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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445634

RESUMO

Cannabinoids have been reported as orexigenic, i.e., as promoting food intake that, among others, is controlled by the so-called "hunger" hormone, ghrelin. The aim of this paper was to look for functional and/or molecular interactions between ghrelin GHSR1a and cannabinoid CB2 receptors at the central nervous system (CNS) level. In a heterologous system we identified CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes with a particular heteromer print consisting of impairment of CB2 receptor/Gi-mediated signaling. The blockade was due to allosteric interactions within the heteromeric complex as it was reverted by antagonists of the GHSR1a receptor. Cannabinoids acting on the CB2 receptor did not affect cytosolic increases of calcium ions induced by ghrelin acting on the GHSR1a receptor. In situ proximity ligation imaging assays confirmed the expression of CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes in both heterologous cells and primary striatal neurons. We tested heteromer expression in neurons from offspring of high-fat-diet mouse mothers as they have more risk to be obese. Interestingly, there was a marked upregulation of those complexes in striatal neurons from siblings of pregnant female mice under a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Grelina/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803075

RESUMO

Methamphetamine is, worldwide, one of the most consumed drugs of abuse. One important side effect is neurodegeneration leading to a decrease in life expectancy. The aim of this paper was to check whether the drug affects one of the receptors involved in neurodegeneration/neuroprotection events, namely the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). First, we noticed that methamphetamine does not affect A2A functionality if the receptor is expressed in a heterologous system. However, A2AR becomes sensitive to the drug upon complexes formation with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) and the sigma 1 receptor (σ1R). Signaling via both adenosine A2AR and cannabinoid CB1R was affected by methamphetamine in cells co-expressing the two receptors. In striatal primary cultures, the A2AR-CB1R heteromer complex was detected and methamphetamine not only altered its expression but completely blocked the A2AR- and the CB1R-mediated activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, methamphetamine, with the participation of σ1R, alters the expression and function of two interacting receptors, A2AR, which is a therapeutic target for neuroprotection, and CB1R, which is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in the brain.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor A2 de Adenosina/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores sigma/metabolismo , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
3.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(7): 1507-1523, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The enzyme α/ß-hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6), a new member of the endocannabinoid system, is a promising therapeutic target against neuronal-related diseases. However, how ABHD6 activity is regulated is not known. ABHD6 coexists in protein complexes with the brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C). CPT1C is involved in neuro-metabolic functions, depending on brain malonyl-CoA levels. Our aim was to study CPT1C-ABHD6 interaction and determine whether CPT1C is a key regulator of ABHD6 activity depending on nutritional status. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Co-immunoprecipitation and FRET assays were used to explore ABHD6 interaction with CPT1C or modified malonyl-CoA-insensitive or C-terminal truncated CPT1C forms. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated signalling was investigated by determining cAMP levels. A novel highly sensitive fluorescent method was optimized to measure ABHD6 activity in non-neuronal and neuronal cells and in brain tissues from wild-type (WT) and CPT1C-KO mice. KEY RESULTS: CPT1C interacted with ABHD6 and negatively regulated its hydrolase activity, thereby regulating 2-AG downstream signalling. Accordingly, brain tissues of CPT1C-KO mice showed increased ABHD6 activity. CPT1C malonyl-CoA sensing was key to the regulatory role on ABHD6 activity and CB1 receptor signalling. Fasting, which attenuates brain malonyl-CoA, significantly increased ABHD6 activity in hypothalamus from WT, but not CPT1C-KO, mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our finding that negative regulation of ABHD6 activity, particularly in the hypothalamus, is sensitive to nutritional status throws new light on the characterization and the importance of the proteins involved as potential targets against diseases affecting the CNS.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Hidrolases , Malonil Coenzima A , Camundongos
4.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(2): 998-1016, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474655

RESUMO

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) not only plays an important role in controlling blood pressure but also participates in almost every process to maintain homeostasis in mammals. Interest has recently increased because SARS viruses use one RAS component (ACE2) as a target-cell receptor. The occurrence of RAS in the basal ganglia suggests that the system may be targeted to improve the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. RAS-related data led to the hypothesis that RAS receptors may interact with each other. The aim of this paper was to find heteromers formed by Mas and angiotensin receptors and to address their functionality in neurons and microglia. Novel interactions were discovered by using resonance energy transfer techniques. The functionality of individual and interacting receptors was assayed by measuring levels of the second messengers cAMP and Ca2+ in transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293T) and primary cultures of striatal cells. Receptor complex expression was assayed by in situ proximity ligation assay. Functionality and expression were assayed in parallel in primary cultures of microglia treated or not with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proximity ligation assay was used to assess heteromer expression in parkinsonian and dyskinetic conditions. Complexes formed by Mas and the angiotensin AT1 or AT2 receptors were identified in both a heterologous expression system and in neural primary cultures. In the heterologous system, we showed that the three receptors-MasR, AT1R, and AT2R-can interact to form heterotrimers. The expression of receptor dimers (AT1R-MasR or AT2R-MasR) was higher in microglia than in neurons and was differentially affected upon microglial activation with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ. In all cases, agonist-induced signaling was reduced upon coactivation, and in some cases just by coexpression. Also, the blockade of signaling of two receptors in a complex by the action of a given (selective) receptor antagonist (cross-antagonism) was often observed. Differential expression of the complexes was observed in the striatum under parkinsonian conditions and especially in animals rendered dyskinetic by levodopa treatment. The negative modulation of calcium mobilization (mediated by AT1R activation), the multiplicity of possibilities on RAS affecting the MAPK pathway, and the disbalanced expression of heteromers in dyskinesia yield new insight into the operation of the RAS system, how it becomes unbalanced, and how a disbalanced RAS can be rebalanced. Furthermore, RAS components in activated microglia warrant attention in drug-development approaches to address neurodegeneration.

5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1264: 81-92, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332005

RESUMO

Three prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's are in need of symptomatic relief of slowing disease progression or both. This chapter focuses on the potential of cannabinoids to afford neuroprotection, i.e. avoid or retard neuronal death. The neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids is known from the work in animal models and is mediated by the two cannabinoid receptors (CB1/CB2) and eventually, by their heteromers, GPR55, orphan receptors (GPR3/GPR6/GPR12/GPR18), or PPARγ. Now, there is the time to translate the findings into patients. The chapter takes primarily into account advances since 2016 and addresses the issue of proving neuroprotection in humans. One recent discovery is the existence of activated microglia with neuroprotective phenotype; cannabinoids are good candidates to skew phenotype, especially via glial CB2 receptors (CB2R), whose targeting has, a priori, less side effects those targeting the CBs1 receptor (CB1R), which are expressed in both neurons and glia. The fact that a cannabis extract (SativexTM) is approved for human therapy, such that cannabis use will likely be legalized in many countries and different possibilities that cannabinoid pharmacology suggests a successful route of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) all the way to be approved and used in the treatment of neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos
6.
Neurobiol Dis ; 146: 105122, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007388

RESUMO

Mutations in NR2E3 cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) in humans. This gene produces a large isoform encoded in 8 exons and a previously unreported shorter isoform of 7 exons, whose function is unknown. We generated two mouse models by targeting exon 8 of Nr2e3 using CRISPR/Cas9-D10A nickase. Allele Δ27 is an in-frame deletion of 27 bp that ablates the dimerization domain H10, whereas allele ΔE8 (full deletion of exon 8) produces only the short isoform, which lacks the C-terminal part of the ligand binding domain (LBD) that encodes both H10 and the AF2 domain involved in the Nr2e3 repressor activity. The Δ27 mutant shows developmental alterations and a non-progressive electrophysiological dysfunction that resembles the ESCS phenotype. The ΔE8 mutant exhibits progressive retinal degeneration, as occurs in human RP patients. Our mutants suggest a role for Nr2e3 as a cone-patterning regulator and provide valuable models for studying mechanisms of NR2E3-associated retinal dystrophies and evaluating potential therapies.

7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 225(7): 2153-2164, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691218

RESUMO

Endocannabinoids are neuromodulators acting on specific cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), representing potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. Cannabinoids also regulate the activity of GPR55, a recently "deorphanized" GPCR that directly interacts with CB1 and with CB2 receptors. Our hypothesis is that these heteromers may be taken as potential targets for Parkinson's disease (PD). This work aims at assessing the expression of heteromers made of GPR55 and CB1/CB2 receptors in the striatum of control and parkinsonian macaques (with and without levodopa-induced dyskinesia). For this purpose, double blind in situ proximity ligation assays, enabling the detection of GPCR heteromers in tissue samples, were performed in striatal sections of control, MPTP-treated and MPTP-treated animals rendered dyskinetic by chronic treatment with levodopa. Image analysis and statistical assessment were performed using dedicated software. We have previously demonstrated the formation of heteromers between GPR55 and CB1 receptor (CB1-GPR55_Hets), which is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), but also with the CB2 receptor (CB2-GPR55_Hets). Compared to the baseline expression of CB1-GPR55_Hets in control animals, our results showed increased expression levels in basal ganglia input nuclei of MPTP-treated animals. These observed increases in CB1-GPR55_Hets returned back to baseline levels upon chronic treatment with levodopa in dyskinetic animals. Obtained data regarding CB2-GPR55_Hets were quite similar, with somehow equivalent amounts in control and dyskinetic animals, and with increased expression levels in MPTP animals. Taken together, the detected increased expression of GPR55-endocannabinoid heteromers appoints these GPCR complexes as potential non-dopaminergic targets for PD therapy.

8.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1475(1): 34-42, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594556

RESUMO

The cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1 R) is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the central nervous system, consistent with the important role of endocannabinoids as neuromodulators. Cannabinoids also modulate the function of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), which forms heteroreceptor complexes with the CB1 R in the striatum. The aim was to characterize cannabinoid CB1 R-GPR55 heteromers (CB1 R/GPR55Hets) in the basal ganglia input nuclei of nonhuman primates, Macaca fascicularis, both in projection neurons and interneurons, by the in situ proximity ligation assay. Striatal projecting neurons were identified by the retrograde neuroanatomical tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), injected into external or internal subdivisions of the globus pallidus. Triple immunofluorescent stains were carried out to visualize (1) BDA-labeled neurons, (2) CB1 R/GPR55Hets, and (3) striatal interneurons positive for choline acetyltransferase, parvalbumin, calretinin, or nitric oxide synthase. CB1 R/GPR55Hets were identified within both types of projection neurons as well as all interneurons except those that are cholinergic. Moreover, CB1 R/GPR55Hets were found specifically in the neuronal cell surface, and also in intracellular membranes. Further research efforts will be needed to confirm the intracellular occurrence of heteromers and their potential as therapeutic targets in diseases related to motor control imbalances, particularly within a parkinsonian context (with or without levodopa-induced dyskinesia).


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino
9.
Cells ; 9(1)2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experiments in the late nineties showed an inverse relationship in the eye levels of melatonin and dopamine, thereby constituting an example of eye parameters that are prone to circadian variations. The underlying mechanisms are not known but these relevant molecules act via specific cell surface dopamine and melatonin receptors. This study investigated whether these receptors formed heteromers whose function impact on eye physiology. We performed biophysical assays to identify interactions in heterologous systems. Particular heteromer functionality was detected using Gi coupling, MAPK activation, and label-free assays. The expression of the heteroreceptor complexes was assessed using proximity ligation assays in cells producing the aqueous humor and human eye samples. Dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) were identified in eye ciliary body epithelial cells. We discovered heteromers formed by D3R and either MT1 (MT1R) or MT2 (MT2R) melatonin receptors. Heteromerization led to the blockade of D3R-Gi coupling and regulation of signaling to the MAPK pathway. Heteromer expression was negatively correlated with intraocular hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Heteromers likely mediate melatonin and dopamine actions in structures regulating intraocular pressure. Significant expression of D3R-MT1R and D3R-MT1R was associated with normotensive conditions, whereas expression diminished in a cell model of hypertension. A clear trend of expression reduction was observed in samples from glaucoma cases. The trend was marked but no statistical analysis was possible as the number of available eyes was 2.


Assuntos
Corpo Ciliar/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Glaucoma/patologia , Hipertensão Ocular/patologia , Receptor MT1 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipertensão Ocular/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica
10.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 273, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233307

RESUMO

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) respond to glutamate to allow the influx of calcium ions and the signaling to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Both MAPK- and Ca2+-mediated events are important for both neurotransmission and neural cell function and fate. Using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that NMDAR may interact with the EF-hand calcium-binding proteins calmodulin, calneuron-1, and NCS1 but not with caldendrin. NMDARs were present in primary cultures of both neurons and microglia from cortex and hippocampus. Calmodulin in microglia, and calmodulin and NCS1 in neurons, are necessary for NMDA-induced MAP kinase pathway activation. Remarkably, signaling to the MAP kinase pathway was blunted in primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons and microglia from wild-type animals by proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases: α-synuclein, Tau, and p-Tau. A similar blockade by pathogenic proteins was found using samples from the APPSw,Ind transgenic Alzheimer's disease model. Interestingly, a very marked increase in NMDAR-NCS1 complexes was identified in neurons and a marked increase of both NMDAR-NCS1 and NMDAR-CaM complexes was identified in microglia from the transgenic mice. The results show that α-synuclein, Tau, and p-Tau disrupt the signaling of NMDAR to the MAPK pathway and that calcium sensors are important for NMDAR function both in neurons and microglia. Finally, it should be noted that the expression of receptor-calcium sensor complexes, specially those involving NCS1, is altered in neural cells from APPSw,Ind mouse embryos/pups.

11.
Biomol Concepts ; 9(1): 143-154, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864350

RESUMO

Functional selectivity is a property of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by which activation by different agonists leads to different signal transduction mechanisms. This phenomenon is also known as biased agonism and has attracted the interest of drug discovery programs in both academy and industry. This relatively recent concept has raised concerns as to the validity and real translational value of the results showing bias; firstly biased agonism may vary significantly depending on the cell type and the experimental constraints, secondly the conformational landscape that leads to biased agonism has not been defined. Remarkably, GPCRs may lead to differential signaling even when a single agonist is used. Here we present a concept that constitutes a biochemical property of GPCRs that may be underscored just using one agonist, preferably the endogenous agonist. "Biased receptor functionality" is proposed to describe this effect with examples based on receptor heteromerization and alternative splicing. Examples of regulation of final agonist-induced outputs based on interaction with ß-arrestins or calcium sensors are also provided. Each of the functional GPCR units (which are finite in number) has a specific conformation. Binding of agonist to a specific conformation, i.e. GPCR activation, is sensitive to the kinetics of the agonist-receptor interactions. All these players are involved in the contrasting outputs obtained when different agonists are assayed.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Viés , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química
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