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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476771

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in the LMNA (lamin A/C) gene have been associated with neuromuscular and cardiac manifestations, but the clinical implications of these signs are not well understood. Objective: To learn more about the natural history of LMNA-related disease. Design: Observational study. Setting: 13 clinical centers in Italy from 2000 through 2018. Patients: 164 carriers of an LMNA mutation. Measurements: Detailed cardiologic and neurologic evaluation at study enrollment and for a median of 10 years of follow-up. Results: The median age at enrollment was 38 years, and 51% of participants were female. Neuromuscular manifestations preceded cardiac signs by a median of 11 years, but by the end of follow-up, 90% of the patients had electrical heart disease followed by structural heart disease. Overall, 10 patients (6%) died, 14 (9%) received a heart transplant, and 32 (20%) had malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fifteen patients had gait loss, and 6 had respiratory failure. Atrial fibrillation and second- and third-degree atrioventricular block were observed, respectively, in 56% and 51% of patients with combined cardiac and neuromuscular manifestations and 37% and 33% of those with heart disease only. Limitations: Some of the data were collected retrospectively. Neuromuscular manifestations were more frequent in this analysis than in previous studies. Conclusion: Many patients with an LMNA mutation have neurologic symptoms by their 30s and develop progressive cardiac manifestations during the next decade. A substantial proportion of these patients will have life-threatening neurologic or cardiologic conditions. Primary Funding Source: None.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480262

RESUMO

In the past years, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have provided evidence that inter-individual susceptibility to diverse pathological conditions can reveal a common genetic architecture. Through the analysis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and neuroblastoma (NB) GWAS data, we aimed to dissect the genetic susceptibility shared between these conditions, which are known to arise from neural crest cell (NCC) migration or development abnormalities, via identification and functional characterization of common regions of association. Two loci (2q35 and 3q25.32) harbor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated at a p-value < 10-3 with conotruncal malformations and ventricular septal defect respectively, as well as with NB. In addition, the lead SNP in 4p16.2 for atrial septal defect and the lead SNP in 3q25.32 for tetralogy of Fallot are less than 250 Kb distant from the lead SNPs for NB at the same genomic regions. Some of these shared susceptibility loci regulate the expression of relevant genes involved in NCC formation and developmental processes (such as BARD1, MSX1, and SHOX2) and are enriched in several epigenetic markers from NB and fetal heart cell lines. Although the clinical correlation between NB and CHD is unclear, our exploration of a possible common genetic basis between NB and a subset of cardiac malformations can help shed light on their shared embryological origin and pathogenetic mechanisms.

3.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 286, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Berlin Heart EXCOR® pediatric ventricular assist device is a mechanical circulatory support device currently used in pediatric patients. Sotos syndrome is a well-described multiple anomaly syndrome characterized by overgrowth, distinctive craniofacial appearance, cardiac abnormalities, and variable learning disabilities. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 7-year-old female Caucasian child with classic Sotos syndrome features subjected to implantation of Berlin Heart EXCOR® pediatric biventricular assist device mechanical support. A heart transplant was carried out after a support time of 459 days. After 5 years of follow-up, our patient is clinically stable and the performance of the transplanted heart is excellent. CONCLUSION: This case confirms that Berlin Heart EXCOR® pediatric ventricular assist device can provide satisfactory and safe circulatory support for children with end-stage heart diseases, even in those with Sotos syndrome. The syndrome is not a contraindication to implantation, since the complications are the same as those observed in patients without the syndrome and the prognosis is not affected by the disease.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411652

RESUMO

Importance: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most common mode of death in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but there is no validated algorithm to identify those at highest risk. Objective: To develop and validate an SCD risk prediction model that provides individualized risk estimates. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prognostic model was developed from a retrospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study of 1024 consecutively evaluated patients aged 16 years or younger with HCM. The study was conducted from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2017. Exposures: The model was developed using preselected predictor variables (unexplained syncope, maximal left-ventricular wall thickness, left atrial diameter, left-ventricular outflow tract gradient, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia) identified from the literature and internally validated using bootstrapping. Main Outcomes and Measures: A composite outcome of SCD or an equivalent event (aborted cardiac arrest, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, or sustained ventricular tachycardia associated with hemodynamic compromise). Results: Of the 1024 patients included in the study, 699 were boys (68.3%); mean (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 11 (7-14) years. Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 2.6-8.3; total patient years, 5984), 89 patients (8.7%) died suddenly or had an equivalent event (annual event rate, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15-1.92). The pediatric model was developed using preselected variables to predict the risk of SCD. The model's ability to predict risk at 5 years was validated; the C statistic was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.66-0.72), and the calibration slope was 0.98 (95%, CI 0.59-1.38). For every 10 implantable cardioverter defibrillators implanted in patients with 6% or more of a 5-year SCD risk, 1 patient may potentially be saved from SCD at 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This new, validated risk stratification model for SCD in childhood HCM may provide individualized estimates of risk at 5 years using readily obtained clinical risk factors. External validation studies are required to demonstrate the accuracy of this model's predictions in diverse patient populations.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370276

RESUMO

Pigmentary manifestations can represent an early clinical sign in children affected by Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Legius syndrome, and other neurocutaneous disorders. The differential molecular diagnosis of these pathologies is a challenge that can now be met by combining next generation sequencing of target genes with concurrent second-level tests, such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and RNA analysis. We clinically and genetically investigated 281 patients, almost all pediatric cases, presenting with either NF1 (n = 150), only pigmentary features (café au lait macules with or without freckling; (n = 95), or clinical suspicion of other RASopathies or neurocutaneous disorders (n = 36). The causative variant was identified in 239 out of the 281 patients analyzed (85.1%), while 42 patients remained undiagnosed (14.9%). The NF1 and SPRED1 genes were mutated in 73.3% and 2.8% of cases, respectively. The remaining 8.9% carried mutations in different genes associated with other disorders. We achieved a molecular diagnosis in 69.5% of cases with only pigmentary manifestations, allowing a more appropriate clinical management of these patients. Our findings, together with the increasing availability and sharing of clinical and genetic data, will help to identify further novel genotype-phenotype associations that may have a positive impact on patient follow-up.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine prevalence and predictive accuracy of clinical markers (red flags, RF), known to be associated with specific systemic disease in a consecutive cohort of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: We studied 129 consecutive patients (23.7 ±â€¯20.9 years, range 0-74 years; male/female 68%/32%). Pre-specified RF were categorized into five domains: family history; signs/symptoms; electrocardiography; imaging; and laboratory. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and predictive accuracy of RF were analyzed in the genotyped population. RESULTS: In the overall cohort of 129 patients, 169 RF were identified in 62 patients (48%). Prevalence of RF was higher in infants (78%) and in adults >55 years old (58%). Following targeted genetic and clinical evaluation, 94 patients (74%) had a definite diagnosis (sarcomeric HCM or specific causes of HCM). We observed 14 RF in 13 patients (21%) with sarcomeric gene disease, 129 RF in 34 patients (97%) with other specific causes of HCM, and 26 RF in 15 patients (45%) with idiopathic HCM (p < 0.0001). Non-sarcomeric causes of HCM were the most prevalent in ages <1yo and > 55yo. Se, Sp, PPV, NPV and PA of RF were 97%, 70%, 55%, 98% and 77%, respectively. Single and clinical combination of RF (clusters) had an high specificity, NPV and predictive accuracy for the specific etiologies (syndromes/metabolic/infiltrative disorders associated with HCM). CONCLUSIONS: An extensive diagnostic work up, focused on analysis of specific diagnostic RF in patients with unexplained LVH facilitates a clinical diagnosis in 74% of patients with HCM.

7.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 435-447, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213156

RESUMO

Introduction: The radial artery is currently the most widely used access site for PCI procedures both acute and stable patient settings. Thanks to advantages in pharmacological therapy as well as in interventional devices, the rate of ischemic complications following PCI has significantly decreased. Nevertheless, this has been counterbalanced by an increased risk of periprocedural and late bleeding event, that can occur both at access and non-access sites. Choice of access site for PCI is of paramount importance to reduce the risk of access-related bleeding events. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the actual available evidence comparing the transradial versus transfemoral approach to reduce hemorrhagic events. The most robust evidence comes from large randomized trials, partly also from observational registries, which compared the transradial and transfemoral approach. Expert opinion: Results show that radial access has proved to be decisive in reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic events. Furthermore, it showed a significant reduction in mortality and AKI compared to transfemoral access. However, increased experience in the use of the radial approach has led to less practice in the use of the femoral approach, which may be useful in cases of emergency, complications or inability to use the radial artery.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Femoral , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Artéria Radial , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

11.
EuroIntervention ; 15(5): 411-417, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860070

RESUMO

Percutaneous alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is an effective and minimally invasive therapeutic strategy to resolve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who remain symptomatic on maximally tolerated medical therapy. First performed by Sigwart in 1994, the procedure consists in determining an iatrogenic infarction of the basal interventricular septum to reduce LVOTO and alleviate symptoms. Since its first description, numerous studies have demonstrated its efficacy and safety, proposing ASA as a valid and attractive alternative to surgical septal myectomy. The success rate of the intervention is profoundly affected by patient selection and centre experience. In this review, we sought to summarise current evidence on ASA, describing the procedure and proposing a cardiomyopathy team-based approach to resolve clinical disputes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Septos Cardíacos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(2): 208-217, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632680

RESUMO

AIMS: Exercise-derived parameters, specifically peak exercise oxygen uptake (peak VO2 ) and minute ventilation/carbon dioxide relationship slope (VE/VCO2 slope), have a pivotal prognostic value in heart failure (HF). It is unknown how the prognostic threshold of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope has changed over the last 20 years in parallel with HF prognosis improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 6083 HF patients (81% male, age 61 ± 13 years), enrolled in the MECKI score database between 1993 and 2015, were retrospectively analysed. By enrolment year, four groups were generated: group 1 1993-2000 (n = 440), group 2 2001-2005 (n = 1288), group 3 2006-2010 (n = 2368), and group 4 2011-2015 (n = 1987). We compared the 10-year survival of groups and analysed how the overall risk (cardiovascular death, urgent heart transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implantation) changed over time according to peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope and to major clinical and therapeutic variables. At 10 years, a progressively higher survival from group 1 to group 3 was observed, with no further improvement afterwards. A 20% risk for peak VO2 15 mL/min/kg (95% confidence interval 16-13), 9 (11-8), 4 (4-2) and 5 (7-4) was observed in group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, while the VE/VCO2 slope value for a 20% risk was 32 (37-29), 47 (51-43), 59 (64-55), and 57 (63-52), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Heart failure prognosis improved over time up to 2010 in a HF population followed by experienced centres. The peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope cut-offs identifying a definite risk progressively decreased and increased over time, respectively. The prognostic threshold of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope must be updated whenever HF prognosis improves.


Assuntos
Previsões , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(4): 463-471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644761

RESUMO

Background: Antihypertensive drugs play a crucial role in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Variability in prescribing patterns constitutes a major challenge for current healthcare systems. This study aimed to compare patterns of use of antihypertensives in general practice in two southern European populations. Methods: Observational study. Data on antihypertensive drugs consumption in primary care setting (2016) were obtained from pharmacy refill records in Campania (Italy) and Aragon (Spain). Prescribing rates and the number of defined daily doses [DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day (DID)] were calculated, and the Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) approach used to reveal differences in prescribing patterns in both regions. Results: Antihypertensive prescribing rates in Campania and Aragon were 250.8 (95%CI: 250.2-251.3) and 201.7 (95%CI: 200.9-202.5) users/1,000 inhabitants/year. Overall consumption was of 310.1 and 256.8 DID, respectively. Spanish users, especially women and the elderly, consumed a greater volume of diuretics. Conversely, other therapeutic subgroups were more consumed in Campania. However, the most prescribed subgroups accounted for comparable proportions of the total consumption in each region. Conclusions: Both prescribing rates and intensity of antihypertensive use were higher in Campania. Pharmacy refill records in cross-country comparisons allow to know the factors influencing variability in prescribing habits with a view to improving prescribing quality.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Espanha
15.
J Clin Med ; 7(11)2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423853

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome in which structural/functional myocardial abnormalities result in symptoms and signs of hypoperfusion and/or pulmonary or systemic congestion at rest or during exercise. More than 80% of deaths in patients with HF recognize a cardiovascular cause, with most being either sudden cardiac death (SCD) or death caused by progressive pump failure. Risk stratification of SCD in patients with HF and preserved (HFpEF) or reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) represents a clinical challenge. This review will give an update of current strategies for SCD risk stratification in both HFrEF and HFpEF.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409740

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies (CMPs) are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases with several different phenotypes defined as myocardial disorders in which the heart muscle is structurally and functionally abnormal in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease and congenital heart disease sufficient to explain the observed myocardial abnormality. CMPs can be classified into one of the following, i.e. hypertrophic CMP (HCM), dilated CMP (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular CMP (ARVC), restrictive CMP (RCM), and unclassified CMPs. Although an increasing number of CMPs are now recognized to have a genetic basis, single mutations are associated with phenotypic variability and may cause not only a specific CMP, but also several different CMPs. Recently, it has become evident that, along with environmental interactions, age and sex may affect the penetrance of disease genes thus determining the phenotypic expression of CMPs. Noteworthy, an increasing body of data indicates that sex plays an important role in various forms of CMPs. The mode of inheritance may affect the sex-related occurrence of CMPs. Also, sex is a relevant determinant of the clinical manifestation of CMPs, and sex-related characteristics can be found in all forms. Sex-specific aspects of clinical disease expression as well as potential modes of inheritance should be therefore taken into proper consideration in order to improve the diagnostic work-up and treatment strategy of CMPs in both sexes.

17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 44(Suppl 2): 122, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442163

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of hereditary disorders caused by lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and characterized by a wide variability of phenotypes from severe fetal-neonatal forms to attenuated diseases diagnosed in adult individuals. The clinical picture generally worsens with age due to progressive storage involving mucosal tissue, upper airways and lungs, bones and joints, central and peripheral nervous system, heart, liver, eye, and ear. Cardiac storage of GAGs involves valves, heart muscle, and vessels (particularly the coronary arteries), and can be specific in relation to different MPS types and enzyme defects. MPS I, II, and VI are those with the most severe cardiac involvement. The cardiologist is a key figure in MPS, and their role is expanding from cardiac-specific management to early diagnosis when the mild disease phenotypes have not yet been recognized by other specialists. Familial and personal history, electrocardiography, imaging, and laboratory findings represent important steps in the clinical investigation of these patients. New treatments have led to an increased need for cardiologists to be on the lookout for MPS patients since they can significantly improve the lives of people with MPS if they suspect the diagnosis and refer them for enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477121

RESUMO

Anderson-Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem storage disorder caused by the partial or total deficit of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A). It is an X-linked, lysosomal enzymopathy due to mutations in the galactosidase alpha gene (GLA), encoding the α-Gal A. To date, more than 900 mutations in this gene have been described. In our laboratories, the study of genetic and enzymatic alterations related to FD was performed in about 17,000 subjects with a symptomatology referable to this disorder. The accumulation of globotriaosylsphingosine (LysoGb3) was determined in blood of positives. Exonic mutations in the GLA gene were detected in 471 patients (207 Probands and 264 relatives): 71.6% of mutations were associated with the classic phenotype, 19.8% were associated with the late-onset phenotype, and 8.6% of genetic variants were of unknown significance (GVUS). The accumulation of LysoGb3 was found in all male patients with a mutation responsible for classic or late-onset FD. LysoGb3 levels were consistent with the type of mutations and the symptomatology of patients. α-Gal A activity in these patients is absent or dramatically reduced. In recent years, confusion about the pathogenicity of some mutations led to an association between non-causative mutations and FD. Our study shows that the identification of FD patients is possible by associating clinical history, GLA gene analysis, α-Gal A assay, and blood accumulation of LysoGB3. In our experience, LysoGB3 can be considered a reliable marker, which is very useful to confirm the diagnosis of Fabry disease.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295807

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (HF) and in particular, cardiogenic shock are associated with high morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic dilemma is that the use of positive inotropic agents, such as catecholamines or phosphodiesterase-inhibitors, is associated with increased mortality. Newer drugs, such as levosimendan or omecamtiv mecarbil, target sarcomeres to improve systolic function putatively without elevating intracellular Ca2+. Although meta-analyses of smaller trials suggested that levosimendan is associated with a better outcome than dobutamine, larger comparative trials failed to confirm this observation. For omecamtiv mecarbil, Phase II clinical trials suggest a favourable haemodynamic profile in patients with acute and chronic HF, and a Phase III morbidity/mortality trial in patients with chronic HF has recently begun. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of systolic dysfunction in patients with HF and the mechanisms through which different inotropic agents improve cardiac function. Since adenosine triphosphate and reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria are intimately linked to the processes of excitation-contraction coupling, we also discuss the impact of inotropic agents on mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox regulation. Therefore, this position paper should help identify novel targets for treatments that could not only safely improve systolic and diastolic function acutely, but potentially also myocardial structure and function over a longer-term.

20.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 30(6): 378-384, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299317

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the risk preexisting or new onset cardiomyopathy/heart failure (CMP/heart failure) in pregnant woman, and recent insights regarding their management and therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data from the European Registry on Pregnancy and Heart disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ROPAC) suggest that, after an adequate prepregnancy evaluation in specialized centres, the vast majority of pregnancies are safe for both mother and foetus. A tailored approach is required according to cardiac phenotype (i.e. type of cardiomyopathy), clinical and functional status, and new potential treatments (i.e. bromocriptine in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy). SUMMARY: In clinical practice, prepregnancy cardiac evaluation is mandatory, including evaluation of the clinical status, standard ECG (and 24-48 h monitoring, whenever required), and imaging, to define the individual risk profile. In presence of severe symptoms (advanced New York Heart Association class), cardiac dysfunction (moderate-severe reduced ejection fraction), haemodynamic load (left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, pulmonary hypertension), pregnancy is contraindicated. A tailored monitoring is warranted in other cases (mild-moderate risk pregnancies). Likewise, in women who develop PPCM, a risk stratification and tailored monitoring and therapy should be achieved by an expert, multidisciplinary team, including cardiologists, gynaecologists, obstetricians, genetic counsellor, and psychologists.

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