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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008151, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226021

RESUMO

Sporothrix chilensis is a mild-pathogenical specie of Sporothrix pallida complex, until now, known as restrict to Chile. Herein, we describe the first clinical isolates identified as S. chilensis in Brazil, preserved in the URM Culture Collection, by polyphasic taxonomy, and their respective antifungal profile of this emergent fungus.


Assuntos
Sporothrix/classificação , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Brasil , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sporothrix/genética , Sporothrix/fisiologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
2.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(4): 181-185, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191413

RESUMO

Background: Candidemia is a life-threatening fungal infection characterized by the presence of Candida in the blood. Aims: To describe the clinical-epidemiological features and main risk factors among patients with candidemia admitted to Intensive Care Unit. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective and observational study was performed between January 2015 and July 2016. Laboratory reports and medical records from ICU patients admitted to a public hospital in northeastern Brazil were analyzed. Results: There were 1573 admissions and 67 of them were positive for candidemia. The majority of patients were male (53.3%) and remained at the hospital for more than seven days (86.6%). Non-C. albicans Candida infections (60%) were predominant. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was prescribed in 98.4% of the cases. The most frequent underlying diseases were sepsis (73.3%), presence of solid tumors (15%), respiratory condition (60%), urinary tract disease (56.6%) and gastrointestinal tract diseases (23.3%). Surgeries were carried out on 43% of the patients, consisting of 23.3% abdominal surgeries, with a mortality rate of 92.8%. Risk factors were venous central access (93.3%), mechanical ventilation (81.6%), nasoenteral tube (83.3%), nasogastric tube (25%), indwelling bladder catheter (88.3%), diabetes mellitus (55%) and tracheostomy (36.6%). Statistical analysis correlated the use of indwelling bladder catheter with a higher mortality rate (r=0.07412, p=0.0353). Conclusions: The current study reveals the high case fatality rates among critically ill patients suffering from candidemia admitted to ICU. Herein, we highlight the importance of identifying non-C. albicans Candida species and reinforce the idea of carrying out epidemiological surveillances and antifungal susceptibility tests


Antecedentes: La candidemia es una infección potencialmente fatal caracterizada por la presencia de Candida en la sangre. Objetivos: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas y los principales factores de riesgo en pacientes con candidemia ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Métodos: Entre enero de 2015 y julio de 2016 se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal, retrospectivo y observacional en el que se analizaron los registros médicos e informes de laboratorio de pacientes de la UCI de un hospital público del noreste de Brasil. Resultados: Entre las 1.573 admisiones registradas hubo 67 diagnósticos de candidemia. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino (53,3%) y la permanencia en el hospital fue superior a siete días (86,6%). Las infecciones por especies de Candida no-C. albicans fueron el 60% de los casos. En el 98,4% de los casos se prescribió antibioterapia de amplio espectro. Las enfermedades de base más frecuentes fueron la sepsis (73,3%), la presencia de tumores sólidos (15%), las enfermedades respiratorias (60%), la enfermedad del tracto urinario (56,6%) y las enfermedades del tracto gastrointestinal (23,3%). Se realizaron cirugías en el 43% de los pacientes, siendo el 23,3% cirugías abdominales, con una tasa de mortalidad del 92,8%. Los factores de riesgo fueron la existencia de un acceso venoso central (93,3%), ventilación mecánica (81,6%), sonda nasoenteral (83,3%), sonda nasogástrica (25%), catéter vesical permanente (88,3%), diabetes mellitus (55%) y traqueostomía (36,6%). Los análisis estadísticos correlacionaron el uso del catéter urinario permanente con una mayor mortalidad (r=0,07412; p=0,0353). Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra las elevadas tasas de letalidad asociadas a pacientes con candidemia ingresados en la UCI. Destacamos la creciente importancia de identificar las especies de Candida diferentes de C. albicans, y reforzamos la idea de llevar a cabo una vigilancia epidemiológica y de realizar pruebas de sensibilidad a los antifúngicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/complicações , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 60: e75, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462798

RESUMO

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. These fungi are known to thrive in desert climate. Fungi produce infectious arthroconidia in soil, they are aerosolized in the air and when inhaled by humans, usually cause infections such as pneumonia. The first cases of coccidioidomycosis in Brazil were reported in 1978. Since then, there have been other reports mainly from desert regions of Northeastern Brazil. The present report describes three cases of coccidioidomycosis on male farmers from Serra Talhada county, Pernambuco State, who developed pneumonia and were subsequently diagnosed with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. These three farmers were successfully treated with oral fluconazole. They reported having hunted armadillos in a rural and arid area of Pernambuco State. Armadillos are known to be carriers of Coccidioides. This is the first report of infection caused by Coccidioides in Pernambuco State, Brazil.


Assuntos
Coccidioidomicose/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Tatus/microbiologia , Coccidioidomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidioidomicose/transmissão , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/transmissão , Masculino
4.
Biofouling ; 33(8): 640-650, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871863

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RIT) on Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon inkin. Susceptibility to RIT was assessed by the broth microdilution assay and the effect of RIT on protease activity was evaluated using azoalbumin as substrate. RIT was tested for its anti-biofilm properties and RIT-treated biofilms were assessed regarding protease activity, ultrastructure and matrix composition. In addition, antifungal susceptibility, surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation were evaluated after pre-incubation of planktonic cells with RIT for 15 days. RIT (200 µg ml-1) inhibited Trichosporon growth. RIT (100 µg ml-1) also reduced protease activity of planktonic and biofilm cells, decreased cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and altered the structure of the biofilm and the protein composition of the biofilm matrix. Pre-incubation with RIT (100 µg ml-1) increased the susceptibility to amphotericin B, and reduced surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion. These results highlight the importance of proteases as promising therapeutic targets and reinforce the antifungal potential of protease inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Trichosporon/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Medicamentosas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Plâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plâncton/metabolismo , Trichosporon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichosporon/metabolismo
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 660-663, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769617

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infections caused by emerging Cryptococcus non-neoformans species are being reported with increasingly frequency. Here, we present a case of fungaemia byCryptococcus laurentii in a woman receiving aggressive immunosuppressive therapy for cervical neoplasia. Three venous blood samples were aseptically collected on consecutive days and C. laurentiiwas isolated and identified through phenotypic and molecular methods. After central venous catheter removal and appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient showed significant improvement and blood culture became negative. Thus, patients following immunosuppressive therapies and using invasive medical devices are at risk of C. laurentii blood infections.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/complicações , Criptococose/microbiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/microbiologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/imunologia , Cryptococcus/genética , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Fungemia/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/microbiologia
6.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 19(6): 660-3, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26361842

RESUMO

Infections caused by emerging Cryptococcus non-neoformans species are being reported with increasingly frequency. Here, we present a case of fungaemia by Cryptococcus laurentii in a woman receiving aggressive immunosuppressive therapy for cervical neoplasia. Three venous blood samples were aseptically collected on consecutive days and C. laurentii was isolated and identified through phenotypic and molecular methods. After central venous catheter removal and appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient showed significant improvement and blood culture became negative. Thus, patients following immunosuppressive therapies and using invasive medical devices are at risk of C. laurentii blood infections.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/complicações , Criptococose/microbiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/microbiologia , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/imunologia , Cryptococcus/genética , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Fungemia/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/microbiologia
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 42(2): 188-91, 2009.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19448940

RESUMO

Yeast infections are common in immunocompromised patients, although emerging species have been changing the epidemiological profile. The ability to secrete proteinases has been associated with pathogenicity within the genus Candida. This study had the aims of diagnosing yeast infections in immunocompromised patients and evaluating the virulence of the etiological agents, based on a proteinase secretion assay using bovine serum albumin as a substrate. Out of a total of 104 patients studied, 19 presented episodes of yeast infection. The respiratory tract (63.2%), followed by the urinary tract (10.5%), were the most common sites of infection. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and emerging species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were isolated. Five isolates of Candida parapsilosis and one of Candida albicans and Candida guilliermondii exhibited high enzymatic activity. We conclude that enzymatic characterization of Candida isolates may be a useful prognostic marker, especially among immunocompromised individuals, since yeast infections in such patients are generally serious.


Assuntos
Candida/enzimologia , Candidíase/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Candida/classificação , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/imunologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Virulência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(2): 188-191, Mar.-Apr. 2009. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-512927

RESUMO

Infecções por leveduras são freqüentes em imunocomprometidos, contudo espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de secretar proteases tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos diagnosticar leveduroses em pacientes imunocomprometidos e avaliar a virulência dos agentes etiológicos baseado em teste de secreção de protease utilizando soro de albumina bovina como substrato. Do total de 104 pacientes estudados, 19 apresentaram episódios de leveduroses. O trato respiratório (63,2 por cento), seguido pelo trato urinário (10,5 por cento) foram os locais mais comuns de infecção. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis e espécies emergentes como Candida krusei e Candida guilliermondii foram isoladas. Cinco isolados de Candida parapsilosis e um de Candida albicans e Candida guilliermondii exibiram alta atividade enzimática. Concluímos que a caracterização enzimática de isolados de Candida pode ser um útil marcador prognóstico, especialmente em imunocomprometidos, uma vez que leveduroses nestes pacientes são geralmente graves.


Yeast infections are common in immunocompromised patients, although emerging species have been changing the epidemiological profile. The ability to secrete proteinases has been associated with pathogenicity within the genus Candida. This study had the aims of diagnosing yeast infections in immunocompromised patients and evaluating the virulence of the etiological agents, based on a proteinase secretion assay using bovine serum albumin as a substrate. Out of a total of 104 patients studied, 19 presented episodes of yeast infection. The respiratory tract (63.2 percent), followed by the urinary tract (10.5 percent), were the most common sites of infection. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and emerging species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were isolated. Five isolates of Candida parapsilosis and one of Candida albicans and Candida guilliermondii exhibited high enzymatic activity. We conclude that enzymatic characterization of Candida isolates may be a useful prognostic marker, especially among immunocompromised individuals, since yeast infections in such patients are generally serious.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Candida/enzimologia , Candidíase/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Candida/classificação , Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/imunologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Virulência , Adulto Jovem
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