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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705953

RESUMO

The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aves , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas , Estações do Ano
3.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510252

RESUMO

Understanding non-additive effects in the expression of quantitative traits is very important in genotype selection, especially in species where the commercial products are clones or hybrids. The use of molecular markers has allowed the study of non-additive genetic effects on a genomic level, in addition to a better understanding of its importance in quantitative traits. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the GBLUP model in different genetic models and relationship matrices and their influence on the estimates of genetic parameters. We used real data of the circumference at breast height in Eucalyptus spp and simulated data from a population of F2. Three commonly reported kinship structures in the literature were adopted. The simulation results showed that the inclusion of epistatic kinship improved prediction estimates of genomic breeding values. However, the non-additive effects were not accurately recovered. The Fisher information matrix for real dataset showed high collinearity in estimates of additive, dominant, and epistatic variance, causing no gain in the prediction of the unobserved data and convergence problems. Estimates presented differences of genetic parameters and correlations considering the different kinship structures. Our results show that the inclusion of non-additive effects can improve the predictive ability or even the prediction of additive effects. However, the high distortions observed in the variance estimates when the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumption is violated due to the presence of selection or inbreeding can converge at zero gains in models that consider epistasis in genomic kinship.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Epistasia Genética , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo
4.
Int J STD AIDS ; 23(4): 258-61, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22581949

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical samples of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women attending a clinic in south-eastern Brazil. Both viruses were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cytological exams were performed. AAV was typed by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. AAV prevalence was 19.7% (56/284), with 18.7% (21/112) and 20.3% (35/172) in HIV-positive and -negative women, respectively. AAV type 2 was the single virus type detected. AAV was detected with higher frequency in HPV-infected women (P < 0.05) as was HPV in HIV-positive women (P < 0.05). The AAV-HPV co-infected women showed a lower rate of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia development compared with those infected only with HPV. The prevalence of AAV2 confirms this type as the most common in human samples. This is the first report examining AAV in cervical samples of HIV-infected women and indicates that HIV infection does not appear to influence AAV prevalence or AAV-HPV co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Colo do Útero/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Dependovirus/classificação , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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