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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13267, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764661

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance is currently a threat to the control of Aedes agypti, the main vector of arboviruses in urban centers. Mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel (NaV), known as kdr (knockdown resistance), constitute an important selection mechanism for resistance against pyrethroids. In the present study, we investigated the kdr distribution for the Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys alterations in Ae. aegypti from 123 Brazilian municipalities, based on SNP genotyping assays in over 5,500 mosquitoes. The alleles NaVS (1016Val+ + 1534Phe+), NaVR1 (1016Val+ + 1534Cyskdr) and NaVR2 (1016Ilekdr + 1534Cyskdr) were consistently observed, whereas kdr alleles have rapidly spread and increased in frequency. NaVS was the less frequent allele, mostly found in Northeastern populations. The highest allelic frequencies were observed for NaVR1, especially in the North, which was fixed in one Amazonian population. The double kdr NaVR2 was more prevalent in the Central-west and South-eastern populations. We introduce the 'kdr index', which revealed significant spatial patterns highlighting two to three distinct Brazilian regions. The 410L kdr mutation was additionally evaluated in 25 localities, evidencing that it generally occurs in the NaVR2 allele. This nationwide screening of a genetic mechanism for insecticide resistance is an important indication on how pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti is evolving in Brazil.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 293, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a vector of high relevance, since it transmits several arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Studies on vector biology are usually conducted with laboratory strains presenting a divergent genetic composition from field populations. This may impair vector control policies that were based on laboratory observations employing only long maintained laboratory strains. In the present study we characterized a laboratory strain interbreed with Ae. aegypti collected from five different localities in Rio de Janeiro (Aedes Rio), for insecticide resistance (IR), IR mechanisms, fitness and Zika virus infection. METHODS: We compared the recently established Aedes Rio with the laboratory reference strain Rockefeller. Insecticide resistance (deltamethrin, malathion and temephos), activity of metabolic resistance enzymes and kdr mutation frequency were determined. Some life table parameters (longevity, blood-feeding, number and egg viability) and Zika virus susceptibility was also determined. RESULTS: Aedes Rio showed resistance to deltamethrin (resistance ratio, RR50 = 32.6) and temephos (RR50 = 7.0) and elevated activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and esterases (α-EST and pNPA-EST), but not acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In total, 92.1% of males genotyped for kdr presented a "resistant" genotype. Weekly blood-fed females from both strains, presented reduced mortality compared to sucrose-fed mosquitoes; however, Aedes Rio blood-fed females did not live as long (mean lifespan: Rockefeller = 70 ± 3.07; Aedes Rio = 53.5 ± 2.16 days). There were no differences between strains in relation to blood-feeding and number of eggs, but Aedes Rio eggs presented reduced viability (mean hatch: Rockefeller = 77.79 ± 1.4%; Aedes Rio = 58.57 ± 1.77%). Zika virus infection (plaque-forming unit, PFU) was similar in both strains (mean PFU ± SE: Aedes Rio: 4.53 × 104 ± 1.14 × 104 PFU; Rockefeller: 2.02 × 104 ± 0.71 × 104 PFU). CONCLUSION: Selected conditions in the field, such as IR mechanisms, may result in pleiotropic effects that interfere in general physiology of the insect. Therefore, it is important to well characterize field populations to be tested in parallel with laboratory reference strains. This practice would improve the significance of laboratory tests for vector control methods.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 264, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roraima, the northernmost State in Brazil, borders Venezuela and Guyana. Although mostly covered by the tropical forests, the urban centers of this state are highly infested with Ae. aegypti and are endemic for dengue, Zika and chikungunya. We accessed the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti populations from the capital Boa Vista, two cities on international borders (Pacaraima and Bonfim) and Rorainópolis bordering Amazonas State, in order to evaluate the chemical control efficacy in these localities. METHODS: Tests with World Health Organization (WHO)-like tubes impregnated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin (0.05% and 0.12%) and the organophosphate malathion (0.7%) were conducted with Ae. aegypti from Boa Vista, Pacaraima, Bonfim and Rorainópolis, collected in 2016 and 2018. Genotyping of kdr mutations, related to resistance to pyrethroids, was performed for the SNP variations at sites 1016 and 1534 of the voltage gated sodium channel gene (NaV) with a TaqMan qPCR approach. RESULTS: Aedes albopictus was absent in our collections, and therefore only Ae. aegypti was tested. All Ae. aegypti populations were susceptible to 0.7% malathion in 2016; however, mortality dropped to under 90% in Bonfim and Pacaraima populations in 2018. All populations were resistant to 0.05% deltamethrin in both years. The time that 50% of females suffered knockdown (KdT50) under exposure to 0.05% deltamethrin was 3.3-5.9-fold longer in mosquitoes from the natural populations compared to the susceptible Rockefeller strain. Only the Pacaraima population (2018) remained resistant to 0.12% deltamethrin. Kdr genotyping revealed the absence of the wild-type NaVS haplotype (1016Val + 1534Phe) in the populations from Roraima, indicating that all tested insects had a genetic background for pyrethroid resistance. The double kdr NaVR2 haplotype (1016Ile + 15434Cys) was present in higher frequencies in all populations except for Rorainópolis, where this haplotype seems to have arrived recently. CONCLUSIONS: These results are important for the knowledge about insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti populations from Roraima and will help improve vector control strategies that may be applied to diverse localities under similar geographical and urban conditions.

4.
J Med Entomol ; 57(2): 454-462, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559435

RESUMO

Dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and chikungunya arboviruses are endemic in tropical countries and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Resistant populations of this mosquito against chemical insecticides are spreading worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the biological effects of exposure of pesticide-sensitive Ae. aegypti larvae (Rockefeller) to conidia of the entomopathogen, Metarhizium brunneum, laboratory strains ARSEF 4556 and V275, and any synergistic activity of phenylthiourea (PTU). In addition, to investigate the nature of any cross-resistance mechanisms, these M. brunneum strains were tested against the Rockefeller larvae and two temephos- and deltamethrin-resistant wild mosquito populations from Rio de Janeiro. Treatment of Rockefeller larvae with 106 conidia/ml of ARSEF 4556 and V275 fungal strains resulted in significant decreased survival rates to 40 and 53.33%, respectively (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated controls. In contrast, exposure to 104 or 105 conidia/ml showed no such significant survival differences. However, the addition of PTU to the conidia in the bioassays significantly increased mortalities in all groups and induced a molt block. Experiments also showed no differences in Ae. aegypti mortalities between the fungal treated, wild pesticide-resistant populations and the Rockefeller sensitive strain. The results show the efficacy of M. brunneum in controlling Ae. aegypti larvae and the synergistic role of PTU in this process. Importantly, there was no indication of any cross-resistance mechanisms between Ae. aegypti sensitive or resistant to pesticides following treatment with the fungi. These results further support using M. brunneum as an alternative biological control agent against mosquito populations resistant to chemical insecticides.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 591, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852489

RESUMO

Culex quinquefasciatus is a successful invasive species broadly distributed in subtropical regions, including Brazil. It is an extremely annoying mosquito due to its nocturnal biting behavior, in high-density populations and it is a potential bridge between sylvatic arbovirus from birds to man in urban territories. Herein, we present a review concerning the methods of chemical control employed against Cx. quinquefasciatus in Brazil since the 1950's and insecticide resistance data registered in the literature. As there is no specific national programme for Cx. quinquefasciatus control in Brazil, the selection of insecticide resistance is likely due in part to the well-designed chemical campaigns against Aedes aegypti and the elevated employment of insecticides by households and private companies. There are very few publications about insecticide resistance in Cx. quinquefasciatus from Brazil when compared to Ae. aegypti. Nevertheless, resistance to organophosphates, carbamate, DDT, pyrethroids and biolarvicides has been registered in Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from distinct localities of the country. Concerning physiological mechanisms selected for resistance, distinct patterns of esterases, as well as mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) and voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) genes, have been identified in natural populations. Given environmental changes and socioeconomical issues in the cities, in recent years we have been experiencing an increase in the number of disease cases caused by arboviruses, which may involve Cx. quinquefasciatus participation as a key vector. It is urgent to better understand the efficiency and susceptibility status to insecticides, as well as the genetic background of known resistant mechanisms already present in Cx. quinquefasciatus populations for an effective and rapid chemical control when eventually required.


Assuntos
Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Culex/enzimologia , Culex/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/enzimologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
6.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(3): 192-199, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647707

RESUMO

The chemical control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a great challenge worldwide, since several populations of this species are already resistant to traditional insecticides, such as temephos. In Brazil, alternative larvicides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and pyriproxyfen, have been used more recently. In this study we evaluated the persistence of pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv 0.5%G), 2 commercial formulations of Bti (Vectobac WDG and Vectobac G), and temephos (Fersol 1G) under field and simulated field conditions with treatments exposed to sun and shadow. In the field tests, the 2 formulations of Bti presented less persistence in the 8th wk of evaluation (46% and 37% positivity) compared with temephos (3.6% and 6.8% positivity) and Sumilarv (6.6% and 3.8% positivity) in containers exposed to the sun and shadow, respectively. In the simulated field trial, temephos and the 2 formulations of Bti presented high persistence (100% mortality at 8th wk) when applied in the water box and in deposits placed in the shade. In containers exposed to the sun, the persistence of these products was lower (>80% mortality by temephos after 4 wk, Bti formulations for 3 wk, and Sumilarv for 6 wk). Based on these data, however, Sumilarv presented better performance in the containers exposed to the sun than the 2 formulations of Bti (Vectobac G and Vectobac WDG), which were affected by the sun.


Assuntos
Aedes , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Piridinas , Temefós , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brasil , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS: Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS: Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Temefós/farmacologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Incidência , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Temefós/administração & dosagem
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180318, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The longstanding application of insecticides for vector control without periodic monitoring of the population response to these chemicals can directly drive the selection of resistant populations of vector mosquitoes. Tocantins is the newest state of the Brazilian Federation. Despite a historically high number of dengue cases, studies and monitoring data concerning insecticide resistance in the state are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To verify the resistance status of Aedes aegypti from 10 populations distributed throughout the state connected by rivers and roads. METHODS: Between 50 and 150 ovitraps were installed in house gardens within each municipality. Collection points were established based on the importance of the towns and on geographic aspects. Dose response bioassays were performed in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines. Molecular assays were conducted to detect kdr mutations, which are related to pyrethroid resistance. FINDINGS: Of the 3,200 ovitrap paddles analysed, 25.8% contained eggs, with a total of 55,687 eggs collected. With the exception of Caseara, all evaluated populations were considered to be resistant to temephos. The data showed different levels of resistance to deltamethrin among the samples. Caseara and Guaraí showed the lowest RR95 values. On average, the NaVR1 kdr allele was most frequent (40.3%), followed by NaVS (38.1%), and NaVR2 (21.6%). Palmas, the capital of the state, had the highest frequency of kdr alleles (87.5%). MAIN CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of Palmas, the towns with the highest indexes (ovitrap positivity, number and density of eggs), as well with high levels of resistance and kdr alleles were located along the BR-153 road, indicating that the flow of people and cargo can contribute to the dispersion of the vector and potentially resistance. This study contributes substantially to knowledge regarding the insecticide resistance profile of Tocantins mosquito populations; the data generated via the study could facilitate the judicious use of insecticides by vector control programs.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Temefós/farmacologia , Aedes/genética , Animais , Brasil , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Genótipo , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Rios
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843971

RESUMO

In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia
10.
Front Physiol ; 10: 122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873040

RESUMO

Insect ß-1,3-glucanases belong to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16 (GHF16) and are involved in digestion of detritus and plant hemicellulose. In this work, we investigated the role of GHF16 genes in Aedes aegypti larvae, due to their detritivore diet. Aedes aegypti genome has six genes belonging to GHF16 (Aae GH16.1 - Aae GH16.6), containing two to six exons. Sequence analysis suggests that five of these GHF16 sequences (Aae GH16.1, 2, 3, 5, and 6) contain the conserved catalytic residues of this family and correspond to glucanases. All genomes of Nematocera analyzed showed putative gene duplications corresponding to these sequences. Aae GH16.4 has no conserved catalytic residues and is probably a ß-1,3-glucan binding protein involved in the activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, Ae. aegypti larvae contain significant ß-1,3-glucanase activities in the head, gut and rest of body. These activities have optimum pH about 5-6 and molecular masses between 41 and 150 kDa. All GHF16 genes above showed different levels of expression in the larval head, gut or rest of the body. Knock-down of AeGH16.5 resulted in survival and pupation rates lower than controls (dsGFP and water treated). However, under stress conditions, severe mortalities were observed in AeGH16.1 and AeGH16.6 knocked-down larvae. Enzymatic assays of ß-1,3-glucanase in AeGH16.5 silenced larvae exhibited lower activity in the gut and no change in the rest of the body. Chromatographic activity profiles from gut samples after GH16.5 silencing showed suppression of enzymatic activity, suggesting that this gene codes for the digestive larval ß-1,3-glucanase of Ae. aegypti. This gene and enzyme are attractive targets for new control strategies, based on the impairment of normal gut physiology.

11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007023, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional vector control approaches such as source reduction and insecticide spraying have limited effect on reducing Aedes aegypti population. The endosymbiont Wolbachia is pointed as a promising tool to mitigate arbovirus transmission and has been deployed worldwide. Models predict a rapid increase on the frequency of Wolbachia-positive Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in local settings, supported by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and high maternal transmission rate associated with the wMelBr strain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Wolbachia wMelBr strain was released for 20 consecutive weeks after receiving >87% approval of householders of the isolated community of Tubiacanga, Rio de Janeiro. wMelBr frequency plateued~40% during weeks 7-19, peaked 65% but dropped as releases stopped. A high (97.56%) maternal transmission was observed. Doubling releases and deploying mosquitoes with large wing length and low laboratory mortality produced no detectable effects on invasion trend. By investigating the lab colony maintenance procedures backwardly, pyrethroid resistant genotypes in wMelBr decreased from 68% to 3.5% after 17 generations. Therefore, we initially released susceptible mosquitoes in a local population highly resistant to pyrethroids which, associated with the over use of insecticides by householders, ended jeopardizing Wolbachia invasion. A new strain (wMelRio) was produced after backcrossing wMelBr females with males from field to introduce mostly pyrethroid resistance alleles. The new strain increased mosquito survival but produced relevant negative effects on Ae. aegypti fecundity traits, reducing egg clutche size and egg hatch. Despite the cost on fitness, wMelRio successful established where wMelBr failed, revealing that matching the local population genetics, especially insecticide resistance background, is critical to achieve invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Local householders support was constantly high, reaching 90% backing on the second release (wMelRio strain). Notwithstanding the drought summer, the harsh temperature recorded (daily average above 30°C) did not seem to affect the expression of maternal transmission of wMel on a Brazilian background. Wolbachia deployment should match the insecticide resistance profile of the wild population to achieve invasion. Considering pyrethroid-resistance is a widely distributed phenotype in natural Ae. aegypti populations, future Wolbachia deployments must pay special attention in maintaining insecticide resistance in lab colonies for releases.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Arbovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/genética , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180318, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-990190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The longstanding application of insecticides for vector control without periodic monitoring of the population response to these chemicals can directly drive the selection of resistant populations of vector mosquitoes. Tocantins is the newest state of the Brazilian Federation. Despite a historically high number of dengue cases, studies and monitoring data concerning insecticide resistance in the state are lacking. OBJECTIVES To verify the resistance status of Aedes aegypti from 10 populations distributed throughout the state connected by rivers and roads. METHODS Between 50 and 150 ovitraps were installed in house gardens within each municipality. Collection points were established based on the importance of the towns and on geographic aspects. Dose response bioassays were performed in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines. Molecular assays were conducted to detect kdr mutations, which are related to pyrethroid resistance. FINDINGS Of the 3,200 ovitrap paddles analysed, 25.8% contained eggs, with a total of 55,687 eggs collected. With the exception of Caseara, all evaluated populations were considered to be resistant to temephos. The data showed different levels of resistance to deltamethrin among the samples. Caseara and Guaraí showed the lowest RR95 values. On average, the NaVR1 kdr allele was most frequent (40.3%), followed by NaVS (38.1%), and NaVR2 (21.6%). Palmas, the capital of the state, had the highest frequency of kdr alleles (87.5%). MAIN CONCLUSIONS With the exception of Palmas, the towns with the highest indexes (ovitrap positivity, number and density of eggs), as well with high levels of resistance and kdr alleles were located along the BR-153 road, indicating that the flow of people and cargo can contribute to the dispersion of the vector and potentially resistance. This study contributes substantially to knowledge regarding the insecticide resistance profile of Tocantins mosquito populations; the data generated via the study could facilitate the judicious use of insecticides by vector control programs.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arbovirus , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Ecossistema Amazônico
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180544, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.


Assuntos
Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/imunologia , Temefós/análise , Aedes , Controle de Vetores , Brasil/epidemiologia
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180542, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-990438

RESUMO

Abstract In Brazil, malaria is an important public health problem first reported in 1560. Historically, fluctuations in malaria cases in Brazil are attributed to waves of economic development; construction of railroads, highways, and hydroelectric dams; and population displacement and land occupation policies. Vector control measures have been widely used with an important role in reducing malaria cases. In this review article, we reviewed the vector control measures established in the Brazilian territory and aspects associated with such measures for malaria. Although some vector control measures are routinely used in Brazil, many entomological and effectiveness information still need better evidence in endemic areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates. Herein, we outlined some of the needs and priorities for future research: a) update of the cartography of malaria vectors in Brazil, adding molecular techniques for the correct identification of species and complexes of species; b) evaluation of vector competence of anophelines in Brazil; c) strengthening of local entomology teams to perform vector control measures and interpret results; d) evaluation of vector control measures, especially use of insecticide-treated nets and long-lasting insecticidal nets, estimating their effectiveness, cost-benefit, and population acceptance; e) establishment of colonies of malaria vectors in Brazil, i.e., Anopheles darlingi, to understand parasite-vector interactions better; f) study of new vector control strategies with impacts on non-endophilic vectors; g) estimation of the impact of insecticide resistance in different geographical areas; and h) identification of the relative contribution of natural and artificial breeding sites in different epidemiological contexts for transmission.

15.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(11): 1269-1279, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between the occurrence of dengue and ovitrap positivity and dengue egg density in two Amazonas municipalities (Brazil) in 2016. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using secondary data from the dengue fever surveillance system. Ovitraps distributed regularly in the urban area of two cities were used to monitor the presence of the vector. The relationship between egg positivity, egg density and the location of dengue cases was evaluated using two approaches as follows: (i) based on the result of the nearest neighbour ovitrap and (ii) based on the results of the set of ovitraps within the influence area of 300 m from the location of each case and control. RESULTS: During the study period, 229 confirmed cases of dengue fever were reported in Tabatinga and 89 cases in Itacoatiara. In this study, we found that the positivity of ovitraps was related to the occurrence of dengue in Tabatinga and Itacoatiara. An association between egg density of Ae. aegypti and dengue occurrence was also observed in Itacoatiara. The temporal lags for ovitrap positivity measurements were predominantly 15 or 30 days. A dengue association for egg density for a 15-day time lag was detected for one of the case-control approaches. CONCLUSIONS: The location of dengue cases is related to ovitrap egg positivity, while a less evident possible association may exist for egg density. This indicates that these traps could be used to improve vector control actions.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Vigilância da População
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231167

RESUMO

Culicidae colonization in laboratory is paramount to conduct studies aiming at a better understanding of mosquitoes' capacity to transmit pathogens that cause deadly diseases. Colonization requires female blood feeding, a necessary step for maturation of female's oocytes. Direct blood feeding on anesthetized mammals implies in a number of disadvantages when compared to artificial blood feeding. Consequently, laboratories worldwide have been trying to -feed female mosquitoes artificially in order to replace direct feeding. In this study, we compared the effects of direct blood feeding and artificial blood feeding on important life traits of three Culicidae species. Artificial feeding was performed using citrated or defibrinated sheep blood and citrated or defibrinated rabbit blood. Direct feeding was performed using anesthetized guinea pigs as the blood source and the experiment control. Results indicated that artificial feeding using sheep blood was not good enough to justify its use in the maintenance of laboratory colonies of Culicidae. However, artificial feeding using rabbit blood maintained a recovery rate always very close to the control, especially when blood was citrated. We concluded that artificial feeding using citrated rabbit blood can substitute direct feeding on mammals reducing the use of animals, eliminating the need to maintain a bioterium in the laboratory and reducing costs in scientific researches involving Culicidae vectors.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , Substitutos Sanguíneos , Culex/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Métodos de Alimentação , Laboratórios , Animais , Substitutos Sanguíneos/economia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Métodos de Alimentação/economia , Feminino , Cobaias , Laboratórios/economia , Oviposição , Coelhos , Ovinos
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 2410819, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112367

RESUMO

Background: Several mutations in voltage gated sodium channel (NaV) have been identified in Aedes aegypti populations worldwide. However, only few are related to knockdown resistance to pyrethroids, most of which with variations in the 1016 and 1534 NaV sites. In Brazil, at least two NaV alleles are known: NaVR1, with a substitution in the 1534 (1016 Val+ + 1534 Ile kdr ) and NaVR2, with substitutions in both 1016 and sites (1016Ilekdr + 1534Cys kdr ). There is also the duplication in the NaV gene, with one copy carrying the substitution Ile1011Met, although its effects on pyrethroid resistance remain to be clarified. Our goals in this study were (1) to determine the role of each kdr NaV allele and the duplication on pyrethroid resistance and (2) to screen the frequency of the kdr alleles in 27 several natural Ae. aegypti populations from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: Pyrethroid resistance was evaluated by a knockdown time (KdT) assay, an adaptation of the WHO test tubes with paper impregnated with deltamethrin. We used laboratory-selected Ae. aegypti lineages: R1R1 and R2R2 (homozygous for the kdr NaVR1 and NaVR2 alleles, respectively), Dup (with duplication in the NaV gene), Rockefeller (the susceptibility reference control), and F1 hybrids among them. Genotyping of both 1016 and 1534 NaV sites was performed in 811 Ae. aegypti sampled from 27 localities from Rio de Janeiro (17), Niterói (6) and Nova Iguaçu (4) cities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with a TaqMan real time PCR approach. Results: The laboratory lineages R1R1, R2R2, and R1R2 were the only ones that needed more than 60 minutes to knock down all the insects exposed to the pyrethroid, being the KdT R2R2 > R1R2 > R1R1, corroborating the recessive nature of the kdr mutations. Frequency of kdr alleles NaVR1 and NaVR2 in field-caught mosquitoes varied from 0 to 52% and 43 to 86%, respectively, evidencing high levels of "resistant genotypes" (R1R1, R1R2, and R2R2), which together summed 60 to 100% in Ae. aegypti populations from Rio de Janeiro. Conclusions: The NaVR1 and NaVR2 kdr alleles confer resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin in homozygotes and R1R2 heterozygotes, being the R2R2 most resistant genotype. The allele containing duplication in the NaV gene, with a mutation in the 1011 site, did not confer resistance under the tested conditions. The frequencies of the "resistant genotypes" are elevated in Ae. aegypti natural populations from Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas , Masculino , Camundongos
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(7): e0006594, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arboviruses are viruses transmitted to humans and other animals by the bite of hematophagous arthropods. Infections caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and the deadlier yellow fever virus (YFV) are current public health problems in several countries, mainly those located in tropical and subtropical regions. One of the main prevention strategies continues to be vector control, with the elimination of breeding sites and surveillance of infested areas. The use of ovitraps for Aedes mosquitos monitoring has already demonstrated promising results, and maybe be also useful for arboviral surveillance. METHODS: This work aimed to detect natural vertical transmission of arboviruses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Mosquito egg collection was carried out using ovitraps in Itacoatiara, a mid-size city in Amazonas state, Brazil. Collected eggs were allowed to hatch and larvae were tested for CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV RNA by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: A total of 2,057 specimens (1,793 Ae. aegypti and 264 Ae. albopictus), in 154 larvae pools were processed. Results showed one positive pool for CHIKV and one positive pool for ZIKV. The active ZIKV infection was further confirmed by the detection of the negative-strand viral RNA and nucleotide sequencing which confirmed the Asian genotype. The Infection Rate per 1,000 mosquitoes tested was assessed by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) with 0.45 and 0.44 for CHIKV and ZIKV, respectively, and by Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) with 0.45 for both viruses. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first detection of ZIKV in natural vertical transmission in the Ae. aegypti, a fact that may contribute to ZIKV maintenance in nature during epidemics periods. Furthermore, our results highlight that the use of ovitraps and the molecular detection of arbovirus may contribute to health surveillance, directing the efforts to more efficient transmission blockade.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Óvulo/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Brasil , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 288, 2018 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic individuals are one of the major challenges for malaria elimination programs in endemic areas. In the absence of clinical symptoms and with a lower parasite density they constitute silent reservoirs considered important for maintaining transmission of human malaria. Studies from Brazil have shown that infected individuals may carry these parasites for long periods. RESULTS: Patients were selected from three periurban endemic areas of the city of Manaus, in the western Brazilian Amazon. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with positive thick blood smear and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) positive for Plasmodium vivax were invited to participate in the study. A standardised pvs25 gene amplification by qPCR was used for P. vivax gametocytes detection. Anopheles aquasalis were fed using membrane feeding assays (MFA) containing blood from malaria patients. Parasitemia of 42 symptomatic and 25 asymptomatic individuals was determined by microscopic examination of blood smears and qPCR. Parasitemia density and gametocyte density were assessed as determinants of infection rates and oocysts densities. A strong correlation between gametocyte densities (microscopy and molecular techniques) and mosquito infectivity (P < 0.001) and oocysts median numbers (P < 0.05) was found in both groups. The ability to infect mosquitoes was higher in the symptomatic group (41%), but infectivity in the asymptomatic group was also seen (1.42%). CONCLUSIONS: Although their infectivity to mosquitoes is relatively low, given the high prevalence of P. vivax asymptomatic carriers they are likely to play and important role in malaria transmission in the city of Manaus. The role of asymptomatic infections therefore needs to be considered in future malaria elimination programs in Brazil.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Oocistos/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(3): e0006390, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is found at high densities in tropical urban areas. The dissemination of this vector is partially the consequence of failures in current vector control methods, still mainly relying upon insecticides. In the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, public health managers employed pyrethroids against Ae. aegypti adults from 1989 to 2000, when a robust insecticide resistance monitoring system detected resistance to pyrethroids in several Ae. aegypti populations. However, pyrethroids are also the preferred compounds engaged in household applications due to their rapid knockdown effect, lower toxicity to mammals and less irritating smell. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti populations over the course of a decade, from 2004 to 2015, after interruption of pyrethroid public applications in SP. Qualitative bioassays with papers impregnated with a deltamethrin diagnostic dose (DD) performed with insects from seven SP municipalities and evaluated yearly from 2006 to 2014, detected resistance in most of the cases. Quantitative bioassays were also carried out with four populations in 2011, suggesting a positive correlation between resistance level and survivorship in the DD bioassays. Biochemical tests conducted with seven insect populations in 2006 and 2015, detected increasing metabolic alterations of all major classes of detoxifying enzymes, mostly of mixed function oxidases. Genotyping of the voltage-gated sodium channel (AaNaV, the pyrethroid target-site) with a TaqMan real time PCR based technique was performed from 2004 to 2014 in all seven localities. The two kdr mutations, Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys, known to be spread throughout Brazil, were always present with a severe decrease of the susceptible allele over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are discussed in the context of public and domestic insecticide use, the necessity of implementation of a strong integrated vector control strategy and the conceptual misunderstanding between 'vector control' and 'chemical control of vectors'.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Aedes/genética , Alelos , Animais , Bioensaio/instrumentação , Bioensaio/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/virologia , Genótipo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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