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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 491-498, May 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011193

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The use of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED), such as the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), is increasing. The number of leads may vary according to the device. Lead placement in the left ventricle increases surgical time and may be associated with greater morbidity after hospital discharge, an event that is often confused with the underlying disease severity. Objective: To evaluate the rate of unscheduled emergency hospitalizations and death after implantable device surgery stratified by the type of device. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 199 patients submitted to cardiac device implantation. The groups were stratified according to the type of device: ICD group (n = 124) and CRT group (n = 75). Probability estimates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method according to the outcome. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant in the statistical analyses. Results: Most of the sample comprised male patients (71.9%), with a mean age of 61.1 ± 14.2. Left ventricular ejection fraction was similar between the groups (CRT 37.4 ± 18.1 vs. ICD 39.1 ± 17.0, p = 0.532). The rate of unscheduled visits to the emergency unit related to the device was 4.8% in the ICD group and 10.6% in the CRT group (p = 0.20). The probability of device-related survival of the variable "death" was different between the groups (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Patients after CRT implantation show a higher probability of mortality after surgery at a follow-up of less than 1 year. The rate of unscheduled hospital visits, related or not to the implant, does not differ between the groups.


Resumo Fundamento: O uso de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) como o cardiodesfibrilador (CDI) e terapia de ressincronização cardíaca (TRC) - é cada vez maior. O número de eletrodos de estimulação e desfibrilação varia de acordo com o dispositivo. A colocação do eletrodo no ventrículo esquerdo aumenta o tempo cirúrgico podendo associar-se a maior morbidade no acompanhamento após alta hospitalar, evento muitas vezes confundível com a gravidade da patologia base. Objetivo: Avaliar a taxa de internação não programada na emergência e óbito após cirurgia de dispositivos implantáveis estratificados pelo tipo de aparelho. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo analisando 199 pacientes submetidos à implante de dispositivos cardíacos. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com o tipo de dispositivo: CDI (n = 124) e TRC (n = 75). Estimativas de probabilidades foram analisadas pelo método de Kaplan-Meier de acordo com o desfecho. Valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo nas análises estatísticas. Resultados: A maioria da amostra era do sexo masculino (71,9%) - idade média de 61,1 ± 14,2. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi similar entre os grupos (TRC 37,4 ± 18,1 vs. CDI 39,1 ± 17,0; p = 0,532). A taxa de visita não programada na emergência relacionada ao dispositivo foi de 4,8% no grupo CDI e de 10,6% no grupo TRC (p = 0,20). A probabilidade de sobrevida relacionada ao dispositivo da variável "óbito" mostrou-se diferente entre os grupos (p = 0,008). Conclusões: Paciente após o implante de TRC apresenta maior probabilidade de mortalidade após o procedimento cirúrgico no seguimento menor que 1 ano. A taxa de visita hospitalar não programada, relacionadas ou não ao implante, não difere entre os grupos.

2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 112(5): 491-498, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED), such as the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), is increasing. The number of leads may vary according to the device. Lead placement in the left ventricle increases surgical time and may be associated with greater morbidity after hospital discharge, an event that is often confused with the underlying disease severity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of unscheduled emergency hospitalizations and death after implantable device surgery stratified by the type of device. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 199 patients submitted to cardiac device implantation. The groups were stratified according to the type of device: ICD group (n = 124) and CRT group (n = 75). Probability estimates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method according to the outcome. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Most of the sample comprised male patients (71.9%), with a mean age of 61.1 ± 14.2. Left ventricular ejection fraction was similar between the groups (CRT 37.4 ± 18.1 vs. ICD 39.1 ± 17.0, p = 0.532). The rate of unscheduled visits to the emergency unit related to the device was 4.8% in the ICD group and 10.6% in the CRT group (p = 0.20). The probability of device-related survival of the variable "death" was different between the groups (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Patients after CRT implantation show a higher probability of mortality after surgery at a follow-up of less than 1 year. The rate of unscheduled hospital visits, related or not to the implant, does not differ between the groups.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(1): 13-18, July 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950184

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Brugada syndrome (SBr) is an arrhythmic condition characterized by ST-T segment abnormalities in the right precordial leads associated with a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Local data regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with a typical electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern undergoing electrophysiological study are scarce. Objective: To evaluate patients with an ECG pattern suggestive of SBr referred for electrophysiological evaluation in a specialized center. Methods: Cohort study of patients referred for electrophysiological study because of an ECG pattern compatible with SBr between January 1998 and March 2017. Results: Of the 5506 procedures, 35 (0.64%) were for SBr investigation, 25 of which (71.42%) were performed in men. The mean age was 43.89 ± 13.1 years. The ECG patterns were as follows: type I, 22 (62.85%); type II, 12 (34.30%); and type III, 1 (2.85%). Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were asymptomatic, 6 (17.14%) had palpitations, 5 (14.3%) had syncope, and 3 (8.6%) had a family history of sudden death. Electrophysiological study induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 16 cases (45.7%), the mean ventricular refractory period being 228 ± 36 ms. Ajmaline / procainamide was used in 11 cases (31.4%), changing the ECG pattern to type I in 7 (63.6%). Sixteen cases (45.7%) received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In a mean 5-year follow-up, 1 of the 16 patients (6.25%) with ICD had appropriate therapy for ventricular fibrillation. There was no death. Other arrhythmias occurred in 4 (11.4%) cases. Conclusions: Most patients are men, and a type I ECG pattern is the main indication for electrophysiological study. Class IA drugs have a high ECG conversion rate. The ICD event rate was 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Resumo Fundamento: Síndrome de Brugada (SBr) é uma condição arrítmica definida por anormalidades do segmento ST-T em derivações V1-V3 associada a risco elevado de arritmias ventriculares e morte súbita. Dados locais quanto às características clínicas dos pacientes com padrão eletrocardiográfico (ECG) típico avaliados por estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF) são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes com padrão ECG sugestivo de SBr encaminhados para EEF em um centro especializado. Métodos: Estudo de coorte de casos encaminhados para EEF por padrão ECG compatível com SBr, entre janeiro de 1998 e março de 2017. Resultados: Dos 5506 procedimentos, 35 (0,64%) foram para investigação de SBr. Vinte e cinco (71,42%) eram homens. Idade média 43,89 ± 13,1 anos. Apresentação ECG foi tipo I em 22 casos (62,85%), tipo II em 12 (34,30%) e tipo III em 1 (2,85%). Vinte e três (65,7%) eram assintomáticos, 6 (17,14%) apresentavam palpitações, 5 (14,3%) síncope, 3 (8,6%) história familiar de morte súbita. Estudo eletrofisiológico induziu taquiarritmias ventriculares em 16 casos (45,7%), sendo o período refratário ventricular médio de 228 ± 36 ms. Utilizou-se ajmalina/procainamida em 11 casos (31,4%), sendo o padrão ECG transformado em tipo I em 7 (63,6%). Dezesseis casos (45,7%) receberam cardiodes fibrilador (CDI). Em seguimento médio de 5 anos, 1 dos 16 pacientes (6,25%) com CDI teve terapia apropriada para fibrilação ventricular. Nenhuma morte foi registrada. Outras arritmias ocorreram em 4 (11,4%) casos. Conclusões: Homens são maioria, sendo o padrão ECG tipo I a principal indicação de EEF. Droga classe IA possui alta taxa de conversão do padrão ECG. A taxa de eventos no CDI foi de 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(1): 13-18, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (SBr) is an arrhythmic condition characterized by ST-T segment abnormalities in the right precordial leads associated with a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Local data regarding the clinical characteristics of patients with a typical electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern undergoing electrophysiological study are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients with an ECG pattern suggestive of SBr referred for electrophysiological evaluation in a specialized center. METHODS: Cohort study of patients referred for electrophysiological study because of an ECG pattern compatible with SBr between January 1998 and March 2017. RESULTS: Of the 5506 procedures, 35 (0.64%) were for SBr investigation, 25 of which (71.42%) were performed in men. The mean age was 43.89 ± 13.1 years. The ECG patterns were as follows: type I, 22 (62.85%); type II, 12 (34.30%); and type III, 1 (2.85%). Twenty-three patients (65.7%) were asymptomatic, 6 (17.14%) had palpitations, 5 (14.3%) had syncope, and 3 (8.6%) had a family history of sudden death. Electrophysiological study induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 16 cases (45.7%), the mean ventricular refractory period being 228 ± 36 ms. Ajmaline / procainamide was used in 11 cases (31.4%), changing the ECG pattern to type I in 7 (63.6%). Sixteen cases (45.7%) received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In a mean 5-year follow-up, 1 of the 16 patients (6.25%) with ICD had appropriate therapy for ventricular fibrillation. There was no death. Other arrhythmias occurred in 4 (11.4%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients are men, and a type I ECG pattern is the main indication for electrophysiological study. Class IA drugs have a high ECG conversion rate. The ICD event rate was 6%. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2018; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/cirurgia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Síndrome de Brugada/complicações , Síndrome de Brugada/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Eletrofisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-913926

RESUMO

A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia mais frequentemente encontrada após cirurgia cardíaca. Embora geralmente autolimitada, representa um importante preditor de aumento de morbimortalidade e de custos aos sistemas de saúde. Numerosos estudos tentaram determinar os mecanismos associados à fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório com resultados variados. Uma fisiopatologia multifatorial é sugerida, sendo o processo inflamatório e a ativação simpática adrenérgica do período pós-operatório reconhecidos como importantes fatores de contribuição. O tratamento é dificultado pela escassez de dados relativos aos resultados de diferentes intervenções terapêuticas nessa população. Este artigo analisa a literatura cujo foco sejam as intervenções para prevenir a fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório


Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly found arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Although usually self-limiting, it represents an important predictor of increased patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the underlying mechanisms of postoperative atrial fibrillation with different results. A multifactorial pathophysiology is suggested, with inflammation and postoperative adrenergic activation recognized as important contributing factors. The management is complicated by a lack of data on the outcomes of different therapeutic interventions in this population. This article reviews the literature focusing on interventions to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Prevenção de Doenças , Período Pós-Operatório , Cirurgia Torácica/métodos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores de Risco , Sotalol/uso terapêutico
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(2): 151-156, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uninterrupted use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for electrophysiology procedures has been more and more recommended. The clinical practice in our service recommends the continuous use of these drugs for atrial flutter ablation. There is little evidence as to the uninterrupted use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this scenario. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of complications related with the uninterrupted use of different types of oral anticoagulants in patients referred to atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. METHODS: Historical, single-center cohort of ablation procedures by AFL conducted from November 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hemorrhagic or embolic complication during the procedure. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in follow-up. The statistical significance level was 5%. RESULTS: There were 288 ablations per AFL; 154 were carried out with the uninterrupted use of OAC (57.8% with VKA and 42.2% with NOAC). Mean age was 57 ± 13 years. The rate of hemorrhagic complication during the procedure was 3% in each group (p = NS). The rate of stroke/TIA was, respectively, of 56/1,000 people-year in the VKA group against zero/1,000 people-year in the NOAC group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In our population there were no hemorrhagic complications regarding the procedure of OAC use uninterruptedly, including NOACs. There was higher occurrence of stroke/TIA in the follow-up of the group of patients undergoing VKAs; however, this difference may not only be a result of the type of OAC used.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Flutter Atrial/complicações , Ablação por Cateter , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(2): 151-156, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888014

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The uninterrupted use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for electrophysiology procedures has been more and more recommended. The clinical practice in our service recommends the continuous use of these drugs for atrial flutter ablation. There is little evidence as to the uninterrupted use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this scenario. Objective: To compare the rates of complications related with the uninterrupted use of different types of oral anticoagulants in patients referred to atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. Methods: Historical, single-center cohort of ablation procedures by AFL conducted from November 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hemorrhagic or embolic complication during the procedure. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in follow-up. The statistical significance level was 5%. Results: There were 288 ablations per AFL; 154 were carried out with the uninterrupted use of OAC (57.8% with VKA and 42.2% with NOAC). Mean age was 57 ± 13 years. The rate of hemorrhagic complication during the procedure was 3% in each group (p = NS). The rate of stroke/TIA was, respectively, of 56/1,000 people-year in the VKA group against zero/1,000 people-year in the NOAC group (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In our population there were no hemorrhagic complications regarding the procedure of OAC use uninterruptedly, including NOACs. There was higher occurrence of stroke/TIA in the follow-up of the group of patients undergoing VKAs; however, this difference may not only be a result of the type of OAC used.


Resumo Fundamento: O uso ininterrupto de anticoagulação oral (ACO) com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) para procedimentos de eletrofisiologia está sendo cada vez mais recomendado. A prática clínica em nosso serviço é de uso continuado dessas drogas para ablação de flutter atrial. Existem poucas evidências quanto ao uso ininterrupto dos anticoagulantes orais não antagonistas da vitamina K (NOACs) nesse cenário. Objetivos: Comparar as taxas de complicações relacionadas ao uso ininterrupto de diferentes tipos de anticoagulantes orais em pacientes referidos para ablação por flutter atrial (FLA). Métodos: Coorte histórica e unicêntrica dos procedimentos de ablação por FLA realizados no período de novembro de 2012 a abril de 2016. O desfecho primário foi o de ocorrência de complicação hemorrágica ou embólica durante o procedimento. O desfecho secundário foi o de ocorrência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) ou acidente isquêmico transitório (AIT) no acompanhamento. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Foram incluídas 288 ablações por FLA; 154 foram feitas com uso ininterrupto de ACO (57,8% com AVK e 42,2% com NOAC). A idade média foi de 57 ± 13 anos. A taxa de complicação hemorrágica durante o procedimento foi de 3% em cada grupo (p = NS). A taxa de AVC/AIT foi, respectivamente, de 56/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo AVK contra zero/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo NOAC (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Em nossa população não ocorreram complicações hemorrágicas relacionadas ao procedimento com uso de ACO de forma ininterrupta, incluindo NOACs. Houve maior ocorrência de AVC/AIT no seguimento no grupo de pacientes em uso de AVK, contudo essa diferença pode não ser decorrente apenas do tipo de ACO em uso.

10.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(2 Suppl 1): 1-105, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26375058
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 3-10, July 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755003

RESUMO

Introduction:

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce.

Objective:

To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use.

Methods:

Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012.

Results:

We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%.

Conclusions:

The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for ...


Fundamento:

A fibrilação atrial e o flutter atrial são responsáveis por um terço das hospitalizações por arritmias, com impacto socioeconômico significativo. Os dados brasileiros a respeito desses atendimentos são escassos.

Objetivo:

Investigar o subtipo fibrilação atrial ou flutter em pacientes atendidos em emergência em virtude dessas arritmias e comparar os perfis de comorbidades, risco de eventos tromboembólicos e uso de anticoagulantes.

Métodos:

Estudo transversal retrospectivo, com coleta de dados de prontuário de todos os pacientes atendidos por flutter e fibrilação atrial na emergência do Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul no primeiro trimestre de 2012.

Resultados:

Foram incluídos 407 pacientes (356 com fibrilação atrial e 51 com flutter). Os pacientes com fibrilação atrial paroxística eram, em média, 5 anos mais jovens do que aqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente. Comparados àqueles com fibrilação atrial paroxística, os pacientes com fibrilação atrial persistente e flutter tinham maior diâmetro atrial (48,6 ± 7,2 vs. 47,2 ± 6,2 vs. 42,3 ± 6,4; p < 0,01) e menor fração de ejeção (66,8 ± 11 vs. 53,9 ± 17 vs. 57,4 ± 16; p < 0,01). A prevalência de acidente vascular cerebral e insuficiência cardíaca foi maior naqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente e flutter. Os pacientes com fibrilação atrial paroxística e flutter apresentavam mais frequentemente escore CHADS2 de zero em relação àqueles com fibrilação atrial persistente (27,8% vs. 18% vs. 4,9%; p < 0,01). A prevalência de anticoagulação nos pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-Vasc ≥ 2 foi de 40%.

Conclusão:

A população de nossa amostra teve características demográficas e perfil de comorbidades ...


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(1): 3-10, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26016782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. RESULTS: We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter). Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01). The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01). The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(1): 53-57, 01/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741138

RESUMO

Background: Radiofrequency ablation is the standard non-pharmacological treatment for arrhythmias in pediatric patients. However, arrhythmias and their associated causes have particular features in this population. Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and findings of electrophysiological diagnostic studies and radiofrequency ablations in pediatric patients referred to the Electrophysiology Unit at Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, in order to characterize the particularities of this population. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 330 electrophysiological procedures performed in patients aged less than 20 years between June 1997 and August 2013. Results: In total, 330 procedures (9.6% of the overall procedures) were performed in patients aged less than 20 years (14.33 ± 3.25 years, age range 3 months to 19 years), 201 of which were males (60.9%). A total of 108 (32.7%) electrophysiological diagnostic studies were performed and of these, 48.1% showed abnormal findings. Overall, 219 radiofrequency ablations were performed (66.3%) with a success rate of 84.8%. The presence of an accessory pathway was the most prevalent finding, occurring in 158 cases (72.1%), followed by atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (16.8%), typical atrial flutter (3.1%) and extrasystoles originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (2.7%). Three patients developed complications during ablation (1.4%). Among congenital heart diseases, which occurred in 51 (15.4%) patients, atrial sept defect was the most frequent (27.4%), followed by ventricular sept defect (25.4%) and Ebstein's anomaly (17.6%). Conclusion: Electrophysiological study and radiofrequency ablation are effective tools for diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in the pediatric population. .


Fundamento: A ablação com radiofrequência é o tratamento não farmacológico de eleição para arritmias na população pediátrica. Porém, as arritmias e suas causas apresentam características particulares nesta população. Objetivos: Analisar as características epidemiológicas e os achados de estudo eletrofisiológico diagnóstico e ablação com radiofrequência na população pediátrica encaminhada à Eletrofisiologia do Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, a fim de caracterizar as suas particularidades. Resultados: Foram realizados 330 procedimentos (9,6% do total de procedimentos) em pacientes com idade inferior a 20 anos (14,33 ± 3,25 anos, variação entre 3 meses e 19 anos), dos quais 201 eram do sexo masculino (60,9%). Foram realizados 108 (32,7%) exames eletrofisiológicos diagnósticos e destes, 48,1% apresentaram anormalidades em seus achados. Ao todo, 219 ablações com radiofrequência foram realizadas (66,3%), obtendo-se sucesso em 84,8%. A presença de feixe acessório foi o achado mais prevalente, responsável por 158 casos (72,1%), seguida de taquicardia por reentrada nodal atrioventricular (16,8%), flutter atrial típico (3,1%) e extrassístole de via de saída de ventrículo direito (2,7%). Três pacientes apresentaram complicações durante a ablação (1,4%). Cardiopatia congênita esteve presente em 51 (15,4%) casos, sendo a comunicação interatrial a mais encontrada (27,4%), seguida de comunicação interventricular (25,4%) e anomalia de Ebstein (17,6%). Conclusão: Estudo eletrofisiológico e ablação com radiofrequência constituem ferramentas eficazes no diagnóstico e tratamento das arritmias na população pediátrica. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(1): 53-7, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25372472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation is the standard non-pharmacological treatment for arrhythmias in pediatric patients. However, arrhythmias and their associated causes have particular features in this population. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and findings of electrophysiological diagnostic studies and radiofrequency ablations in pediatric patients referred to the Electrophysiology Unit at Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, in order to characterize the particularities of this population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 330 electrophysiological procedures performed in patients aged less than 20 years between June 1997 and August 2013. RESULTS: In total, 330 procedures (9.6% of the overall procedures) were performed in patients aged less than 20 years (14.33 ± 3.25 years, age range 3 months to 19 years), 201 of which were males (60.9%). A total of 108 (32.7%) electrophysiological diagnostic studies were performed and of these, 48.1% showed abnormal findings. Overall, 219 radiofrequency ablations were performed (66.3%) with a success rate of 84.8%. The presence of an accessory pathway was the most prevalent finding, occurring in 158 cases (72.1%), followed by atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (16.8%), typical atrial flutter (3.1%) and extrasystoles originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (2.7%). Three patients developed complications during ablation (1.4%). Among congenital heart diseases, which occurred in 51 (15.4%) patients, atrial sept defect was the most frequent (27.4%), followed by ventricular sept defect (25.4%) and Ebstein's anomaly (17.6%). CONCLUSION: Electrophysiological study and radiofrequency ablation are effective tools for diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(6): 359-363, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-726374

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. METHODS: 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. RESULTS: There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A ocorrência de fibrilação atrial (FA) assintomática é comum. A identificação da FA é importante e está associada com maior morbimortalidade. O Holter de 24 horas vem sendo utilizado para a detecção de FA paroxística (FAP). O objetivo desse estudo é investigar a relação entre a ocorrência de FAP no Holter de 24 horas e os sintomas na população estudada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado em um hospital de cardiologia. MÉTODOS: Análise de 11.321 exames consecutivos de Holter de 24 horas realizados em serviço de referência. Foram excluídos pacientes com marcapasso e aqueles com FA durante toda a gravação. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 75 (0,67%) exames apresentando FAP. A idade média foi de 67 ± 13 anos e 45% eram do sexo feminino. A frequência cardíaca (FC) encontrada nas 24 horas foi mínima de 45 ± 8 bpm, média de 74 ± 17 bpm e máxima de 151 ± 32 bpm. Entre os exames apresentando FAP, apenas 26% apresentaram sintomas. O único fator testado que evidenciou correlação com FA sintomática foi a FC máxima (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0,03). O uso de betabloqueadores teve efeito protetor para ocorrência de sintomas na FA (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSÕES: A FAP é um evento raro em Holter de 24 horas. A FC máxima nas 24 horas foi o único fator relacionado com FA sintomática e o uso de betabloqueadores teve efeito protetor para ocorrência de sintomas na FA. .


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Assintomáticas , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais
16.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 132(6): 359-63, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25351757

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. METHODS: 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. RESULTS: There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 0: 0, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25184549

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Occurrences of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common. It is important to identify AF because it increases morbidity and mortality. 24-hour Holter has been used to detect paroxysmal AF (PAF). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between occurrence of PAF in 24-hour Holter and the symptoms of the population studied. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a cardiology hospital. METHODS: 11,321 consecutive 24-hour Holter tests performed at a referral service were analyzed. Patients with pacemakers or with AF throughout the recording were excluded. RESULTS: There were 75 tests (0.67%) with PAF. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years and 45% were female. The heart rate (HR) over the 24 hours was a minimum of 45 ± 8 bpm, mean of 74 ± 17 bpm and maximum of 151 ± 32 bpm. Among the tests showing PAF, only 26% had symptoms. The only factor tested that showed a correlation with symptomatic AF was maximum HR (165 ± 34 versus 147 ± 30 bpm) (P = 0.03). Use of beta blockers had a protective effect against occurrence of PAF symptoms (odds ratio: 0.24, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: PAF is a rare event in 24-hour Holter. The maximum HR during the 24 hours was the only factor correlated with symptomatic AF, and use of beta blockers had a protective effect against AF symptom occurrence.

18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(6): 480-486, dez. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-701267

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: No atendimento ao episódio sincopal é necessário estratificar o risco para melhor diferenciar pacientes que necessitam de internação hospitalar daqueles que podem ser liberados. Os critérios utilizados pelos médicos avaliadores desses pacientes em emergências cardiológicas em nosso meio são desconhecidos. OBJETIVOS: Analisar quais os critérios adotados para internação hospitalar, diferenciá-los dos utilizados nos pacientes liberados e compará-los com os preditores de alto risco definidos pelo escore de OESIL já validado para esse fim. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em pacientes diagnosticados com síncope na emergência em nossa instituição no ano de 2011. RESULTADOS: Dos 46.476 atendimentos realizados naquele ano, 216 foram descritos como síncope. Dos 216 pacientes analisados, 39% foram internados, sendo que as principais variáveis associadas à admissão foram síncope prévia, doença cardíaca conhecida, história negativa para acidente vascular encefálico no passado, ECG alterado e possuir plano de súde. Na comparação internação contra não internação, os escores OESIL 0-1 foram associados a maior chance de liberação hospitalar; os escores 2-3 apresentaram maior associação com internação. Um escore OESIL >2 demonstrou razão de chances 7,8 vezes maior de internação comparado com o escore 0 (p < 0,001; IC95%: 4,03-15,11). Aproximadamente 39% dos pacientes não tiveram definição etiológica e em 18% foi identificada uma causa cardiológica. CONCLUSÕES: Fatores como doença cardiovascular conhecida, história sincopal prévia, ausência de AVC prévio, possuir seguro de saúde e eletrocardiograma alterado foram os critérios utilizados pelos médicos em emergência para indicar internação hospitalar. Houve boa correlação entre os critérios clínicos e os critérios de risco do OESIL descritos na literatura.


BACKGROUND: Risk stratification of a syncopal episode is necessary to better differentiate patients needing hospitalization of those who can be safely set home from the emergency department. Currently there are no strict guidelines from our Brazilian medical societies to guide the cardiologist that evaluate patients in an emergency setting. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the criteria adopted for defining the need for hospitalization and compare them with the predictors of high risk for adverse outcome defined by the OESIL score that is already validated in the medical literature for assessing syncope. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with syncope during emergency department evaluation at our institution in the year 2011. RESULTS: Of the 46,476 emergency visits made in that year, 216 were due to syncope. Of the 216 patients analyzed, 39% were hospitalized. The variables associated with the need of hospital admission were - having health care insurance, previous known cardiovascular disease, no history of prior stroke, previous syncope and abnormal electrocardiograms during the presentation. In comparison with those not admitted OESIL scores of 0-1 were associated with a greater chance of emergency discharge; 2-3 scores showed greater association with the need of hospitalization. A score > 2 OESIL provided an odds ratio 7.8 times higher for hospitalization compared to score 0 (p <0.001, 95% CI:4,03-15,11). In approximately 39% no etiological cause for syncope was found and in 18% cardiac cause was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Factors such as cardiovascular disease, prior history of syncope, health insurance, no previous stroke and abnormal electrocardiograms, were the criteria used by doctors to indicate hospital admission. There was a good correlation between the clinical judgment and the OESIL criteria for high risk described in literature.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Síncope/etiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Alta do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/mortalidade
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(5): 418-422, nov. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-696889

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A Comissão Internacional de Radiologia indica rastreamento com teste de gravidez a todas pacientes do gênero feminino em período fértil que serão submetidas a exame radiológico. Sabe-se que a radiação é teratogênica e que seu efeito é cumulativo. O potencial teratogênico inicia-se com doses próximas às das utilizadas durante esses procedimentos. Não se sabe a prevalência de teste de gravidez positivo em pacientes submetidos a estudo eletrofisiológico e/ou à ablação por cateter em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de teste de gravidez positivo em pacientes do gênero feminino encaminhadas para estudo eletrofisiológico e/ou ablação por radiofrequência. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com análise de 2.966 pacientes submetidos a estudo eletrofisiológico e/ou ablação por cateter, de junho 1997 a fevereiro 2013, no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram realizados 1.490 exames em mulheres sendo que, destas, 769 encontravam-se em idade fértil. Todas as pacientes foram rastreadas com teste de gravidez no dia anterior ao procedimento. RESULTADOS: Detectou-se positividade do teste em três pacientes, impossibilitando a realização do exame. Observou-se prevalência de 3,9 casos por 1.000 mulheres em idade fértil. CONCLUSÃO: Devido ao baixo custo e à segurança, indica-se a realização de teste de rastreamento para gravidez a todas pacientes em idade fértil, uma vez que o grau de radiação ionizante necessária nesse procedimento é muito próximo ao limiar de teratogenicidade, principalmente no primeiro trimestre, quando os sinais de gestação não são exuberantes.


BACKGROUND: The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study analyzing 2966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. RESULTS: Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1000 women of childbearing age. CONCLUSION: Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Anormalidades Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos da radiação , Testes de Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 101(6): 480-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24145390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk stratification of a syncopal episode is necessary to better differentiate patients needing hospitalization of those who can be safely set home from the emergency department. Currently there are no strict guidelines from our Brazilian medical societies to guide the cardiologist that evaluate patients in an emergency setting. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the criteria adopted for defining the need for hospitalization and compare them with the predictors of high risk for adverse outcome defined by the OESIL score that is already validated in the medical literature for assessing syncope. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with syncope during emergency department evaluation at our institution in the year 2011. RESULTS: Of the 46,476 emergency visits made in that year, 216 were due to syncope. Of the 216 patients analyzed, 39% were hospitalized. The variables associated with the need of hospital admission were - having health care insurance, previous known cardiovascular disease, no history of prior stroke, previous syncope and abnormal electrocardiograms during the presentation. In comparison with those not admitted OESIL scores of 0-1 were associated with a greater chance of emergency discharge; 2-3 scores showed greater association with the need of hospitalization. A score > 2 OESIL provided an odds ratio 7.8 times higher for hospitalization compared to score 0 (p <0.001, 95% CI:4,03-15,11). In approximately 39% no etiological cause for syncope was found and in 18% cardiac cause was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Factors such as cardiovascular disease, prior history of syncope, health insurance, no previous stroke and abnormal electrocardiograms, were the criteria used by doctors to indicate hospital admission. There was a good correlation between the clinical judgment and the OESIL criteria for high risk described in literature.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Síncope/etiologia , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/mortalidade
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