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Am J Bot ; 103(6): 1129-37, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27335389


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Heterotrophic angiosperms tend to have reduced plastome sizes relative to those of their autotrophic relatives because genes that code for proteins involved in photosynthesis are lost. However, some plastid-encoded proteins may have vital nonphotosynthetic functions, and the plastome therefore may be retained after the loss of photosynthesis. METHODS: We sequenced the plastome of the mycoheterotrophic species Thismia tentaculata and a representative of its sister genus, Tacca chantrieri, using next-generation technology, and we compared sequences and structures of genes and genomes of these species. KEY RESULTS: The plastome of Tacca chantrieri is similar to those of other autotrophic taxa of Dioscoreaceae, except in a few local rearrangements and one gene loss. The plastome of Thismia tentaculata is ca. 16 kbp long with a quadripartite structure and is among the smallest known plastomes. Synteny is minimal between the plastomes of Tacca chantrieri and Thismia tentaculata. The latter includes only 12 candidate genes, with all except accD involved in protein synthesis. Of the 12 genes, trnE, trnfM, and accD are frequently among the few that remain in depauperate plastomes. CONCLUSIONS: The plastome of Thismia tentaculata, like those of most other heterotrophic plants, includes a small number of genes previously suggested to be essential to plastome survival.

Processos Autotróficos/genética , Dioscoreaceae/genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Genomas de Plastídeos , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hong Kong , Nucleotídeos/genética , Transcrição Genética
New Phytol ; 209(2): 855-70, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350789


Despite progress based on multilocus, phylogenetic studies of the palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae), uncertainty remains in resolution/support among major clades and for the placement of the palms among the commelinid monocots. Palms and related commelinids represent a classic case of substitution rate heterogeneity that has not been investigated in the genomic era. To address questions of relationships, support and rate variation among palms and commelinid relatives, 39 plastomes representing the palms and related family Dasypogonaceae were generated via genome skimming and integrated within a monocot-wide matrix for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses. Support was strong for 'deep' relationships among the commelinid orders, among the five palm subfamilies, and among tribes of the subfamily Coryphoideae. Additionally, there was extreme heterogeneity in the plastid substitution rates across the commelinid orders indicated by model based analyses, with c. 22 rate shifts, and significant departure from a global clock. To date, this study represents the most comprehensively sampled matrix of plastomes assembled for monocot angiosperms, providing genome-scale support for phylogenetic relationships of monocot angiosperms, and lays the phylogenetic groundwork for comparative analyses of the drivers and correlates of such drastic differences in substitution rates across a diverse and significant clade.

Arecaceae/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular , Magnoliopsida/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética