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1.
Opt Express ; 27(16): A1308-A1323, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510595

RESUMO

A simulation scheme was developed to explore the light distribution of full-color micron-scale light-emitting diode (LED) arrays. The influences of substrate thickness, patterning, and cutting angle of the substrate on several important features, such as light field pattern, light extraction efficiency, and color variation, were evaluated numerically. An experiment was conducted; the results were consistent with simulation results for a 225 × 125 µm2 miniLED and those for an 80 × 80 µm2 microLED. Based on the simulation results, the light extraction efficiency of LED devices with a substrate increases by 67.75% over the extraction efficiency of those without a substrate. The light extraction efficiency of LED devices with a substrate increases by 113.55% when an additional patterned design is used on green and blue chips. The calculated large angle Δu'v' can be as low as 0.015 for miniLED devices.

2.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 276, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414236

RESUMO

We have studied the characteristics of frequency response at 850-nm GaAs high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with different kinds of oxide aperture sizes and cavity length using the PICS3D simulation program. Using 5-µm oxide aperture sizes, the frequency response behavior can be improved from 18.4 GHz and 15.5 GHz to 21.2 GHz and 19 GHz in a maximum of 3 dB at 25 °C and 85 °C, respectively. Numerical simulation results also suggest that the frequency response performances improved from 21.2 GHz and 19 GHz to 30.5 GHz and 24.5 GHz in a maximum of 3 dB at 25 °C and 85 °C due to the reduction of cavity length from 3λ/2 to λ/2. Consequently, the high-speed VCSEL devices were fabricated on a modified structure and exhibited 50-Gb/s data rate at 85 °C.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16766, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415376

RESUMO

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and de novo brain metastasis (BM) have poor prognosis. We aim to investigate the characteristic of brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the association with the treatment response of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) for lung cancer with BM.EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with BM from October 2013 to December 2017 in a tertiary referral center were retrospectively analyzed. Patient's age, sex, cell type, EGFR mutation status, treatment, and characteristics of BM were collected. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. The efficacy of different EGFR-TKIs were also analyzed.Among the 257 eligible patients, 144 patients with Exon 19 deletion or Exon 21 L858R were included for analysis. The erlotinib group had the best progression free survival (PFS) (median PFS 13 months, P = .04). The overall survival (OS) revealed no significant difference between three EGFR-TKI groups. Brain MR imaging features including tumor necrosis, rim enhancement and specific tumor locations (frontal lobe, putamen or cerebellum) were factors associated with poor prognosis. Patients with poor prognostic imaging features, the high-risk group, who received erlotinib had the best PFS (median PFS 12 months, P < .001). However, the OS revealed no significant difference between 3 EGFR-TKI groups. The low risk group patients had similar PFS and OS treated with three different EGFR-TKIs.In NSCLC patients with common EGFR mutation and de novo BM, those with poor prognostic brain MR characteristics, erlotinib provided better PFS than afatinib or gefitinib.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
4.
Cancer Med ; 8(13): 5939-5947, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osimertinib yields significant tumor responses and durations of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with acquired T790M mutations. However, the evidence supporting liquid biopsy-guided treatment is still limited. This study examined the real-world benefits of osimertinib in patients with tissue or plasma T790M mutations. METHODS: From January 2016 to June 2018, a total of 183 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were enrolled. The presence of the T790M mutation was assessed by either tissue or plasma. The PFS, overall survival, and tumor response rates of the patients were calculated and compared with those of previous clinical trials. RESULTS: T790M mutations were detected in 51.5% of the patients, including 64 of 140 (45.7%) who underwent liquid biopsies and 23 of 29 (79.3%) who underwent tumor biopsies. After excluding those in clinical trials, 46 patients received osimertinib, including 33 with positive plasma and 13 with positive tissue results for T790M mutations. The median PFS was 11.3 months (interquartile range: 5.2-NR) in all the T790M-positive patients and 10.1 months (interquartile range: 5.9-NR) in the plasma T790M-positive patients. The overall survival, meanwhile, was not reached, whereas the one-year survival rate was 66.1% in all the patients and 61.4% in those who were plasma T790M-positive. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 37.8% and 91.9% in all the patients and 34.6% and 92.3% in the plasma T790M-positive group, respectively. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression, we determined that male gender was a poor prognostic factor for PFS. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective real-world analysis, it was determined that both tissue and plasma T790M mutations can be used to guide treatment with osimertinib. Similar disease control rates and survival durations were observed in comparison to those of phase 3 clinical trials.

5.
Front Oncol ; 9: 631, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380273

RESUMO

Third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) were developed to overcome T790M-mediated resistance to earlier generations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted TKIs. We compared four well-established and one in-house method for the analysis of the EGFR T790M mutation in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA), in hope to find a better way to select non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients appropriate for 3rd-generation TKI therapy. For sensitivity levels of each method, plasmid DNA with EGFR T790M mutations was serially diluted with cfDNA from healthy controls with wild type EGFR. The clinical performance was analyzed in a clinical cohort of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance (n = 40). All methods except the therascreen kit (Qiagen) had a sensitivity level of 10 copies of T790M plasmid DNA in the spiked specimen. The detection rates of the EGFR T790M mutation in plasma cfDNA from the clinical cohort were 42.5, 35, 32.5, 22.5, and 17.5% for the in-house ARMS method, Bio-Rad droplet digital PCR, PANAMutyper, Therascreen EGFR Plasma RGQ PCR Kit and Cobas EGFR Mutation kit (with suboptimal template amounts), respectively. Osimertinib was given to 17 of 20 patients with EGFR T790M mutations. The best treatment responses, based on the RECIST criteria, included 6 partial responses (PR) and 7 stable diseases (SD). The PANAMutyper and the Bio-Rad droplet digital PCR were comparable, the Cobas EGFR Mutation kit required significantly more template for testing. The best combination would be the in-house ARMS method plus the PANAMutyper or Bio-Rad droplet digital PCR, which would have a detection rate of 50% (20/40) and a disease control rate of 76% (13/17).

6.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(11): 1892-1900, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the utility values of all subtypes of lung cancer. The trajectories after different kinds of treatments and their major determinants were explored on the basis of real-world data and repeated measurements. METHODS: From 2011 to 2017, all patients with lung cancer who visited a medical center were invited to fill out the EuroQol Five-Dimension and WHO Quality of Life-Brief questionnaires at each visit. Utility values of quality of life (QoL) after diagnosis and treatments were depicted using a kernel smoothing method. We constructed linear mixed models to predict health utility in each time period and cross-validated them with domain scores of the WHO Quality of Life-Brief. RESULTS: A total of 1715 patients were enrolled, with 6762 QoL measurements. Utility values were lower in patients with advanced-stage disease and older patients. Patients receiving second-line targeted therapy showed higher utility values at 0 to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, and 6 months and beyond (0.89, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively) than did those undergoing chemotherapy (0.81, 0.85, and 0.80, respectively). After using mixed models to control confounders, including poor performance status and disease progression, patients receiving second-line chemotherapy showed health utility similar to that at quasi-baseline, whereas utility values related to second-line targeted therapy were higher at 3 to 6 months and 6 months and beyond (ß = 0.07, p = 0.010 and ß = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). There was convergent validity between the utility values and scores of the physical and psychological domains. CONCLUSION: Targeted therapy provided treated patients with a higher health utility value than was provided to those treated with chemotherapy. Development of the longitudinal trajectory may help predict changes in QoL and improve the care of lung cancer survivors.

7.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; : 1-8, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardio-dysfunction is one of the complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This paper aimed to investigate if oral administration of green tea Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, E) and transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) show cross effects on the treatment of cardiomyopathy in rats with type 1 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (each group contained 8 animals) including sham, DM (diabetic group), DM + ADSC (DM group with ADSC treatment) and DM + ADSC + E (DM + ADSC group with oral administration of EGCG). RESULTS: Pathological parameters including hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis were activated in DM group. By contrast, all parameters were significantly improved in treatment group (DM + ADSC group). In addition, improvement of pathological parameters in DM + ADSC + E was significantly better than DM + ADSC. CONCLUSION: We found that EGCG can increase expression of survival marker in ADSC under high glucose environment and reduce serum oxidative stress in DM rats.

8.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 57(7): 1525-1535, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963390

RESUMO

The alpha angle is a parameter extensively used to assess for cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in a 2D image of the hip. As this angle requires estimation of the axis of the femoral neck, the drawing of this axis often results in measurement errors due to subjective judgment, influencing inter-rater and intra-rater agreements. In the present study, sampling points were captured from the edges of a femoral neck and head in the 2D image, and the best curves of the two were fitted respectively by using the curve fitting method. The morphology of the femoral neck was outlined by two polynomials, and the femoral head was represented by an equation of a circle. By means of the proposed method, the results reveal that the inter-rater ICCs in X-ray and MRI were respectively 0.905 and 0.969, and the intra-rater ICCs in X-ray and MRI were respectively 0.892 and 0.840. The Bland-Altman plot shows that the values obtained by the proposed method and the conventional method were not consistent; nevertheless, the linear regression analysis indicated the two measurement results had a significant association (p < 0.001). This study provides a repeatable and agreed α angle measuring method, which contributes to identifying normal and abnormal femoral head-neck morphologies. The proposed numerical method would contribute to diagnose early FAI.


Assuntos
Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Impacto Femoroacetabular/fisiopatologia , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Radiografia
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4308, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867491

RESUMO

The integration of III-V and Si multi-junction solar cells as photovoltaic devices has been studied in order to achieve high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. However, large differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion and the lattice parameters of GaAs, Si, and InGaAs have made it difficult to obtain high-efficiency solar cells grown as epilayers on Si and InP substrates. In this paper, two types of devices, including GaInP/GaAs stacked on Si (GaInP/GaAs//Si) and GaInP/GaAs stacked on InGaAs (GaInP/GaAs//InGaAs), are fabricated via mechanical stacking and wire bonding technologies. Mechanically stacked GaInP/GaAs//Si and GaInP/GaAs//InGaAs triple-junction solar cells are prepared via glue bonding. Current-voltage measurements of the two samples are made at room temperature. The short-circuit current densities of the GaInP/GaAs//Si and GaInP/GaAs//InGaAs solar cells are 13.37 and 13.66 mA/cm2, while the open-circuit voltages of these two samples are measured to be 2.71 and 2.52 V, respectively. After bonding the GaInP/GaAs dual-junction with the Si and InGaAs solar cells, the conversion efficiency is relatively improved by 32.6% and 30.9%, respectively, compared to the efficiency of the GaInP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell alone. This study demonstrates the high potential of combining mechanical stacked with wire bonding and ITO films to achieve high conversion efficiency in solar cells with three or more junctions.

10.
Planta ; 250(1): 59-68, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904944

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The essential oils (EOs) of Plectranthus amboinicus showed the highest larvicidal activity among four herbal plants studied and ß-caryophyllene might be the major component responsible for its differential toxicity to the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes Aegypti. Mosquitoes act as vectors for many life-threatening diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, and Zika virus infection. Management of mosquitoes mainly relies on synthetic insecticides, which usually result in the rapid development of resistance; therefore, alternative mosquito control strategies are urgently needed. This study characterized the major component of essential oils (EOs) derived from the vegetative parts of four herbal plants and their larvicidal activity toward important mosquito vectors. The EOs were extracted by hydro-distillation and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a larvicidal activity assay toward Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. In total, 14, 11, 11 and 9 compounds were identified from the EOs of Plectranthus amboinicus, Mentha requienii, Vitex rotundifolia and Crossostephium chinense, respectively. The EOs derived from four herbal plants exhibited remarkable larvicidal activity against the three mosquito species. In particular, the EOs of P. amboinicus showed the highest larvicidal activity, and the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more sensitive to the P. amboinicus EOs than that of Ae. Aegypti. Although carvacrol (61.53%) was the predominant constituent of the P. amboinicus EOs, its precursors, γ-terpinene (8.51%) and p-cymene (9.42%), exhibited the most larvicidal activity toward Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, ß-caryophyllene (12.79%) might be the major component responsible for the differential toxicity of the P. amboinicus EOs, as indicated by the significant differences in its LC50 values toward both mosquitoes. Information from these studies will benefit the incorporation of EOs into integrated vector management.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Culex/virologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Larva , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 411, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578467

RESUMO

High-brightness white-light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs) with excellent color quality is demonstrated by using nontoxic nanomaterials. Previously, we have reported the high color quality w-LEDs with heavy-metal phosphor and quantum dots (QDs), which may cause environmental hazards. In the present work, liquid-type white LEDs composed of nontoxic materials, named as graphene and porous silicon quantum dots are fabricated with a high color rendering index (CRI) value gain up to 95. The liquid-typed device structure possesses minimized surface temperature and 25% higher value of luminous efficiency as compare to dispensing-typed structure. Further, the as-prepared device is environment friendly and attributed to low toxicity. The low toxicity and high R9 (87) component values were conjectured to produce new or improve current methods toward bioimaging application.

12.
Lung Cancer ; 125: 35-42, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The expression of immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 has been reported in various tumors. The expression of IDO and FOXP3 Tregs are considered to be associated with tumor-induced tolerance and poor outcome. Their prognostic role in surgically treated thymoma and thymic carcinoma, however, has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarray (TMA) blocks comprised of 100 surgically treated thymomas and 69 surgically treated thymic carcinomas were conducted. Tissue sections were incubated with primary antibodies against PD-L1 (clone E1L3N, 1:100), IDO (clone 10.1, 1:50), and FOXP3 (clone 236 A/E7, 1:50). Comparisons for categorical variables were performed using χ2 test and Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was established using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox regression model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: High expression of PD-L1, IDO, and FOXP3 Tregs were identified in 36 (36%), 13 (13%), and 16 (16%) thymoma patients, respectively. High expression of PD-L1, IDO, and FOXP3 Tregs was associated with higher grade of tumor histology (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, and 0.014, respectively). High expression of PD-L1 was also associated with advanced Masaoka staging (P < 0.001). In patients with thymic carcinoma, high expression of PD-L1, IDO, and FOXP3 Tregs were identified in 25 (36%), 10 (14%), and 20 (29%) patients, respectively. Complete resection, low expression of IDO, and high expression of FOXP3 Tregs were associated with better overall survival (P = 0.001, 0.004, and 0.032, respectively), and progression-free survival (P < 0.001, P = 0.026, and 0.047, respectively) in multivariate analysis. In surgically treated thymoma, high PD-L1 expression was associated with advanced Masaoka staging. High PD-L1, IDO, and FOXP3 Tregs expression was associated with high grade histology. In surgically treated thymic carcinoma, significant survival benefit was noted in patients with complete resection, low IDO expression, and high FOXP3 Tregs expression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Timoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Timo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Timoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia
13.
J Mol Diagn ; 20(6): 738-742, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309763

RESUMO

Previously, we detected circulating tumor DNA that contained two EGFR mutations (p.L858R and exon19 del) in plasma of patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) using the electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM) platform. Our aim was to determine whether EFIRM technology can detect these mutations in patients with early-stage NSCLC. Prospectively, 248 patients with radiographically determined pulmonary nodules were recruited. Plasma was collected before biopsy and histologic examination of the nodule. Inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of benign nodule (control) and stage I or II adenocarcinoma harboring either p.L858R or exon19 delEGFR mutations. Plasma samples were available from 44 patients: 23 with biopsy-proven benign pulmonary nodules and 21 with stage I or II adenocarcinoma (12 p.L858R and 9 exon19 delEGFR variants). Samples were analyzed for the EGFR mutations using the EFIRM platform. Assay sensitivity was 92% for p.L858R (11 of 12 samples positive) and 77% for exon19 del (7 of 9 samples positive). Specificity was 91% with two false-positive results in 23 patients with EGFR-positive nodules and 95% for the entire 44-patient series. Concordance was 100% with identical mutations discovered in plasma and nodule biopsy. The EFIRM platform is able to noninvasively detect two EGFR mutations in individuals with early-stage NSCLC.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Eletricidade , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758835918797589, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263066

RESUMO

Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) are common in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the prognosis is poor with few therapeutic options. This study evaluated the efficacy of three epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in preventing and treating BM in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Methods: Patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC who visited a tertiary referral center from 1 December 2013 to 30 November 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. They received gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib until disease progression, death, or intolerable adverse events. The cumulative incidence of subsequent BM of initial non-BM patients, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of the BM and non-BM patients were estimated and compared using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Results: 306 NSCLC patients were enrolled, with 116, 75, and 115 receiving first-line gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, respectively. The afatinib group had a better PFS [12.7 versus 9.8 months; hazard ratio (HR) 0.59, p = 0.001] and OS (39.1 versus 22.0 months; HR 0.64, p = 0.035) than the gefitinib group. Afatinib tended to provide better BM prevention than gefitinib (BM cumulative incidence, HR 0.49; 95% confidence interval 0.34-0.71, p < 0.001) according to a Cox model adjusted for possible confounders. Patients with initial BM had a shorter PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p = 0.015) than those without initial BM. Among the former, there were no differences in median PFS (p = 0.34) and median OS (p = 0.46) in the three EGFR-TKI groups. Conclusions: Our data suggested that, compared with gefitinib, afatinib provided better benefits significantly in terms of PFS and OS. Both had the same effectiveness in preventing subsequent BM.

15.
Nanoscale ; 10(13): 6214, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595205

RESUMO

Correction for 'A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode' by Chin-Wei Sher et al., Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 1117-1122.

16.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758834018755072, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434678

RESUMO

Background: Three different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved as first-line therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with similar overall survival. This study determined dynamic changes in quality of life (QoL) for patients using these therapies after controlling for potential confounders. Methods: From 2011 to 2016, we prospectively assessed the utility values and QoL scores of patients using the EuroQol five-dimension and World Health Organization Quality-of-Life - Brief questionnaires. QoL functions after initiation of treatment were estimated using a kernel-smoothing method. Dynamic changes in major determinants were repeatedly assessed for constructing mixed models. Results: A total of 344 patients were enrolled, with 934 repeated assessments. After controlling for performance status, disease progression, EGFR mutation subtype and other confounders, the mixed models showed significantly lower QoL scores for afatinib versus gefitinib in the physical, psychological and social domains, and 10 facets. The differences seemed to appear 10 months after initiation of treatment. In contrast, there was no significant difference between erlotinib and gefitinib in the scores of all domains and facets. Conclusion: QoL in patients receiving afatinib seemed to be lower than in those receiving gefitinib. Since the sample sizes in this study were relatively small, more studies are warranted to corroborate these results.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192161, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447182

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the association between EGFR mutations and distant metastasis. However, the association for subsequent brain metastasis (BM) in stages I-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients remains inconclusive. We conducted a retrospective analysis to clarify the impact of EGFR mutations on the incidence of BM and associated survival in patients with stage I-III NSCLC. A total of 491 patients screened for EGFR mutations were retrospectively enrolled. Brain MRI or CT was used to detect the BM. Cumulative incidence of subsequent BM and overall survival (OS) after diagnosis of BM were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression for predictors of subsequent BM and determinants of OS after BM. The cumulative incidence of BM seemed higher in patients harboring EGFR mutations than those without EGFR mutations although it did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73~1.81). After adjusting possible confounders, including age, smoking, stage, and tumor size, EGFR mutation became one of the predictors for subsequent BM (HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.12~3.17, p = 0.017). Though there was no statistical difference in survival after BM between patients with EGFR mutations and wild-type EGFR (median survival: 17.8 vs. 12.2 months, HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.45-1.40), patients with EGFR 19 deletion (Del) tended to have a longer survival after BM than the non-EGFR 19 Del group (median survival: 29.4 vs. 14.3 months, HR 0.58, 95% CI = 0.32-1.09, p = 0.089). In conclusion, our data suggested EGFR mutation to be one of the predictors for subsequent BM in stage I-III patients. Given the small sample size, more studies are warranted to corroborate our results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 33(1): 83-92, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068127

RESUMO

In recent years, neuropathological and epidemiological studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, the cardio-protective effects of folic acid (FA) in early stage AD was elucidated using a triple-transgenic (3xTg) Alzheimer's mouse model. Eleven-month-old C57BL/6 mice and 3xTg mice were assigned to five groups. During the four-month treatment period, the low-FA treatment group received FA through their diet, and the high-FA treatment groups received 3 mg/dl folate in drinking water and were also gastric-fed 1.2 mg/kg folate every day. In the C57B1/6J mice, treatment with high doses of FA (HFA) did not show any considerable effect compared to the control group or the low-dose dietary FA treatment group. However, Alzheimer's mice treated with HFA showed enhanced cardio-protection. Western blot analysis revealed that FA treatment restored SIRT1 expression, which was suppressed in 3xTg mice, through enhanced AMPK expression. FA significantly enhanced the IGF1 receptor survival mechanism in the hearts of the 3xTg mice and suppressed the expression-intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis-associated proteins. The results suggest that FA intake may significantly alleviate cellular pathological events in the heart associated with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 56(1): 37-47, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667590

RESUMO

Dislocation is a serious potential complication of total hip replacement. Previous studies have proposed a newly developed total hip structure that meets the required oscillation angle of 120°, for which the chamfer on the acetabular liner rim was designed to enable the neck to impinge on the chamfer over a large area after impingement occurs. This study adopted the finite element method to further analyse the torque limits leading to dislocation and the contact stresses at the impingement and egress sites of the liner during subluxation. The compressive stress-strain curve for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is nonlinear. The results reveal that an adequate chamfer angle of the acetabular cup liner can significantly increase dislocation torque and decrease contact stress on the liner rim. By means of the new design, when the head-neck ratio (HNR) is 2.5 or 3.0, the maximum torque value that a 36-mm head can withstand is 1.38 (8.7 Nm/6.3 Nm) or 1.47 (8.4 Nm/5.7 Nm) times that of a 22-mm head, while the maximum stress of a 36-mm head is 0.41 (14.58 MPa/35.73 MPa) or 0.70 (33.71 MPa/47.90 MPa) times that of a 22-mm head. When the head diameters are identical, the dislocation torque of the HNR = 2.5 structure is slightly greater than that of the HNR = 3.0 structure (3.3-10.5%); thus, the newly developed structure can disperse contact stress, and the structure of a large head with a low HNR exhibits a higher dislocation torque value and lower stress.


Assuntos
Análise de Elementos Finitos , Luxação do Quadril/etiologia , Luxação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Dinâmica não Linear , Estresse Mecânico , Torque , Cabeça do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos
20.
Opt Express ; 25(17): 20466-20476, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041727

RESUMO

This study presents the low cost fabrication of flexible white-light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs) with nano-honeycomb-structured phosphor films. Extending the dimensions of the nano-honeycomb structures improved the color uniformity of the flexible samples, and the 950-nm pattern sample demonstrated optimal color uniformity because this nano-pattern exhibited an excellent diffusion ability owing to its pitch size. In addition to color uniformity, the use of this nano-pattern improved the luminous efficiency. The 750-nm pattern exhibited the highest luminous efficiency (235.8 lm/W), which was approximately 7% higher than that exhibited by a non-patterned phosphor film sample. Thus, flexible w-LEDs with nano-honeycomb structure optimization have great potential to be used as next-generation lighting sources.

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