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1.
Chemosphere ; 228: 258-263, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035163

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect the presence of bioaccumulated Fe and Pb in scales of Salminus brasiliensis and Prochilodus lineatus, and to compare the results from this technique with those obtained using the conventional atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The study used fish collected in the Amambai River, Upper Paraná River, Brazil. The LIBS technique detected the presence of Fe in S. brasiliensis scales and Fe and Pb in P. lineatus scales on different regions. Using atomic absorption spectrometry, we verified a significant difference in Fe concentration in scales between the species analyzed, with a higher concentration in S. brasiliensis than in P. lineatus (p = 0.0004). Pb was not detected using atomic absorption spectrometry in either species because the concentration of this element was below the limit of detection of this technique. The LIBS technique was efficient in detecting Fe and Pb in scales of the two species analyzed, proving to be a promising tool for environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Lasers , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Animais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Rios/química
2.
J Environ Manage ; 240: 485-493, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965176

RESUMO

Nano-catalysts based on ZnO-Ca x% (with x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mol % Ca2+) were synthesized with a bio-friendly adaptation of the sol-gel method using gelatin as template. These materials were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 physisorption, photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The Raman results indicated that the signal, attributed to an E1(LO) mode at 580 cm-1, was characteristic of oxygen vacancies that decreased with the increased Ca2+ content in doped oxides. This agreed with the PL results, which showed that the green emission centered at 510 nm and attributable to structural defects in ZnO decreased for Ca-doped ZnO. Our oxides are constituted by nanoparticles with rod-like and spherical morphologies. All the nano-catalysts exhibited the band gap characteristics of semiconductor materials around 3.0 eV. ZnO-Ca 1.0% exhibited the best photocatalytic performance for degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) model dye, degrading about 82% after 240 min of UV-Vis irradiation at pH 7.0. The reaction mechanism was influenced by hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide (O2-) radicals and mainly by active holes (h+). This doped oxide also demonstrated efficiency in wastewater disinfection against heterotrophic bacteria and total coliforms, exhibiting a potential use as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of hospital wastewater. Furthermore, our nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxic effects on L929 fibroblast cells.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Catálise , Descontaminação , Desinfecção , Luz , Águas Residuárias
3.
Food Chem ; 263: 112-118, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784295

RESUMO

Mashing is an enzymatic procedure for the extraction of sugars from malt. It has strong temperature dependence, so monitoring the sugar production is very important for optimization of the brewing process. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor three different mashing programs. These all presented high concentrations of maltose and dextrin, enabling their differentiation according to the FTIR absorption bands at 991 and 1022 cm-1, characteristic of maltose and dextrin, respectively. The absorption intensities of these bands were used to monitor the concentrations of the compounds during mashing, and the values were compared to HPLC data. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to the FTIR absorption intensities in order to separate groups corresponding to the temperature steps of each mashing program. The results demonstrated that infrared absorption offers an alternative to the HPLC method for monitoring the mashing process.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Açúcares/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dextrinas/análise , Maltose/análise , Temperatura
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 175: 200-206, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910699

RESUMO

Studies of venomous animals have shown that environmental and genetic factors contribute to determining the chemical composition of venom. It is well known that external effects cause differences in the toxicity, concentration, and prey specificity of venom. However, the influence of different factors on the chemical profile of Hymenoptera venom remains little explored. In view of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate intraspecific differences and the influence of diet on the chemical profile of Ectatomma brunneum venom using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. For the study of intraspecific variation of the venom, foragers were collected at locations with different environmental conditions, such as urban, intermediate, woodland and monoculture sites. To investigate the influence of diet on the venom, two colonies were sampled in the same area and were maintained in the laboratory under controlled diet conditions and at room temperature. The mid-infrared absorption spectra obtained were interpreted using discriminant function analysis. The results showed significant differences among the chemical profiles of the venoms of individuals from different environments and individuals exposed to a controlled diet in the laboratory, suggesting that venom composition was determined not only by genetic traits inherent to the species, but also by exogenous factors.


Assuntos
Formigas/química , Dieta , Peçonhas/química , Animais , Formigas/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 165: 80-86, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770656

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence of Astyanax lacustris fish scales when excited in the UV-A and blue regions for use as a bioindicator of aquatic ecosystems. This species was firstly defined as Astyanax altiparanae, popularly known as "lambari-do-rabo-amarelo". Currently, abiotic/biotic environmental integrity is generally assessed using limnological and physicochemical parameters related to biological indicators in streams or rivers, which are not sufficient to evaluate the real environmental conditions: in some cases, these parameters can be strongly dependent on local weather conditions. In this study, after the fish scales were excited with UV-A (360nm) and blue (405nm) photons, a strong and broad visible fluorescence band (from blue to red) could be observed that was mainly related to collagen and hydroxyapatite, independent of whether the excitation was applied to the inside or outside of the scale. Selected emission wavelengths were used as variables and the fluorescence intensities were interpreted using multivariate discriminant statistical analysis to compare streams with known different levels of integrity. The fluorescence data showed strong correlation with the electrical conductivity of the water, indicating that the scales of A. lacustris could be employed as bioindicators of environmental integrity on water chemistry monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Água Doce , Animais , Fluorescência , Lasers , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
6.
Parasitology ; 143(14): 1939-1944, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572093

RESUMO

Social wasps can face many challenges during their colony cycle, including the presence of parasites. The order Strepsiptera is among the main parasites of the wasp genus Polistes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an endoparasite species on the host Polistes ferreri, with the hypothesis that females of this social wasp would undergo morphophysiological alterations as well as changes in their cuticular chemical profile caused by the obligate endoparasite. On average, parasitism was found in 10% of the colonies studied. All the parasitized females showed filamentous ovarioles without developing oocytes, which indicates a physiological castration. Moreover, the endoparasites present in the gaster of females caused its volume to increase, and the presence of endoparasites changed the cuticular chemical profiles of females, confirming our hypothesis. It is likely that this parasitism effect could hamper the maintenance of wasp colonies.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Insetos/fisiologia , Vespas/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Ovário/parasitologia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Social , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/química , Vespas/fisiologia
7.
Behav Processes ; 126: 27-35, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955918

RESUMO

Studies related to communication on spiders show that, as in other invertebrates, the interactions between conspecifics are also made through chemical signals. Therefore, in order to assess whether the composition of cuticular compounds might be involved in interactions that occur during the days after the emergence of juveniles in Latrodectus geometricus, we conducted behavioral and cuticular chemical profiles analysis of females and juveniles of different ages. The results show that females, regardless of their reproductive state, tolerate juveniles of other females with up to 40 days post-emergence and attack juveniles of 80 days post-emergence. Cuticlar chemical analysis shows that while the profile of juveniles is similar to adult's profile, they can remain in the web without being confused with threat or prey. Also, cuticular chemical profiles vary between different populations probably due to genetic and environmental differences or similarities between them. Finally, females in incubation period are able to detect the presence of eggs within any egg sac, but cannot distinguish egg sacs produced by conspecifics from the ones they had produced.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aranhas/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Feromônios , Estimulação Química
8.
Opt Express ; 20(12): 12658-65, 2012 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22714294

RESUMO

In this paper, a broad combined orange-red emission from Eu²âº- and Eu³âº-doped low-silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) glass is reported. Spectroscopic results demonstrate that it is possible to tune the emission wavelength by changing the excitation wavelength in the UV-Vis region. The color coordinates for the emission spectra were calculated, and using the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage 1931 and 1976 chromatic diagrams, it is possible to note that they are dependent on the excitation wavelength. In addition, the (u', v') color coordinates for the investigated LSCAS samples are close to the Planckian spectrum in the cold region between 2000 and 2600K. Our results show that the Eu:LSCAS system can be used in a white light phosphor when mixed in aggregate with phosphors using green-yellow luminescent ions.

9.
Opt Lett ; 33(15): 1720-2, 2008 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18670515

RESUMO

We apply thermal-lens (TL) spectrometry to measure the angular dependence of the TL effect on colquiriite single crystals. The experiments were performed with LiSrAlF(6) and LiSrGaF(6) using a two-beam mode-mismatched configuration. The results show that it is possible to minimize the TL effect by selecting the appropriate crystal orientation. Our data also show that the anisotropy of the linear thermal expansion coefficient drives the amplitude of the TL effect, including the inversion from focusing to defocusing as the crystal orientation angle tends to the c-axis direction. The results may be useful for those working to develop a high-power laser using LiSrAlF(6)(:Cr) and LiSrGaF(6)(:Cr) single crystals, allowing for optimization of the designed laser cavity.

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