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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252088, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345543

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Resumo Acacia mangium é uma espécie pioneira, de rápido crescimento e utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Os objetivos foram avaliar insetos e aranhas, seus índices ecológicos e interações com plantas de A. mangium em área tropical degradada em processo de recuperação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 24 repetições, com os tratamentos representados pelos primeiro e segundo anos após a plantio de A. mangium. Os números de folhas/galhos, galhos/plantas e cobertura do solo por plantas de A. mangium, de Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. e Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula e Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. e Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; a abundância, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, formigas cuidadoras e a abundância de predadores de Sternorrhyncha foram maiores no segundo ano após o plantio. Os números de Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, formigas cuidadoras, insetos polinizadores, predadores de Sternorrhyncha e a riqueza de espécies de formigas cuidadoras foram maiores em plantas de A. mangium com maior altura e número de folhas ou galhos. O aumento populacional de artrópodes e da cobertura do solo com o processo de envelhecimento das plantas de A. mangium indicam impacto positivo dessa planta na recuperação de áreas degradadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Aranhas , Acacia , Insetos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252088, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755814

RESUMO

Acacia mangium is a pioneer species with fast growth and frequently used in the recovery of degraded areas. The objectives were to evaluate insects and spiders, their ecological indices and interactions on A. mangium saplings in a tropical degraded area in recovering process. The experimental design was completely randomized with 24 replications, with treatments represented by the first and second years after A. mangium seedling planted. Numbers of leaves/branch, branches/sapling, and ground cover by A. mangium saplings, Hemiptera: Phenacoccus sp. and Pachycoris torridus; Hymenoptera: Tetragonisca angustula and Trigona spinipes, Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Cephalotes sp.; Blattodea: Nasutitermes sp. and Neuroptera: Chrysoperla sp.; abundance, species richness of pollinating insects, tending ants, and the abundance of Sternorrhyncha predators were greatest in the second year after planting. Numbers of Hemiptera: Aethalium reticulatum, Hymenoptera: Camponotus sp., Cephalotes sp., Polybia sp., T. angustula, T. spinipes, tending ants, pollinating insects, Sternorrhyncha predators and species richness of tending ants were highest on A. mangium saplings with greatest numbers of leaves or branches. The increase in the population of arthropods with ground cover by A. mangium saplings age increase indicates the positive impact by this plant on the recovery process of degraded areas.


Assuntos
Acacia , Insetos , Aranhas , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 781-790, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285278

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to Standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol for the authentication of bovine and buffalo milk, and to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For this, the target DNA was extracted, mixed, and subjected to a PCR assay. Milk samples were defrauded and experimentally contaminated with microorganisms to assess the detection of target DNA at different times of cultivation, bacterial titers, and concentration of genetic material. In addition, the protocol was tested with DNA extracted directly from food, without a pre-enrichment step. The proposed quadruplex PCR showed good accuracy in identifying target DNA sequences. It was possible to simultaneously identify all DNA sequences at the time of inoculation (0h), when the samples were contaminated with 2 CFU/250mL and with 6h of culture when the initial inoculum was 1 CFU/250mL. It was also possible to directly detect DNA sequences from the food when it was inoculated with 3 CFU/mL bacteria. Thus, the proposed methodology showed satisfactory performance, optimization of the analysis time, and a potential for the detection of microorganisms at low titers, which can be used for the detection of fraud and contamination.


O objetivo do presente estudo foi padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para a autenticação de leite bovino e bubalino e a detecção da presença de Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Para isso, o DNA-alvo foi extraído, misturado e submetido ao ensaio de PCR. Amostras de leite foram fraudadas e contaminadas experimentalmente com os micro-organismos, para se avaliar a detecção do DNA-alvo em diferentes tempos de cultivo, os títulos bacterianos e a concentração de material genético. Além disso, o protocolo foi testado com DNA extraído diretamente do alimento, sem a etapa de pré-enriquecimento. A PCR quadriplex proposta mostrou boa precisão na identificação de sequências de DNA-alvo. Foi possível identificar simultaneamente todas as sequências de DNA no momento da inoculação (0h), quando as amostras estavam contaminadas com 2 UFC/250mL, e com seis horas de cultura, quando o inóculo inicial foi de 1 UFC/250mL. Também foi possível detectar diretamente as sequências de DNA do alimento quando este foi inoculado com 3 UFC/mL de bactérias. Dessa forma, a metodologia proposta apresentou desempenho satisfatório, otimização do tempo de análise e potencial para detecção de micro-organismos em baixos títulos, podendo ser utilizada para detecção de fraude e contaminação.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Búfalos , Leite/microbiologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária
4.
RSC Adv ; 11(21): 12595-12606, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35423788

RESUMO

We combine Density Functional Theory (DFT) and classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to study graphene-boron nitride (BN) hybrid monolayers spanning a wide range of sizes (from 2 nm to 100 nm). Our simulations show that the elastic properties depend on the fraction of BN contained in the monolayer, with Young's modulus values decreasing as the BN concentration increases. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that the mechanical properties are weakly anisotropic. We also analyze the evolution of the stress distribution during our MD simulations. Curiously, we find that stress does not concentrate on the graphene-BN interface, even though fracture always starts in this region. Hence, we find that fracture is caused by the lower strength of C-N and C-B bonds, rather than by high local stress values. Still, in spite of the fact that the weaker bonds in the interface region become a lower fraction of the total as size increases, we find that the mechanical properties of the hybrid monolayers do not depend on the size of the structure, for constant graphene/BN concentrations. Our results indicate that the mechanical properties of the hybrid monolayers are independent of scale, so long as the graphene sheet and the h-BN nanodomain decrease or increase proportionately.

5.
RSC Adv ; 11(56): 35127-35140, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493153

RESUMO

Hybrid structures comprised of graphene domains embedded in larger hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets were first synthesized in 2013. However, the existing theoretical investigations on them have only considered relaxed structures. In this work, we use Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical and electronic properties of this type of nanosheet under strain. Our results reveal that the Young's modulus of the hybrid sheets depends only on the relative concentration of graphene and h-BN in the structure, showing little dependence on the shape of the domain or the size of the structure for a given concentration. Regarding the tensile strength, we obtained higher values using triangular graphene domains. We find that the studied systems can withstand large strain values (between 15% and 22%) before fracture, which always begins at the weaker C-B bonds located at the interface between the two materials. Concerning the electronic properties, we find that by combining composition and strain, we can produce hybrid sheets with band gaps spanning an extensive range of values (between 1.0 eV and 3.5 eV). Our results also show that the band gap depends more on the composition than on the external strain, particularly for structures with low carbon concentration. The combination of atomic-scale thickness, high ultimate strain, and adjustable band gap suggests applications of h-BN nanosheets with graphene domains in wearable electronics.

6.
Zygote ; 26(4): 333-335, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277454

RESUMO

SummaryThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.


Assuntos
Cromanos/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Saimiri/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Membrana Celular , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 296-305, May-Aug. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888862

RESUMO

Abstract In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.


Resumo No Brasil, a expansão da atividade agrícola, aliada a utilização indiscriminada de herbicidas como o glyphosate, possui relação direta com a perda da biodiversidade no Cerrado. A identificação de espécies vegetais bioindicadoras da ação de herbicidas, particularmente as nativas do Cerrado, pode auxiliar em processos de monitoramento dos impactos desse xenobiótico nas remanescentes do Cerrado. Assim, este estudo foi projetado para avaliar o possível uso de Pouteria torta, espécie nativa do cerrado, como bioindicadora da ação do glyphosate via mudanças na sua performance fisiológica. Após 16 meses de semeadura, o efeito do glyphosate foi avaliado quando aplicadas as seguintes doses: 0 (controle), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1200 g e. a. ha-1. Em reposta ao glyphosate, as plantas de P. torta apresentaram redução na sua performance do processo fotossintético e no conteúdo de pigmentos cloroplastídicos, além do acúmulo de ácido chiquímico e da ocorrência de cloroses e necroses. Essas alterações demonstram a alta sensibilidade de P. torta ao glyphosate, o que potencializa a sua utilização como bioindicadora da ação desse herbicida.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pouteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Sentinelas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicina/efeitos adversos
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 306-314, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888097

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão do concentrado proteico da destilação de etanol obtido de arroz (CPA) na alimentação do jundiá. Trezentos e setenta e cinco peixes foram distribuídos em sistema de recirculação de água com 15 caixas (125L). Foram testadas três dietas (37% PB e 3200kcal/kg de energia digestível), sendo uma controle e duas testando a substituição da proteína da farinha de peixe em 25% (CPA-25%) ou 50% (CPA-50%) pelo CPA. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho, composição corporal e índices somáticos. Os animais submetidos ao tratamento CPA-25% apresentaram resposta de crescimento equivalente aos que receberam o tratamento controle, mas superior aos peixes submetidos ao CPA-50%. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para os índices somáticos avaliados. Os animais submetidos às dietas contendo CPA apresentaram maior teor de gordura corporal. Já a deposição de gordura corporal foi superior para os peixes alimentados com CPA-25%, e a deposição de proteína corporal menor para os alimentados com CPA-50%. Os resultados indicam que o CPA pode substituir em até 25% a proteína da farinha de peixe, sem comprometer o crescimento dos jundiás, tendo esse nível de substituição proporcionado, inclusive, uma redução de 8% no custo da dieta.(AU)


The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of protein concentrate from the distillation of ethanol from rice (CPA) in jundia feed. A total of 375 fish were distributed in water recirculation system with 15 boxes (125L). Three diets (37% PB and 3200kcal / kg digestible energy), one control and two were to test for the replacement of fishmeal protein by 25 (CPA-25%) and 50% (CPA-50%) by CPA. At 30 days, the variables of performance, body composition and somatic indexes were evaluated. The animals submitted to the CPA-25% treatment presented a growth response equivalent to those that received the Control treatment, but superior to the fish submitted to the CPA-50%. There were no significant differences between treatments for the somatic indices evaluated. Animals submitted to diets containing CPA had higher body fat content. Body fat deposition was higher for fish fed with CPA-25% and lower body protein deposition for those fed with CPA-50%. The results indicate that CPA can substitute up to 25% fish meal protein, without compromising the growth of jundias, and this level of substitution provided an 8% reduction in diet cost.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Oryza/química , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Proteínas/análise , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Braz J Biol ; 78(2): 296-305, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069161

RESUMO

In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pouteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Sentinelas/metabolismo , Brasil , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Pradaria , Pouteria/metabolismo
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1649-1654, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-947796

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as leituras de composição do leite cru por meio de espectrofotometria FTIR, utilizando-se curva de regressão PLS, bem como as contagens de células somáticas e bacteriana total por citometria de fluxo, após adição de amido e sacarose. O leite cru foi adulterado com três concentrações de amido e sacarose (0,1%, 0,5% e 1%), colocado em frascos contendo bronopol ou azidiol, os quais foram armazenados em duas temperaturas (7±2°C e 25±2°C ). As análises foram realizadas após zero, três, 24, 48, 72 e 168 horas de armazenamento. O modelo de regressão linear múltipla foi utilizado para análise estatística. A adição de amido e sacarose resultou em mudança significativa (P<0,05) para todas as variáveis dependentes. O leite adulterado com amido resultou em aumento nas leituras de gordura, proteína, lactose, sólidos totais (ST), sólidos não gordurosos (SNG), CCS e CBT e em diminuição das leituras de caseína, do nitrogênio ureico do leite (NUL) e do ponto de congelamento. O leite adulterado com sacarose resultou no aumento das leituras da lactose, ST, SNG e NUL, enquanto as leituras de proteína, caseína, ponto de congelamento e CCS diminuíram. Este trabalho evidencia a importância do monitoramento de adulterantes reconstituintes no leite por afetarem os resultados analíticos da qualidade do leite, obtidos por métodos eletrônicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Análise de Fourier , Leite/química , Sacarose , Espectrofotometria/veterinária
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 149-156, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-780047

RESUMO

RESUMO O controle de fitonematóides é uma tarefa difícil. A alta infestação de nematoides no solo obriga os produtores a usarem doses mais elevadas de nematicidas, ou ainda, a aumentarem a freqüência das aplicações, geralmente no solo, ocasionando maior potencial de dano ao homem e ao ambiente. Além disso, nematicidas convencionais vêm sofrendo grandes restrições de uso em muitos países. Desse modo, a busca de novas medidas de controle de fitonematóides é uma prioridade da agricultura sustentável. Desta forma, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de óleos essenciais de Lippia Alba, na mortalidade de juvenis pré-parasitas do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O ensaio foi montado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3×4 (3 quimiotipos x 4 concentrações) empregando-se três diferentes quimiotipos de L. Alba (I, II, III) nas concentrações de 0, 100, 500 e 1000 ppm, coletados em diferentes horas do dia (7, 9, 13, 16 e 19h). Os dados coletados (% de mortalidade) foram submetidos à análise de variância e os valores médios comparados por meio do teste de Tukey. Foi possível concluir que Lippia alba contém, em seu óleo essencial, compostos com efeitos significativos na mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita. Dessa forma, é importante destacar que o acentuado efeito nematicida do óleo essencial de L. alba sugere a possibilidade de seu uso no controle de M. incognita.


ABSTRACT The control of nematodes is difficult. The high infestation of nematodes in the soil requires the producers use higher doses of nematicides, increasing the frequency of applications, usually in soil, causing negative effects to humans and the environment. Furthermore, conventional nematicides have suffered great use restrictions in many countries. Thus, the search for new measures to control nematodes is a priority of sustainable agriculture. Thus, the objective of this study was available the effect of essential oils from Lippia Alba against Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in a factorial 3x4 (3 chemotypes and 4 concentrations) using three different chemotypes of L. Alba (I, II, III) at concentrations of 0, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm, collected in different times of day (7 AM, 9 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM e 7 PM). The data collected (% mortality) were subjected to analysis of variance and mean values were compared using the Tukey test. It was able to conclude that L. alba contains in its essential oil, compounds with significant effects on mortality of M. incognita. Thus, it is important to note that the greatest nematicide effect of essential oil of L. alba suggests the possibility of its use to control M. incognita.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/análise , Nematoides/classificação , Solo/classificação
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(3): 7274-8, 2015 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214405

RESUMO

Herein, we describe 34 microsatellite loci developed using an enrichment genomic library for the tree species Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae). Thirty-five individuals were genotyped using 34 primers to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 20. The average number of alleles was 8.11, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.62 to 0.94. These microsatellite primers will be useful in population genetics studies for this species.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Árvores/genética
13.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 159: 118-23, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26071650

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution (CWS), TES-TRIS and ACP-118(®) on the seminal cooling and cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS, CWS or ACP-118(®), and maintained at 4°C for 28h. Semen was subsequently evaluated (Experiment I) or cryopreserved in the presence of different glycerol concentrations (3%, 5% or 7%) (Experiment II). ACP-118(®) was the preferred extender to preserve sperm motility and viability after 28h incubation at 4°C. Cooled sperm were successfully frozen-thawed in a medium containing 3% glycerol. After thawing, sperm retained the capacity to fertilize oocytes and zygotes were obtained. In conclusion, ACP-118(®) can be effectively and efficiently used as extender for the cooling of S. apella semen. Furthermore, cryopreservation using ACP-118(®) by adding 3% glycerol is suitable to maintain sperm morphology and the capacity of these cells to fertilize in vitro.


Assuntos
Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Congelamento , Sêmen , Animais , Cebus , Cocos , Criopreservação/métodos , Masculino , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(4): 1216-1224, 08/2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-722565

RESUMO

Avaliou-se o uso de dietas com diferentes porcentagens de torta de mamona não destoxificada (TM) na indução da muda forçada, sendo utilizadas 120 poedeiras Lohman LSL de 81 semanas, distribuídas ao acaso em quatro tratamentos, com cinco repetições de seis aves. Um dos tratamentos consistiu na indução da muda pelo método do jejum por 11 dias, e os demais no uso de dietas de muda, compostas pela mistura de dieta de postura e TM nas quantidades de 20, 30 e 40 por cento, por até 21 dias ou até quando as aves atingissem 23 por cento de perda do peso. Diferenças significativas foram observadas nos eritrócitos, no hematócrito, na concentração média de hemoglobina globular, na proteína total do plasma, nos leucócitos e na alanina aminotransferase, medidos durante a indução da muda, bem como no desempenho das aves após a muda, no que diz respeito ao consumo de ração, à porcentagem de postura, ao peso do ovo, à massa do ovo e à conversão alimentar. A qualidade dos ovos não variou estatisticamente entre os métodos avaliados. A utilização da dieta de muda forçada contendo 40 por cento de TM promoveu resultados semelhantes aos obtidos com o método do jejum, tanto para consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, peso do ovo, massa do ovo, e conversão alimentar, como inerentes à qualidade dos ovos, quanto para densidade específica, unidade Haugh, porcentagens de gema, casca e albúmen. No entanto, menores alterações nos valores de eritrócitos, hematócrito e alanina aminotransferase foram observadas nesse método supracitado. O uso da dieta de muda contendo 40 por cento de TM mostrou-se uma alternativa viável ao uso do método do jejum...


We evaluated diets with different percentages of non-detoxified castor bean (TM) in the induction of molt, with 120 Lohman LSL hens at 81 weeks of age being used, randomly allotted to four treatments with five replicates of six birds each. One of the treatments consisted in the induction of changes by the method of fasting for 11 days, and the others used diet switches, composed by mixing posture and TM diet in the amounts of 20, 30 and 40 percent for up to 21 days or until when the birds reach 23 percent weight loss. Significant differences were observed in erythrocytes, hematocrit, mean concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin, total protein in plasma, leukocytes and alanine aminotransferase measured during induction of changes, and the performance of birds after moulting, such as feed intake, percentage of laying, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion. The quality of the eggs did not vary significantly among the methods evaluated. The use of forced molting diet containing 40 percent of TM promoted results similar to those obtained with the method of fasting, both feed intake and the percentage of egg, egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion, as inherent quality of eggs, as the specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk percentage, albumen and shell. However, minor changes in the values of erythrocytes, hematocrit and alanine aminotransferase were observed in the method above. The use of diets containing 40 percent change TM proved to be a viable alternative to the use of the fasting method...


Assuntos
Animais , Alanina Transaminase , Ração Animal , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/sangue , Semente de Rícino , Jejum , Hematócrito/veterinária , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária
15.
Reprod Sci ; 20(8): 990-7, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23314959

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an in vitro culture (IVC) medium containing either or not ß-mercaptoethanol (BME), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), or pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) could be able to promote the development of capuchin monkeys' preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian cortical strips. Follicular viability after IVC was similar to control (89.32%). Primordial follicle recruitment to primary stage was not reached with IVC, but the rate of secondary follicle formation was increased in the medium supplemented with BME, BMP4, and PMSG (44.86%) when compared to IVC control (9.20%). In the medium supplemented with BME, BMP4, and PMSG, contrary to other media, anti-müllerian hormone-messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in ovarian tissue was upregulated (3.4-fold), while that of growth differentiation factor-9 was maintained. The BMP4-mRNA expression, however, appeared downregulated in all cultured tissues. Our findings show a favorable effect of BME, BMP4, and PMSG on the in vitro development of secondary follicles from capuchin monkeys.


Assuntos
Cebus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Cebus/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gonadotropinas Equinas/farmacologia , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Mercaptoetanol/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Sobrevivência de Tecidos
16.
Zygote ; 21(2): 167-71, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22475447

RESUMO

There is no tradition in studies reporting the effect of exposure to cryoprotectants or simply hypoxia and hypothermia on gene expression in the ovarian tissue and there has been only one study on reference or target genes quantification, and comparisons of normoxic with hypoxic, hypothermic and toxic conditions. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the stability of three reference genes in the ovarian tissue of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). To this end, fresh and cryoprotectant-exposed ovarian biopsies were used. Both fresh and exposed ovarian tissues were subjected to total RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA. cDNA was amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and GeNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software were used to evaluate the stability of glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). Results demonstrated that, in the ovarian tissue from capuchin monkeys, HPRT1 and TBP were the most suitable reference genes and thus could be used as parameters to normalize data in future studies. In contrast, GAPDH appeared as the least stable gene among the tested reference genes. In conclusion, HPRT1 and TBP were the most stable reference genes in fresh and cryoprotectant-exposed ovarian tissue from capuchin monkeys.


Assuntos
Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Padrões de Referência , Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box/genética , Animais , Cebus , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipotermia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
17.
Genet Mol Res ; 11(2): 1618-26, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22782581

RESUMO

Many species are expected to suffer strong shifts in their geographic ranges due to climate changes in the next 50 years, with severe consequences for biodiversity patterns and population structure. We used here an ensemble forecast approach for obtaining species' range in which multiple species distribution models and climatic models were combined to model loss of genetic variability in Baru, Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae), an economically important Neotropical tree native to the Cerrado of Brazil. We estimated a series of genetic parameters (number of alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and mutation-drift equilibrium) for this species based on eight microsatellite loci. We then recalculated these parameters assuming that local populations in areas of low future environmental suitability will go extinct. All genetic parameters remained approximately constant up to a 50% threshold of climatic suitability in the future; after this critical threshold there is an abrupt reduction in all parameters, although the magnitude of shift is only about 10% of current values, on average. Thus, despite the shifts in geographic range and climatically suitable areas towards southeastern Brazil, our analyses do not predict a strong loss of genetic diversity in D. alata because of the broad tolerance of this species, which ensures large future ranges, contrasting with other Cerrado species that have been analyzed in a similar manner.


Assuntos
Dipteryx/genética , Dipteryx/classificação , Variação Genética/genética , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
18.
ISRN Microbiol ; 2012: 215716, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23724319

RESUMO

In this study, we reported thirty-nine endophytic fungi identified as Colletotrichum spp. associated with Brazilian pepper tree or aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Anacardiaceae) in Paraná state, Brazil. These endophytes were identified by morphological and molecular methods, using PCR taxon-specific with CaInt/ITS4, CgInt/ITS4, and Col1/ITS4 primers, which amplify specific bands in C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides lato sensu, and Colletotrichum boninensis, respectively, and by DNA sequence analysis of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2). We also assayed the presence of dsRNA particles in Colletotrichum spp. isolates. Combining both morphological characters and molecular data, we identified the species C. gloeosporioides, C. boninense, and C. simmondsii. However, we found a high genetic variability intraspecific in C. gloeosporioides which suggests the existence of several other species. Bands of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in three of thirty-nine isolates. Identity of these bands was confirmed by RNAse, DNAse, and S1 nuclease treatments for the isolates LGMF633, LGMF726, and LGMF729. This is the first study reporting these particles of dsRNA in C. gloeosporioides.

19.
Genet Mol Res ; 10(1): 321-5, 2011 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21365547

RESUMO

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered species with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic tree species of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism.


Assuntos
Melastomataceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Polimorfismo Genético/genética
20.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 25(9): 861-7, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19689190

RESUMO

Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been documented in all countries that have surveyed for it and may result in an unfavorable response to therapy. The prevalence and characteristics of individuals with transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs have been scarcely described in Brazil. We performed antiretroviral resistance testing prior to initiation of therapy in 400 subjects enrolled from 20 centers in 13 Brazilian cities between March and September 2007. Genotyping was conducted using PCR-amplified HIV pol products by automated sequencing, and genotype interpretation was done according to the IAS-USA consensus. Of 400 eligible participants, 387 (95.8%) were successfully tested. Seven percent of antiretroviral-naive patients carried viruses with one or more major mutation associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of these mutations was 1.0% for protease inhibitors, 4.4% for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 1.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The frequency of multidrug resistance among the resistant strains was 13.6%. Among subjects infected with drug-resistant virus, the majority were infected with subtype B viruses (91%). Subjects from the city of São Paulo had higher transmitted resistance mutations compared to the rest of the country. Reporting a partner taking antiretroviral medications was associated with a higher chance of harboring HIV variants with major drug resistance mutations [odds ratio = 2.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.16); p = 0.014]. Resistance testing in drug-naive individuals identified 7% of subjects with mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. Continued surveillance of drug-resistant HIV-1 in Brazil is warranted when guidelines for HIV prophylaxis and treatment are updated. Resistance testing among drug-naive patients prior to treatment initiation should be considered, mainly directed at subjects whose partners are already on antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
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