the signaling outputs derived from the binding of adenosine to its cognate receptors.


Assuntos
Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A3 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/análise , Receptor A3 de Adenosina/análise , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357548

RESUMO

(1) Background. N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) ionotropic glutamate receptor (NMDAR), which is one of the main targets to combat Alzheimer's disease (AD), is expressed in both neurons and glial cells. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is a target in neurodegeneration, may affect NMDAR functionality. (2) Methods. Immuno-histo/cytochemical, biophysical, biochemical and signaling assays were performed in a heterologous cell expression system and in primary cultures of neurons and microglia (resting and activated) from control and the APPSw,Ind transgenic mice. (3) Results. On the one hand, NMDA and A2A receptors were able to physically interact forming complexes, mainly in microglia. Furthermore, the amount of complexes was markedly enhanced in activated microglia. On the other hand, the interaction resulted in a novel functional entity that displayed a cross-antagonism, that could be useful to prevent the exacerbation of NMDAR function by using A2AR antagonists. Interestingly, the amount of complexes was markedly higher in the hippocampal cells from the APPSw,Ind than from the control mice. In neurons, the number of complexes was lesser, probably due to NMDAR not interacting with the A2AR. However, the activation of the A2AR receptors resulted in higher NMDAR functionality in neurons, probably by indirect mechanisms. (4) Conclusions. A2AR antagonists such as istradefylline, which is already approved for Parkinson's disease (Nouriast® in Japan and Nourianz® in the US), have potential to afford neuroprotection in AD in a synergistic-like fashion. i.e., via both neurons and microglia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/metabolismo , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , N-Metilaspartato/farmacologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104940, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent approved medicines whose active principles are Δ9Tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) open novel perspectives for other phytocannabinoids also present in Cannabis sativa L. varieties. Furthermore, solid data on the potential benefits of acidic and varinic phytocannabinoids in a variety of diseases are already available. Mode of action of cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabigerivarin (CBGV) is, to the very least, partial. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors, which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, are important mediators of the action of those cannabinoids. Pure CBG, CBDA, CBGA, CBDV and CBGV from Cannabis sativa L. are differentially acting on CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors. STUDY DESIGN: Determination of the affinity of phytocannabinoids for cannabinoid receptors and functional assessment of effects promoted by these compounds when interacting with cannabinoid receptors. METHODS: A heterologous system expressing the human versions of CB1 and/or CB2 receptors was used. Binding to membranes was measured using radioligands and binding to living cells using a homogenous time resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (HTRF) assay. Four different functional outputs were assayed: determination of cAMP levels and of extracellular-signal-related-kinase phosphorylation, label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) and ß-arrestin recruitment. RESULTS: Affinity of cannabinoids depend on the ligand of reference and may be different in membranes and in living cells. All tested phytocannabinoids have agonist-like behavior but behaved as inverse-agonists in the presence of selective receptor agonists. CBGV displayed enhanced potency in many of the functional outputs. However, the most interesting result was a biased signaling that correlated with differential affinity, i.e. the overall results suggest that the binding mode of each ligand leads to specific receptor conformations underlying biased signaling outputs. CONCLUSION: Results here reported and the recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of CB1 and CB2 receptors help understanding the mechanism of action that might be protective and the molecular drug-receptor interactions underlying biased signaling.

10.
Glia ; 67(12): 2410-2423, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429130

RESUMO

Neuroprotective M2-skewed microglia appear as promising to alter the course of neurodegenerative diseases and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are potential targets to achieve such microglial polarization. A common feature of adenosine A2A (A2A R) and cannabinoid CB2 (CB2 R) GPCRs in microglia is that their expression is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the one hand, CB2 R seems a target for neuroprotection, delaying neurodegenerative processes like those associated to AD or Parkinson's diseases. A2A R antagonists reduce amyloid burden and improve cognitive performance and memory in AD animal models. We here show a close interrelationship between these two receptors in microglia; they are able to physically interact and affect the signaling of each other, likely due to conformational changes within the A2A -CB2 receptor heteromer (A2A -CB2 Het). Particularly relevant is the upregulation of A2A -CB2 Het expression in samples from the APPSw ,Ind AD transgenic mice model. The most relevant finding, confirmed in both heterologous cells and in primary cultures of microglia, was that blockade of A2A receptors results in increased CB2 R-mediated signaling. This heteromer-specific feature suggests that A2A R antagonists would potentiate, via microglia, the neuroprotective action of endocannabinoids with implications for AD therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Neuropharmacology ; 152: 102-111, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465812

RESUMO

Stress is one of the factors underlying drug seeking behavior that often goes in parallel with loss of appetite. We here demonstrate that orexin 1 receptors (OX1R) may form complexes with the corticotropin releasing factor CRF2 receptor. Two specific features of the heteromer were a cross-antagonism and a blockade by CRF2 of OX1R signaling. In cells expressing one of the receptors, agonist-mediated signal transduction mechanisms were potentiated by amphetamine. Sigma 1 (σ1) and 2 (σ2) receptors are targets of drugs of abuse and, despite sharing a similar name, the two receptors are structurally unrelated and their physiological role is not known. We here show that σ1 receptors interact with CRF2 receptors and that σ2 receptors interact with OX1R. Moreover, we show that amphetamine effect on CRF2 receptors was mediated by σ1R whereas the effect on OX1 receptors was mediated by σ2R. Amphetamine did potentiate the negative cross-talk occurring within the CRF2-OX1 receptor heteromer context, likely by a macromolecular complex involving the two sigma receptors and the two GPCRs. Finally, in vivo microdialysis experiments showed that amphetamine potentiated orexin A-induced dopamine and glutamate release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Remarkably, the in vivo orexin A effects were blocked by a selective CRF2R antagonist. These results show that amphetamine impacts on the OX1R-, CRF2R- and OX1R/CRF2R-mediated signaling and that cross-antagonism is instrumental for in vivo detection of GPCR heteromers. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Receptor heteromers and their allosteric receptor-receptor interactions'.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/farmacologia , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk/fisiologia , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Orexina/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 157: 148-158, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194918

RESUMO

Currently, biased agonism is at the center stage of drug development approaches. We analyzed effects of a battery of cannabinoids plus/minus cannabidiol (CBD) in four functional parameters (cAMP levels, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), ß-arrestin recruitment and label-free/DMR) in HEK-293T cells expressing cannabinoid receptors, CB1 or CB2, or CB1-CB2 heteroreceptor complexes. In all cases two natural agonists plus two selective synthetic agonists were used. Furthermore, the effect of cannabidiol, at a dose (100 nM) that does not allow significant binding to the orthosteric center of either receptor, was measured. From the huge amount of generated data, we would like to highlight that the two psychotropic molecules (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC and CP-55940) showed similar bias in CB1R and that the bias of THC was particularly relevant toward MAPK pathway. Furthermore, THC did not activate the Gi protein coupled to CB2R. Interestingly, the biased agonism was reduced when assays were performed in cells expressing the two receptors, thus suggesting that the heteromer allows less functional selectivity. In terms of cannabidiol action, the phytocannabinoid altered the functional responses, likely by allosteric means, and modified potency, agonist IC50/EC50 values and biased agonism in qualitative and/or quantitative different ways depending on the agonist. The effect of cannabidiol on anandamide actions on both cannabinoid receptors was particularly noteworthy as was significantly different from that of other compounds. Results are a compendium of data on biased agonism on cannabinoid receptors in the absence and presence of cannabidiol. In addition, for the first time, GPCR biased agonism is characterized in an heteromeric context.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/farmacologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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