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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151750

RESUMO

Background - The X-linked Danon disease (DD) manifests by severe cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and neuropsychiatric problems. We designed this registry to generate a comprehensive picture of clinical presentations and outcome of patients with Danon disease (DD) in cardiomyopathy centers throughout Europe. Methods - Clinical and genetic data were collected in 16 cardiology centers from 8 European countries. Results - The cohort comprised 30 male and 27 female patients. The age at diagnosis was birth to 42 yr. in males and 2-65 in females. Cardiac involvement was observed in 96%. Extracardiac manifestations were prominent in males but not in females. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was reported in 73% of male and 74% of female patients. LV systolic dysfunction was reported in 40% of males (who had LVEF 34±11%) and 59% of females (LVEF 28±13%). The risk of arrhythmia and heart failure (HF) were comparable among genders. The age of first HF hospitalization was lower in males (18 ± 6 vs. 28 ±17 yr., p<0.003). HF was the leading cause of death (10/17, 59%), and LV systolic dysfunction predicted an adverse outcome. Eight males and 8 females (28%) underwent heart transplantation or received a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Our cohort suggests better prognosis of female compared to male heart transplant recipients. Conclusions - DD presents earlier in males than females and runs a malignant course in both genders, due to cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy features: heart failure and arrhythmia, are similar among the genders. Clinical diagnosis and management is extremely challenging in females due to phenotypic diversity and absence of extracardiac manifestations.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(2_suppl): 65-71, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238743

RESUMO

Heart failure is a complex syndrome affecting several organs including kidney, lungs, liver, brain muscles and sympathetic system. Each of these organs might contribute to its severity and prognosis. The prognosis assessment is critical for a correct heart failure management. It has already been demonstrated that a single parameter is weaker for prognosis than different parameters combined. The Metabolic Exercise test data combined with Cardiac and Kidney Indexes (MECKI) score has been built and validated for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients by considering cardiopulmonary exercise test data combined with clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic measurements. The betablockers treatment is a milestone in the HFrEF management. In the MECKI score database, the association of betablockers treatment with outcome has been investigated in different settings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057991

RESUMO

An enlarged left atrial volume index (LAVI) at rest mirrors increased LA pressure and/or impairment of LA function. A cardiovascular stress may acutely modify left atrial volume (LAV) within minutes. Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of LAV-stress echocardiography (SE) Out of 514 subjects referred to 10 quality-controlled labs, LAV-SE was completed in 490 (359 male, age 67 ± 12 years) with suspected or known chronic coronary syndromes (n = 462) or asymptomatic controls (n = 28). The utilized stress was exercise in 177, vasodilator in 167, dobutamine in 146. LAV was measured with the biplane disk summation method. SE was performed with the ABCDE protocol. The intra-observer and inter-observer LAV variability were 5% and 8%, respectively. ∆-LAVI changes (stress-rest) were negatively correlated with resting LAVI (r = - 0.271, p < 0.001) and heart rate reserve (r = -.239, p < 0.001). LAV-dilators were defined as those with stress-rest increase ≥ 6.8 ml/m2, a cutoff derived from a calculated reference change value above the biological, analytical and observer variability of LAVI. LAV dilation occurred in 56 patients (11%), more frequently with exercise (16%) and dipyridamole (13%) compared to dobutamine (4%, p < 0.01). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, B-lines ≥ 2 (OR: 2.586, 95% CI = 1.1293-5.169, p = 0.007) and abnormal contractile reserve (OR: 2.207, 95% CI = 1.111-4.386, p = 0.024) were associated with LAV dilation. In conclusion, LAV-SE is feasible with high success rate and low variability in patients with chronic coronary syndromes. LAV dilation is more likely with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and pulmonary congestion.

4.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084420

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of trabecular hypertrophy/derangement and late gadolinium enhancement in predicting diagnosis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). Materials & methods: Fifty-nine suspected AC patients were evaluated. To evaluate the ability of these markers to detect patients fulfilling definite diagnosis at 4-year follow-up, sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) and predictive accuracy (PA) were calculated. Results: Presence of trabecular hypertrophy/derangement showed high NPV, while late gadolinium enhancement at cardiac MRI high Sp, NPV and PA. Their combination with symptoms and/or revised Task Force Criteria showed a high Sp, NPV and PA for definitive diagnosis during follow-up. Conclusion: In suspected AC patients, the absence of these markers allows to identify those with lower risk of disease progression.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899712

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies (CMPs) represent a diverse group of heart muscle diseases, grouped into specific morphological and functional phenotypes. CMPs are associated with mutations in sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric genes, with several suspected epigenetic and environmental mechanisms involved in determining penetrance and expressivity. The understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of myocardial diseases is fundamental to achieving a proper management and treatment of these disorders. Among these, inflammation seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of CMPs. The aim of the present study is to review the current knowledge on the role of inflammation and the immune system activation in the pathogenesis of CMPs and to identify potential molecular targets for a tailored anti-inflammatory treatment.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824488

RESUMO

In this report, an atypical case of Noonan syndrome (NS) associated with sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in a 33-year-old patient was described. Genetic testing revealed two different disease-causing mutations: a mutation in the PTPN11 gene, explaining NS, and a mutation in the MYBPC3 gene, known to be associated with HCM. This case exemplifies the challenge in achieving a definite etiological diagnosis in patients with HCM and the need to exclude other diseases mimicking this condition (genocopies or phenocopies). Compound heterozygous mutations are rare but possible in HCM patients. In conclusion, this study highlights the important role of genetic testing as a necessary diagnostic tool for performing a definitive etiological diagnosis of HCM.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858625

RESUMO

: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an established cardiovascular risk factor, and growing evidence indicates its causal association with atherosclerotic disease because of the proatherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like properties and the prothrombotic plasminogen-like activity of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. As genetics significantly influences its plasma concentration, Lp(a) is considered an inherited risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), especially in young individuals. Moreover, it has been suggested that elevated Lp(a) may significantly contribute to residual cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease and optimal LDL-C levels. Nonetheless, the fascinating hypothesis that lowering Lp(a) could reduce the risk of cardiovascular events - in primary or secondary prevention - still needs to be demonstrated by randomized clinical trials. To date, no specific Lp(a)-lowering agent has been approved for reducing the lipoprotein levels, and current lipid-lowering drugs have limited effects. In the future, emerging therapies targeting Lp(a) may offer the possibility to further investigate the relation between Lp(a) levels and cardiovascular outcomes in randomized controlled trials, ultimately leading to a new era in cardiovascular prevention. In this review, we aim to provide an updated overview of current evidence on Lp(a) as well as currently investigated therapeutic strategies that specifically address the reduction of the lipoprotein.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740440

RESUMO

: The worldwide response to the current COVID-19 pandemic has been focused on how to prevent the disease and to protect the high-risk patient from a potentially lethal infection. Several consensus and guidelines articles have been published dealing with the cardiac patient with systemic hypertension, heart transplant or heart failure. Very little is known about the patients, both in the pediatric as well as in the adult age, with congenital heart disease. The peculiar physiology of the heart with a native, repaired or palliated congenital heart defect deserves a specialized care. Hereby we describe the early recommendations issued by the Italian Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease and how the network of the congenital cardiac institutions in Italy reacted to the threat of potential wide spread of the infection among this fragile kind of patient.

10.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(12): 927-943, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740436

RESUMO

: Nonischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is an entity that gathers extremely heterogeneous diseases. This awareness, although leading to continuous improvement in survival, has increased the complexity of NIDCM patients' management. Even though the endorsed 'red-flags' approach helps clinicians in pursuing an accurate etiological definition in clinical practice, it is not clear when and how peripheral centers should interact with referral centers with specific expertise in challenging scenarios (e.g. postmyocarditis and genetically determined dilated cardiomyopathy) and with easier access to second-line diagnostic tools and therapies. This position paper will summarize each step in NIDCM management, highlighting the multiple interactions between peripheral and referral centers, from first-line diagnostic workup and therapy to advanced heart failure management and long-term follow-up.

11.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723181

RESUMO

The end stage or burned-out phase is an uncommon but challenging clinical evolution of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The management of end-stage HCM is empirically based on the use of drugs approved for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; however, cardiac transplantation often represents the best option to improve survival. In our case, we describe the use of sacubitril/valsartan as a 'bridge to transplant' in a patient with end-stage HCM. After introducing the drug, enhancements in functional capacity, a reduction in natriuretic peptides and an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction occurred. Given their improved volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) peak and hemodynamic parameters, our patient was left off the waiting list for cardiac transplant and continues to be regularly followed-up with every 3 months.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(7): 1076-1096, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640076

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the α-galactosidase A (GLA) gene that leads to reduced or undetectable α-galactosidase A enzyme activity and progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and its deacylated form globotriaosylsphingosine in cells throughout the body. FD can be multisystemic with neurological, renal, cutaneous and cardiac involvement or be limited to the heart. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. The cardiac management of FD requires specific measures including enzyme replacement therapy or small pharmacological chaperones in patients carrying amenable pathogenic GLA gene variants and more general management of cardiac symptoms and complications. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge of FD-related heart disease and expert consensus recommendations for its management.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320934265, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615795

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of genetic testing in addition to a comprehensive clinical evaluation, as part of the diagnostic work-up of elite and/or amateur Italian athletes referred for suspicion of inherited cardiac disease, following a pre-participation screening programme. METHODS: Between January 2009-December 2018, of 5892 consecutive participants, 61 athletes were investigated: 30 elite and 31 amateur athletes. Elite and amateur athletes were selected, on the basis of clinical suspicion for inherited cardiac disease, from two experienced centres for a comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation. Furthermore, the elite and amateur athletes were investigated for variants at DNA level up to 138 genes suspected to bear predisposition for possible cardiac arrest or even sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: Of these 61 selected subjects, six (10%) had diagnosis made possible by a deeper clinical evaluation, while genetic testing allowed a definite diagnosis in eight (13%). The presence of >3 clinical markers (i.e. family history, electrocardiogram and/or echocardiographic abnormalities, exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias) was associated with a higher probability of positive genetic diagnosis (75%), compared with the presence of two or one clinical markers (14.2%, 8.1%, respectively, p-value = 0.004). CONCLUSION: A combined clinical and genetic evaluation, based on the subtle evidence of clinical markers for inherited disease, was able to identify an inherited cardiac disease in about one-quarter of the examined athletes.

15.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(7): 467-471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-523722

RESUMO

: The recent outbreak of 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is having major repercussions on healthcare services provision in Italy and worldwide. Data suggest the virus has a strong impact on the cardiovascular system, and cardiac imaging will play an important role in patients affected by coronavirus disease-2019. Although paediatric patients are mildly affected, they represent a clear accelerator in spreading the virus, and healthcare workers are at higher risk of infection. The aim of this position paper is to provide clinical recommendation regarding the execution of imaging investigations for the cardiac diagnostic work-up of paediatric patients with suspected or confirmed infection.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pediatria , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/normas , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas
16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 157, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610299

RESUMO

Inherited heart disease represent a very heterogenous group of cardiac disorders, characterized by inherited, acquired, and often rare disorders affecting the heart muscle (cardiomyopathies) or the cardiac electrical system (ion channel disease). They are often familial diseases, and are among the leading cause of juvenile sudden death and heart failure. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective on how to run a clinical service during an epidemic or pandemic emergency and to describe the potential COVID-19 associated risks for patients affected by inherited heart diseases.

17.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(10): 725-731, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RASopathies are a set of relatively common autosomal dominant clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. Cardiac outcomes in terms of mortality and morbidity for common heart defects (such as pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) have been reported. Nevertheless, also Atypical Cardiac Defects (ACDs) are described. The aim of the present study was to report both prevalence and cardiac outcome of ACDs in patients with RASopathies. METHODS: A retrospective, multicentric observational study (CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork-CARNET study) was carried out. Clinical, surgical, and genetic data of the patients who were followed until December 2019 were collected. RESULTS: Forty-five patients out of 440 followed in CARNET centers had ACDs. Noonan Syndrome (NS), NS Multiple Lentigines (NSML) and CardioFacioCutaneous Syndrome (CFCS) were present in 36, 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Median age at last follow-up was 20.1 years (range 6.9-47 years). Different ACDs were reported, including mitral and aortic valve dysfunction, ascending and descending aortic arch anomalies, coronary arteries dilation, enlargement of left atrial appendage and isolated pulmonary branches diseases. Five patients (11%) underwent cardiac surgery and one of them underwent a second intervention for mitral valve replacement and severe pericardial effusion. No patients died in our cohort until December 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RASopathies present a distinct CHD spectrum. Present data suggest that also ACDs must be carefully investigated for their possible impact on the clinical outcome. A careful longitudinal follow up until the individuals reach an adult age is recommended.

18.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(7): 467-471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487868

RESUMO

: The recent outbreak of 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is having major repercussions on healthcare services provision in Italy and worldwide. Data suggest the virus has a strong impact on the cardiovascular system, and cardiac imaging will play an important role in patients affected by coronavirus disease-2019. Although paediatric patients are mildly affected, they represent a clear accelerator in spreading the virus, and healthcare workers are at higher risk of infection. The aim of this position paper is to provide clinical recommendation regarding the execution of imaging investigations for the cardiac diagnostic work-up of paediatric patients with suspected or confirmed infection.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pediatria , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/normas , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas
19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(2): 173-180, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569017

RESUMO

Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy after 12 months in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) is attractive to reduce long-term ischemic complications. In the PEGASUS-TIMI 54, the use of low-dose ticagrelor (60 mg b.i.d.) plus aspirin after 12 months from MI reduced the risk of ischemic events, at the price of limited increase on bleeding complications. However, data on the use of low-dose ticagrelor in real-world practice lack. We aim at providing data on prescription/eligibility criteria and outcomes in patients receiving low-dose ticagrelor in the real-world setting. We enrolled consecutive patients eligible for ticagrelor 60 mg according to Italian national regulation in 3 high-volume centers and collected 1-year outcomes. The primary objective of the study is to generate real-world data about clinical characteristics, eligibility criteria, major adverse cardiovascular events, bleeding, and adverse event in patients receiving low-dose ticagrelor from our cohort. One hundred eighty-one patients were consecutively enrolled with a median follow-up of 18 months. The most used and the least used prescription criteria were multivessel coronary disease (72.4%) and chronic kidney disease (15.5%), respectively. At 1-year follow-up, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was 4.97%; of these, 3.86% of patients had a MI, and 1.1% had a stroke/transient ischemic attack, whereas no major bleeding occurred. In conclusion, in a real-world study, including patients with previous MI, low-dose ticagrelor for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy showed to be effective and safe, with no major bleeding occurring at follow-up.

20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 157, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571376

RESUMO

Inherited heart disease represent a very heterogenous group of cardiac disorders, characterized by inherited, acquired, and often rare disorders affecting the heart muscle (cardiomyopathies) or the cardiac electrical system (ion channel disease). They are often familial diseases, and are among the leading cause of juvenile sudden death and heart failure. The aim of this paper is to give a perspective on how to run a clinical service during an epidemic or pandemic emergency and to describe the potential COVID-19 associated risks for patients affected by inherited heart diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Canalopatias/complicações , Canalopatias/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doenças Raras/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Telemedicina/organização & administração
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