Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614760

RESUMO

Resistance training is often recommended for combined increases in traditional and alternative hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios in order to reduce knee strength imbalance and associated hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentric and eccentric resistance training programs on traditional and alternative H:Q ratios. Forty male volunteers were assigned to one of 4 groups: concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n = 10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n = 10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n = 10), or no training (control (CNTRL), n = 10). Traditional conventional (CR) and functional (FR), alternative rate of torque development (RTD), muscle size (MS), and muscle activation (MA) H:Q ratios were measured before and after six weeks of unilateral nondominant knee extension-flexion resistance training performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. The ECC/ECC training significantly increased FR (pre = 0.75 ± 0.11; post = 0.85 ± 0.15), whereas the lack of training (CNTRL) decreased the RTD H:Q ratio (pre = 1.10 ± 0.67; post = 0.73 ± 0.33). There were no differences between groups for the other traditional and alternative ratios following resistance training protocols. These findings suggest eccentric exercise for quadriceps and hamstrings as the most beneficial training program for inducing increases in the traditional FR. However, different resistance training strategies may be needed to also elicit increases in the alternative RTD, MS, and MA H:Q ratios for fully restoring muscle balance and reducing potential hamstrings and knee ligament injury risk.

2.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 779-788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487749

RESUMO

Static stretching (SS) can increase joint range of motion (ROM), due to neural, morphological, and physio-psychological factors. Periodized training programs (PD) (e. g., strength, power) are adopted to induce greater adaptations while avoiding overtraining. However, the effectiveness of periodized stretch training adaptations are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of periodized and non-periodized (NP) stretching programs on flexibility, hamstrings stiffness and muscle performance. Sixteen gymnasts were allocated to either periodized or non-periodized SS training and tested pre- and post-8 weeks for countermovement jump height, hip flexors, hip extensors and dorsiflexors ROM, hamstrings stiffness and hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque. Both stretch training groups significantly and similarly increased hip extensor (33.2%), hip flexor (25.2%), and dorsiflexor (23.8%) ROM, hamstrings peak torque (7.9%) and jump height (8.1%) from pre - to post- training. Both groups decreased hamstrings stiffness across the last ten angles (32.1%). PD elicited consistently large magnitude flexibility effect size changes compared to small and moderate magnitude changes for the non-periodized. Therefore, 8-week PD and NP SS programs can decrease young gymnasts' muscle-tendon stiffness and increase muscle performance. However, effect sizes indicate that PD stretch training was more advantageous to increasing flexibility and improving performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Criança , Elasticidade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque
3.
Sports Med Open ; 5(1): 11, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911856

RESUMO

The hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle strength ratio calculated by peak torque has been used as an important tool to detect muscle imbalance, monitor knee joint stability, describe muscle strength properties and functionality, and for lower extremity injury prevention and rehabilitation. However, this ratio does not consider other neuromuscular variables that can also influence the antagonist to agonist muscle relationship, such as torque produced at multiple angles of range of motion, explosive strength, muscle size, muscle fatigue, or muscle activation. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review alternative methods of determining the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio. These include ratios calculated by angle-specific torque, rate of torque development, muscle size, fatigue index, and muscle activation (measured by electromyography). Collectively, the literature demonstrates that utilizing alternative methods of determining the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio can be functionally relevant for a better understanding of the neuromuscular mechanisms underpinning the interaction of strength between hamstrings and quadriceps. However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the alternative methods as sensitive clinical tools for predicting injury risk and monitoring knee joint integrity. Future longitudinal studies, along with injury incidence, are needed to further investigate all alternative methods of determining the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio. These have potential to offer insight into how athletes and the general population should be trained for performance enhancement and injury reduction, and may be used along with traditional methods for a thorough assessment of an individual's H:Q muscle balance.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(6): 3663-3668, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744803

RESUMO

A SiO2-SO3H amorphous catalyst containing a small surface area of 115.0 m²g-1 and 1.32 mmol H+/g was prepared from fine construction sand and sodium carbonate and sulfonated with H2SO4. In a 10% (w/w) basis, it is very efficient for catalyzing the esterification of carboxylic acids with phenol. The reaction processes were performed using conventional heating and under microwave irradiation. The yields were higher in the microwave-irradiated esterification. The catalyst could be used for three esterification sequences in both processes.

5.
Int J Sports Phys Ther ; 13(5): 835-845, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276016

RESUMO

Background: Roller massagers are popular devices that are used to improve range of motion (ROM), enhance recovery from muscle soreness, and reduce pain under acute conditions. However, the effects of roller massage training and training frequency are unknown. Purpose: The objective was to compare two different roller massage training frequencies on muscle performance. Study Design: Randomized controlled intervention study. Methods: Twenty-three recreationally active university students were randomly allocated to three groups: control (n=8;), rolling three (3/W; n=8;) and six (6/W; n=7) times per week for four weeks. The roller massage training consisted of unilateral, dominant limb, quadriceps and hamstrings rolling (4 sets x 30 seconds). Both legs of participants were tested pre- and post-training for active and passive hamstrings and quadriceps range of motion (ROM), electromyography (EMG) activity during a lunge movement, unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), as well as quadriceps and hamstrings maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) forces and electromechanical delay. Finally, they were tested for pain pressure threshold at middle and distal segments of their quadriceps and hamstrings. Results: There were no significant training interactions for any measure with the exception that 3/W group exhibited 6.2% (p=0.03; Effect Size: 0.31) higher CMJ height from pre- (38.6 ± 7.1 cm) to post-testing (40.9 ± 8.1 cm) for the non-dominant limb. Conclusions: Whereas the literature has demonstrated acute responses to roller massage, the results of the present study demonstrate no consistent significant training-induced changes. The absence of change may highlight a lack of muscle and myofascial morphological or semi-permanent neurophysiological changes with rolling. Levels of Evidence: 2c.

6.
J Dance Med Sci ; 22(3): 160-167, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139422

RESUMO

Stretching, while enhancing joint flexibility, may also decrease the hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio, which is used to identify knee strength imbalances and lower extremity muscle and ligament injury risk in the practice of sports and other physical activities. Stretching may also decrease muscle force and jump performance. However, these effects may depend on the population in question and mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching (SS) and ballistic stretching (BS) on concentric H:Q ratio, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and SJ:CMJ ratio between ballet dancers and resistance trained women. Fifteen resistance trained women and 12 ballet dancers were tested over five sessions. The first visit consisted of demographic measurements and instruction in testing protocols (no stretching), while the other four involved SS or BS in a counterbalanced order. At each of these sessions, six stretching exercises were performed, three focusing on quadriceps and three on hamstrings, in counterbalanced order. Two way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare interactions between conditions and groups for H:Q and SJ:CMJ ratios. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in H:Q ratio after SS, but there were no significant differences in SJ:CMJ ratio or jump height between conditions (p > 0.001). However, the ballet group had greater SJ:CMJ ratios and SJ heights than the resistance trained group. These findings suggest that both ballet dancers and resistance trained women decrease H:Q ratio similarly after BS and SS. Long-duration stretching negatively impacts H:Q ratio in the short term, which may lead to greater hamstring to quadriceps imbalance regardless of training background.


Assuntos
Dança/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Heliyon ; 4(3): e00571, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862338

RESUMO

Two solvent free methods of a one-to-one alcohol/acid mol ratio synthesis of benzyl esters of the formic, acetic, benzoic, salicylic, nicotinic, and oxalic acids are described. The stoichiometric reactions used 1.5 mol ratio solid NbCl5 as the reagent and required from two to three hours for completion at room temperature; for the catalytic processes, NbCl5 was grafted directly, at room temperature, onto a silica gel of specific area of 507 m2g-1, produced from construction sand and sodium carbonate, forming a 5.4% Nb w/w SiO2-Nb gel with a specific area of 412 m2g-1. At 10% w/w catalyst/alcohol ratio, this SiO2-Nb catalyst gave similarly very good yields but required from 6 to 9 hours at the reflux temperature of the slurry. The catalyst could be re-used three times.

8.
Int J Sports Med ; 39(5): 355-365, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564846

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare three specific concentric and eccentric muscle action training protocols on quadriceps-hamstrings neuromuscular adaptations. Forty male volunteers performed 6 weeks of training (two sessions/week) of their dominant and non-dominant legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n=10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n=10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n=10), or no training (CTRL, n=10). Intensity of training was increased every week by decreasing the angular velocity for concentric and increasing it for eccentric groups in 30°/s increments. Volume of training was increased by adding one set every week. Dominant leg quadriceps and hamstrings muscle thickness, muscle quality, muscle activation, muscle coactivation, and electromechanical delay were tested before and after training. Results revealed that all training groups similarly increased MT of quadriceps and hamstrings compared to control (p<0.05). However, CON/ECC and ECC/ECC training elicited a greater magnitude of change. There were no significant differences between groups for all other neuromuscular variables (p>0.05). These findings suggest that different short-term muscle action isokinetic training protocols elicit similar muscle size increases in hamstrings and quadriceps, but not for other neuromuscular variables. Nevertheless, effect sizes indicate that CON/ECC and ECC/ECC may elicit the greatest magnitude of change in muscle hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Músculos Isquiotibiais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Isquiotibiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Quadríceps/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(8): 2154-2165, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704309

RESUMO

Ruas, CV, Brown, LE, Lima, CD, Costa, PB, and Pinto, RS. Effect of three different muscle action training protocols on knee strength ratios and performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(8): 2154-2165, 2018-Hamstring to quadriceps (H:Q) ratios are often used to assess strength imbalances. The aims of this study were to compare 3 different muscle action training protocols on H:Q strength balance and functional performance. Forty untrained men (age: 22.87 ± 2.28 years, mass: 70.66 ± 11.049 kg, ht: 174.29 ± 6.90 cm) performed 6 weeks of training on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstring (CON/CON), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstring (ECC/ECC), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstring (CON/ECC), or no training. Mixed Factor analyses of variance were used to compare interactions for variables pretest and posttest between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The ECC/ECC group showed significant increases in H:Q functional ratio (pre = 0.73 ± 0.092, post = 0.87 ± 0.098), ECC peak torque (PT) (pre = 226.44 ± 67.80 N·m, post = 331.74 ± 54.44 N·m), isometric PT (IPT) (pre = 173.69 ± 41.41 N·m, post = 203.091 ± 30.82 N·m), countermovement jump (CMJ) (pre = 52.73 ± 6.95 cm, post = 58.16 ± 6.10 cm), and drop jump (DJ) (pre = 52.91 ± 6.080 cm, post = 58.20 ± 7.72 cm), whereas the CON/CON group increased the rate of torque development (pre = 152.19 ± 65.0074 N·m·s, post = 225.26 ± 88.80 N·m·s). There were no differences between groups for CON PT, squat jump, conventional ratio or 40 m sprint. Our findings suggest that ECC/ECC training may be the most effective at increasing functional H:Q strength ratios, as well as ECC PT, IPT, CMJ, and DJ performance. Eccentric training increases ECC PT, thereby increasing the functional H:Q ratio. Eccentric training also improves vertical jumping involving ECC actions. CON/CON training may be more effective at increasing explosive muscle strength.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Torque , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Physiol ; 8: 423, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713281

RESUMO

Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral landings and propulsions associated with sprinting. Based on this meta-analysis, strength training should be incorporated prior to power training in order to establish an adequate foundation of strength for power training activities.

11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548798

RESUMO

Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Adulto , Dança/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA