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1.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111487, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049609

RESUMO

Groundwater near refinery and natural gas plants often contain elevated concentrations of toxic sulfolane. Studies on any concentration of sulfolane are limited. Column experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding a low dose of H2O2 and nutrient on bioremediation. Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was used evaluate the toxicity of effluents. The continuous column experiment conditions were sulfolane at 100 mg L-1, dissolved oxygen at 7 mg L-1, absence of phosphorus, and very short hydraulic retention time (7.9 h). A low dose of H2O2 (5.88 mM) enhanced the sulfolane (27.1%) and COD removal (11.8%) in comparison with the control set. Adding nutrient increased bicinchoninic acid protein assay levels, sulfolane removal (99.6%) and COD removal (80.3%). Addition of both H2O2 and nutrient further improved COD removal (90.3%) and COD/sulfolane ratio (0.90) and toxicity removal (Vibrio fischeri light inhibition ratio < 1%). Batch experiment indicated the degraders tolerated sulfolane up to 400 mg L-1. The DGGE method and dendrogram analysis were utilized to investigate the changes of degrader community structure.

2.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 415, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicine practiced with narrative competence is called narrative medicine, which has been proposed and used as a model of humane and effective medical practice. Despite the in-depth discussions of narrative medicine, the study of narrative competence in literature is limited; therefore, this study aims to explore the dimensions and connotations of the clinical narrative competence of medical personnel. METHODS: This qualitative study used in-depth interviews to collect participants' experience and perspectives regarding narrative competence, followed by thematic analysis of the transcripts. Through purposive sampling, this study successfully recruited 15 participants (nine males and six females in 2018-2019) who were engaged in narrative medicine or medical humanity education from different medical schools and hospitals across Taiwan. The authors performed manual thematic analysis to identify the themes and concepts of narrative competence through a six-step theme generation process. RESULTS: There were four major themes of narrative competence generalized and conceptualized: narrative horizon, narrative construction (including narrative listening, narrative understanding, narrative thinking, and narrative representation), medical relationship (including empathy, communication, affiliation, and inter-subjectivity), and narrative medical care (including responsive care, balanced act, and medical reflection). These four themes were further integrated into a conceptual framework and presented in a diagram. CONCLUSIONS: Cultivating narrative competence in medical education can complement traditional biomedical orientation. Regardless of their treatment orientation, narrative medicine-informed health practitioners may take advantage of their multi-dimensional narrative competence, as presented in this article, to enhance their awareness and preparation in different areas of competence in medical services. In addition, the results of this study can be used as a framework for the development of the behavioral indicators of narrative competence, which can be taken as the basis for medical education curriculum design.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133767

RESUMO

Background: The cerebellum has recently been identified to have a key role in reward processing, and individuals with ataxia have been found to be more impulsive and compulsive as part of cerebellum-related cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Case Report: We reported five individuals with cerebellar ataxia who demonstrate impulsive and compulsive behaviors, including hobbyism, gambling, and compulsive medication use, to illustrate that these symptoms can be highly disabling. Discussion: These five cases provide examples of behavioral symptoms in cerebellar ataxia. Further investigations of the pathomechanism of these symptoms will advance our understanding of the cerebellum in cognition and behavior.

4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Switching to non-combustible tobacco products presents an opportunity for cigarette smokers to potentially reduce the health risks associated with smoking. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) are one such product since the vapor produced from ENDS contains far fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke. To investigate the biochemical effects of switching from smoking to an ENDS, we assessed global metabolomic profiles of smokers in a 7-day confinement clinical study. METHODS: In the first 2 days of this clinical study, the subjects used their usual brand of cigarettes and then switched to exclusive ENDS ad libitum use for 5 days. Urine and plasma samples were collected at baseline and 5 days after switching. The samples were analyzed using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics platform. RESULTS: Random forest analyses of urine and plasma metabolomics data revealed excellent predictive accuracy (>97%) of a 30-metabolite signature that can differentiate smokers from 5-day ENDS switchers. In these signatures, most biomarkers are nicotine-derived metabolites or xenobiotics. They were significantly reduced in urine and plasma, suggesting a decreased xenobiotic load on subjects. Our results also show significantly decreased levels of plasma glutathione metabolites after switching, which suggests reduced levels of oxidative stress. In addition, increased urinary and plasma levels of vitamins and anti-oxidants were identified, suggesting enhanced bioavailability due to discontinuation of cigarette smoking and switching to ENDS use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest reduced toxicant exposure, reduced oxidative stress, and potential beneficial changes in vitamin metabolism within 5 days in smokers switching to an ENDS.

5.
Int J Adv Manuf Technol ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223594

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted factories all over the world, which have been closed to avoid the spread of COVID-19. As a result, ensuring the long-term operation of a factory amid the COVID-19 pandemic becomes a critical but challenging task. To fulfill this task, the applications of smart and automation technologies have been regarded as an effective means. However, such applications are time-consuming and budget-intensive with varying effects and are not necessarily acceptable to workers. In order to make full use of limited resources and time, it is necessary to establish a systematic procedure for comparing various applications of smart and automation technologies. For this reason, an evolving fuzzy assessment approach is proposed. A case study has been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the evolving fuzzy assessment approach in ensuring the long-term operation of a factory amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusion is required to treat haemo-oncology or trauma patients. Platelet apheresis (PPH) performed with apheresis equipment has increased rapidly in recent years. Leucocyte-reduced platelet apheresis (LRPH) can reduce the risk of platelet refractoriness and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) for transfusion. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate and compare the platelet metabolic and functional responses between PPH performed with Haemonetics and LRPH performed with Trima Accel cell separator. METHODS: The qualities of platelets collected through PPH and LRPH were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, morphology, platelet-aggregation changes, metabolic activities, and bacterium-screening test during 5-day storage. Statistical analyses included two-sample t-test and generalised estimating equation(GEE) method. RESULTS: During 5-day storage in LRPH, residual leucocytes were all <1.0×106, and the parameters of platelet function were as follows: platelet aggregated to agonists such as adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and collagen, and the extent of shape change and pO2 showed no statistically significant difference between PPH and LRPH. The hypotonic shock reaction (HSR) on days 0, 1, and 3 were significantly higher in LRPH than in PPH (71.78±6.92 vs. 64.10±7.42; p=0.002; 71.53±8.98 vs. 62.96±9.84; p=0.007; 68.05±7.28 vs. 57.76±6.80; p<0.0001, respectively). Values of mean platelet volume (MPV) were statistically larger in PPH than in LRPH on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 5, the swirling score was higher in LRPH than in PPH. The mean lactate levels had no statistically significant difference between PPH and LRPH. Moreover, no growth was observed through bacterium-screening test conducted on 40 samples. CONCLUSION: Comparison of LRPH and PPH products collected from the Trima Accel and Haemonetics automated blood-collection systems, respectively, revealed that both products possessed good platelet qualities even though additional processes are needed to reduce leucocytes. Furthermore, investigating the outcomes of other apheresis instruments with focus on the safety of donors, products, and recipients is necessary.

7.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 891-894, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been no previous study on the interaction between neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and NSAID use in breastfeeding mothers. This study aimed to investigate whether postpartum analgesics (with NSAIDs) can affect neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mothers who gave birth between January 2017 and December 2017 were included. Those who were not exclusively breastfeeding, gave premature birth, who underwent caesarean section, or whose infants had abnormalities such as an imperforated anus, diaphragmatic hernia, or ovarian tumour were excluded. Mothers were divided into 2 groups based on the analgesics received postpartum: acetaminophen and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; flurbiprofen) users. Multivariable logistic regression was adopted to estimate the risk of hyperbilirubinaemia with the use of different kinds of painkillers. RESULTS: In total, 1153 mothers were reviewed. After applying the exclusion criteria, 480 mothers were finally included in the analyses. Among them, 348 (72.67%) and 132 (27.33%) mothers received acetaminophen and flurbiprofen, respectively. Seven (2.01%) and 1 (0.76%) newborn had hyperbilirubinaemia among the acetaminophen and flurbiprofen users, respectively. Hyperbilirubinaemia risk of infants whose mothers were flurbiprofen users was not significantly different from that of infants whose mothers were acetaminophen users (adjusted odd ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.06-4.50, p-value = 0.4552). CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding mothers receiving flurbiprofen do not have increased risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(6): 4909-4918, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174031

RESUMO

Asthma is a leading allergic disease worldwide, demonstrating an ever­increasing prevalence over the past two decades. Asthma is characterized by allergen­associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) that primarily results from T helper 2 (Th2) cell inflammation, in which dendritic cells (DCs) serve an important role in determining T cell development after encountering an antigen. Atractylodin (ATL), a polyethene alkyne extracted from Atractylodis rhizoma (also known as Cangzhu), has proven effective in treating digestive disorders, rheumatic disease and influenza. In addition, ATL was discovered to alleviate mouse collagen­induced arthritis via regulating DC maturation. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ATL on asthma given that DCs serve an essential role in Th2­mediated inflammation in asthma. Mouse model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA). OVA­induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The production of IgE and IgG1 in serum and cytokines in BALF were detected by ELISA. The effects of ATL on dendritic cells maturation and T cell expansion were detected by flow cytometry analysis and 3H­thymidine incorporation. Using a model of OVA­induced asthma, it was demonstrated that ATL ameliorated AHR and decreased the levels of IL­4, IL­5 and IL­13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and OVA­specific IgE and IgG1 in the serum. OVA­stimulated splenocytes were used to demonstrated that ATL decreased cell expansion and the production of IL­4, IL­5 and IL­13 in the culture medium. In order to determine the cellular mechanism of ATL in asthma, splenic DCs were isolated and it was subsequently observed that ATL downregulated the expression levels of CD40 and CD80. Furthermore, OVA­stimulated CD4+ T cells were co­cultured with splenic DCs, which revealed that ATL­treated splenic DCs led to impaired cellular proliferation and the production of IL­4, IL­5 and IL­13 in OVA­stimulated T cells. In conclusion, these results indicated that ATL may suppress antigen­specific Th2 responses in an OVA­induced allergic asthma model via regulating DCs. Therefore, ATL may exhibit therapeutic potential in the management of asthma and other allergic diseases presenting with Th2 inflammation.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(43): 9513-9525, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073990

RESUMO

Short hydrogen bonds, with heavy-atom distances less than 2.7 Å, are believed to exhibit proton delocalization, and their possible role in catalysis has been widely debated. While spectroscopic and/or structural methods are usually employed to study the degree of proton delocalization, ambiguities still arise, and no direct information on the corresponding potential energy surface is obtained. Here, we apply an external electric field to perturb the short hydrogen bond(s) within a collection of green fluorescent protein S65T/H148D variants and photoactive yellow protein mutants, where the chromophore participates in the short hydrogen bond(s) and serves as an optical probe of the proton position. As the proton is charged, its position may shift in response to the external electric field, and the chromophore's electronic absorption can thus reflect the ease of proton transfer. The results suggest that low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) are not present within these proteins even when proton affinities between donor and acceptor are closely matched. Exploiting the chromophores as precalibrated electrostatic probes, the covalency of short hydrogen bonds as a nonelectrostatic component is also revealed. A theoretical framework is developed to address a possible contribution of unusually large polarizabilities of short hydrogen bonds due to proton delocalization, but no clear evidence for this phenomenon is found in accordance with the absence of LBHBs.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14478, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879354

RESUMO

Frailty is common among older people and results in adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether exposure to PM2.5 is associated with frailty. This cross-sectional study involved 20,606 community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 65 years, residing in New Taipei City, Taiwan. Analytic data included phenotypic frailty, disease burden by Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), urban or rural residence, and household income. PM2.5 exposure was calculated from air quality monitoring records, with low exposure defined as the lowest quartile of the study population. 1,080 frail participants (5.2%) were older, predominantly female, had more comorbidities, lived rurally, and had low PM2.5 exposure (all p < 0.001). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, the likelihood of high PM2.5 exposure was higher in prefrail (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.5) and frail adults (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9) than in robust individuals, with stronger associations in those who were male (frail: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.1; prefrail: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6), ≥ 75 years old (frail: OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4; prefrail: OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8), non-smokers (frail: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0; prefrail: OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5), had CCI ≥ 2 (frail: OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.1-12.6; prefrail: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8), and with low household income (frail: OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.8-5.8; prefrail: OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2-3.3). This study revealed a significant association between PM2.5 exposure and frailty, with a stronger effect in vulnerable groups.

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 335, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for specific conditions fragment care provision for elders. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) has developed a global standard set of outcome measures for comprehensive assessment of older persons. The goal of this study was to report value-based health metrics in Taiwan using this ICHOM toolset. METHODS: The cross-sectional study of baseline data excerpted from a prospective longitudinal cohort, which recruited people ≥65 years old with ≥3 chronic medical conditions between July and December 2018. All participants received measurements of physical performance, anthropometric characteristics, health-related behaviors, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The ICHOM toolset comprises three tiers: 1 includes frailty and having chosen a preferred place of death; 2 includes polypharmacy, falls, and participation in decision-making; and 3 includes loneliness, activities of daily living, pain, depression, and walking speed. These items were converted into a 0-10 point value-based healthcare score, with high value-based health status defined as ≥8/10 points. RESULTS: Frequencies of individual ICHOM indicators were: frail 11.7%, chose preferred place of death 14.4%, polypharmacy 31.5%, fell 17.1%, participated in decision-making 81.6%, loneliness 26.8%, limited activities of daily living 22.4%, pain 10.4%, depressed mood 13.0%, and slowness 38.5%. People with high disease burden (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.76, p = 0.005) or cognitive impairment (OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.27-0.87, p = 0.014) were less likely to have high value-based healthcare status. CONCLUSIONS: The ICHOM Standard Set Older Person health outcome measures provide an opportunity to shift from a disease-centric medical paradigm to whole person-focused goals. This study identified advanced age, chronic disease burden and cognitive impairment as important barriers to achieving high value-based healthcare status.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015444, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902650

RESUMO

Importance: Immunotherapy has shown significant control of intracranial metastases in patients with melanoma. However, the association of immunotherapy combined with other cancer treatments and overall survival (OS) of patients with brain metastases, regardless of primary tumor site, is unknown. Objective: To explore the association of immunotherapy with OS in patients with cancer and brain metastases who received definitive surgery of the primary site. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study included 3112 adult patients in the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2016 with non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, or kidney cancer and brain metastases at the time of diagnosis and who received definitive surgery of the primary site. Data analysis was conducted from March to April 2020. Exposures: Treatment groups were stratified as follows: (1) any treatment with or without immunotherapy, (2) chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy, (3) radiotherapy (RT) with or without immunotherapy, and (4) chemoradiation with or without immunotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association of immunotherapy with OS was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age at diagnosis, race, sex, place of living, income, education, treatment facility type, primary tumor type, and year of diagnosis. Results: Of 3112 patients, 1436 (46.14%) were men, 2714 (87.72%) were White individuals, 257 (8.31%) were Black individuals, and 123 (3.98%) belonged to other racial and ethnic groups. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 61 (19-90) years. Overall, 183 (5.88%) received immunotherapy, 318 (10.22%) received chemotherapy alone, 788 (25.32%) received RT alone, and 1393 (44.76%) received chemoradiation alone; 22 (6.47%) received chemotherapy plus immunotherapy, 72 (8.37%) received RT plus immunotherapy, and 76 (5.17%) received chemoradiation plus immunotherapy. In the multivariable analysis, patients who received immunotherapy had significantly improved OS compared with no immunotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.51-0.76; P < .001). Treatment with RT plus immunotherapy was associated with significantly improved OS compared with RT alone (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.84; P = .003). Chemotherapy plus immunotherapy or chemoradiation plus immunotherapy were not associated with improved OS in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the addition of immunotherapy to RT was associated with improved OS compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with brain metastases who received definitive surgery of the primary tumor site.

14.
Mar Drugs ; 18(9)2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872418

RESUMO

Chemical examination from the cultured soft coral Sarcophyton digitatum resulted in the isolation and structural identification of four new biscembranoidal metabolites, sardigitolides A-D (1-4), along with three previously isolated biscembranoids, sarcophytolide L (5), glaucumolide A (6), glaucumolide B (7), and two known cembranoids (8 and 9). The chemical structures of all isolates were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Additionally, in order to discover bioactivity of marine natural products, 1-8 were examined in terms of their inhibitory potential against the upregulation of inflammatory factor production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage J774A.1 cells and their cytotoxicities against a limited panel of cancer cells. The anti-inflammatory results showed that at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, 6 and 8 inhibited the production of IL-1ß to 68 ± 1 and 56 ± 1%, respectively, in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages J774A.1. Furthermore, sardigitolide B (2) displayed cytotoxicities toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.6 ± 3.0 and 14.8 ± 4.0 µg/mL, respectively.

15.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(9): 812-816, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902940

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic disease worldwide. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing at a rapid speed. Till May 4, 2020, there have been 3,407,747 confirmed cases and 238,198 deaths globally. The common symptoms in pregnant women are fever, cough, and dyspnea. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has transient overexpression and increased activity during pregnancy, which is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. There is no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is no valid medication or vaccination. The immune suppression or modulation during pregnancy increases the risk of severe pneumonia. Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine is controversial in its effectiveness and safety to treat SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy. Chloroquine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The management strategy includes monitoring fetal heart rate and uterine contractions; early oxygenation if O2 saturation is less than 95%; empiric antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection; corticosteroid to treat maternal SARS-CoV-2 disease routinely is not suggested, only for fetal lung maturation in selected cases; and consideration of delivery is according to the obstetric indication, gestational age, and severity of the disease. During epidemics, delivery at 32-34 weeks is considered. The indication for the Cesarean section should be flexible to minimize the risk of infection during the delivery. The newborn should be in isolation ward immediately after birth; breastfeeding is not contraindicated but should avoid direct transmission infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 4947-4960, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and potential mechanisms of sclareol in a human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis and caspase activity were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell cycle and DNA damage related protein expression was determined by western blotting. In vivo evaluation of sclareol was carried out in xenografted tumor mice models. RESULTS: Sclareol significantly reduced cell viability, induced G1 phase arrest and subsequently triggered apoptosis in H1688 cells. In addition, this sclareol-induced growth arrest was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX, activation of ATR and Chk1. Moreover, in vivo evaluation of sclareol showed that it could inhibit tumor weight and volume in a H1688 xenograft model. CONCLUSION: Sclareol might be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of SCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115469, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866860

RESUMO

A typical two-day start-up of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) can yield polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emission quantities around 10 times higher than those from an entire year of normal operations, as measured in this study. Thus, we tested specific control strategies for inhibiting the formation of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (Cl-POPs), namely, extensively cleaning the ash accumulated beneath the furnace bed of the combustion chamber and deposited on the walls of the superheater and economizer and shortening the residence time of the flue gas in the optimal temperature window for Cl-POP formation. Also, we advanced the injection times of the activated carbon and lime slurry to lower Cl-POP emissions during start-up. Our findings show that these strategies were highly effective and reduced the Cl-POP emissions by > 98%, most of which (96.4-98.2%) was attributable to inhibiting formation. In summary, the proposed control strategies require no modifications to existing air pollution control devices, have little influence on operational cost, and are effective and feasible for the majority of MSWIs.

18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(16)2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823924

RESUMO

In recent years, many city governments around the world have begun to use information and communication technology to increase the management efficiency of on-street parking. Among various experimental smart parking projects, deployment of wireless magnetic sensors and smart parking meters are quite common. However, using wireless magnetic sensors can only detect the occupancy of parking spaces without the knowledge of who are currently using these parking spaces; human labor is still needed to issue the parking bills. In contrast, smart parking meters based on image recognition can detect the occupancy of parking spaces along with the license plate numbers, but the cost of deploying smart parking meters is relatively high. In this research, we investigate the feasibility of building an on-street parking management system mainly based on low-cost Bluetooth beacons. Specifically, beacon transmitters are installed in the vehicles, and beacon receivers are deployed along the roadside parking spaces. By processing the received beacon signals using Kalman filter, our system can detect the occupancy of parking spaces as well as the identification of the vehicles. Although distance estimation using the received signal strength is not accurate, our experiments show that it suffices for correct detection of parking occupancy.

19.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127919, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829221

RESUMO

Column systems were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different bioremediation methods (biostimulation (BS) and bioaugmentation (BA)) in treating sulfolane-contaminated groundwater. Batch test results confirmed that Cupriavidus sp. Y9 (Y9) was the most effective strain for BA. The optimal ratio of added native bacteria to Y9 was 10:3. The BA column adapted to a high sulfolane concentration (150 mg L-1) more rapidly and had higher sulfolane removal efficiency (90%) than did the BS column. The change in the biotoxicity of sulfolane-contaminated groundwater upon bioremediation, according to a Microtox test, revealed decreases in the inhibition of the passing of light by the BS column and BS + BA column of 38% and 63%, respectively. These results reveal that combining BS with BA can reduce the biotoxicity of sulfolane. The column tests confirmed the most effective added bacterium in BA, the operating conditions for high-efficiency bioremediation, and possible problems in its future application. The results provide an important reference for the design of methods for the remediation of contaminated sites.

20.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816685

RESUMO

The ChaLearn large-scale gesture recognition challenge has run twice in two workshops in conjunction with the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2016 and International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2017, attracting more than 200 teams around the world. This challenge has two tracks, focusing on isolated and continuous gesture \nobreak recognition, respectively. It describes the creation of both benchmark datasets and analyzes the advances in large-scale gesture recognition based on these two datasets. In this article, we discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground-truth annotations of gesture recognition and provide a detailed analysis of the current methods for large-scale isolated and continuous gesture recognition. In addition to the recognition rate and mean Jaccard index (MJI) as evaluation metrics used in previous challenges, we introduce the corrected segmentation rate (CSR) metric to evaluate the performance of temporal segmentation for continuous gesture recognition. Furthermore, we propose a bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) method, determining video division points based on skeleton points. Experiments show that the proposed Bi-LSTM outperforms state-of-the-art methods with an absolute improvement of 8.1% (from 0.8917 to 0.9639) of CSR.

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