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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105476, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482151

RESUMO

The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella contamination in Taiwanese broilers at slaughter and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in processed batches of broilers. Carcass rinse samples from 362 batches of broilers were collected from 45 chicken abattoirs in Taiwan between February 2013 and November 2014. Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify putative risk factors for contamination. Salmonella was detected in 32.6 % (95 % CI: 30.4-34.8) of individual broilers and 56.4 % (95 % CI: 51.1-61.5) of the sampled batches. The multivariable logistic regression model identified season (July to November) (OR = 1.95; 95 % CI: 1.2-3.2) as increasing the risk of infection. Abattoirs in the southern region (Taichung and Kaohsiung) (OR = 0.45; 95 % CI: 0.3-0.8); batches scalded for > 90 s (OR = 0.2; 95 % CI: 0.1-0.3) and batches of commercial white broilers (BR) (OR = 0.21; 95 % CI: 0.1-0.4) all had a decreased risk of contamination compared to abattoirs from the northern region, scalding < 90 s and Taiwan native chickens (TNC), respectively. This study highlights the influence of environmental conditions and poultry breed on the risk of Salmonella contamination of chickens during slaughter.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26272, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115024

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: East Asians are reportedly at high risk of anticoagulant-related bleeding; therefore, some physicians prefer to prescribe low-dose direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Little is known about the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of off-label reduced-dose apixaban in East Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of off-label reduced-dose apixaban in Taiwanese patients with nonvalvular AF.This retrospective cohort study enrolled 1073 patients with nonvalvular AF who took apixaban between July 2014 and October 2018 from 4 medical centers in southern Taiwan. The primary outcomes included thromboembolic events (stroke/transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism), major bleeding, and all-cause mortality.Among all patients, 826 (77%) patients were classified as the "per-label adequate-dose" treatment group (i.e., consistent with the Food and Drug Administration label recommendations) while 247 (23%) patients were the "off-label reduced-dose" treatment group. The mean follow-up period was 17.5 ±â€Š13 months. The "off-label reduced-dose" group did not have a lower major bleeding rate than the "per-label adequate-dose" group (4.8% vs 3.8%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-2.09), but had a nonsignificantly higher incidence of thromboembolic events (4.23% vs 3.05%, adjusted HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.71-2.34).An off-label reduced-dose apixaban treatment strategy may not provide incremental benefits or safety for Taiwanese patients with nonvalvular AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Hemorragia , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Pirazóis , Piridonas , Tromboembolia , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26270, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115023

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to compare the diagnostic performance of radiographers and deep learning algorithms in pulmonary nodule/mass detection on chest radiograph.A test set of 100 chest radiographs containing 53 cases with no pathology (normal) and 47 abnormal cases (pulmonary nodules/masses) independently interpreted by 6 trained radiographers and deep learning algorithems in a random order. The diagnostic performances of both deep learning algorithms and trained radiographers for pulmonary nodules/masses detection were compared.QUIBIM Chest X-ray Classifier, a deep learning through mass algorithm that performs superiorly to practicing radiographers in the detection of pulmonary nodules/masses (AUCMass: 0.916 vs AUCTrained radiographer: 0.778, P < .001). In addition, heat-map algorithm could automatically detect and localize pulmonary nodules/masses in chest radiographs with high specificity.In conclusion, the deep-learning based computer-aided diagnosis system through 4 algorithms could potentially assist trained radiographers by increasing the confidence and access to chest radiograph interpretation in the age of digital age with the growing demand of medical imaging usage and radiologist burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Competência Clínica , Aprendizado Profundo , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico , Radiologistas , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/normas , Radiologistas/educação , Radiologistas/psicologia , Radiologistas/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taiwan
4.
J Cardiol ; 77(5): 509-516, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) is defined as HF with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) of 41-49%. However, the change in LV function and the subsequent prognosis in these patients remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether LV global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) could differentiate the changes in LVEF and predict the clinical outcomes in patients with HFmrEF. METHODS: According to the changes in LVEF on follow-up echocardiography, 273 outpatients with HFmrEF were divided into 3 groups: HFwEF (HF with worse EF: <40%), HFsEF (HF with similar EF: 40-49%), and HFrecEF (HF with recovered EF: >50%). Further, the LV GLS at diagnosis was evaluated. RESULTS: The average follow-up duration was 31 months. Among patients with HFmrEF, the more impaired the LV GLS at baseline, the higher probability of HFwEF development. In comparison with patients with HFwEF and HFsEF, those with HFrecEF had a lower risk of hospitalization for HF. At a cut-off value of -11%, LV GLS differentiated the subsequent risk of cardiovascular death in patients with HFmrEF. In Cox regression, patients with LV GLS >-11% had a high risk of cardiovascular death. CONCLUSION: In patients with HFmrEF, LV GLS is associated with LVEF changes and subsequent cardiovascular death. Patients with HFrecEF had a lower risk of hospitalization for HF.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140947, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721680

RESUMO

Retrospective analysis of water quality monitoring data reveals strong interannual shifts in the spatial distribution of two harmful algal species (Prorocentrum minimum and Karlodinium veneficum) in eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. A habitat model, based on the temperature and salinity tolerance of the two species as well as their nutrient preferences, provides a good interpretation for the observed seasonal progression and spatial distribution of these taxa. It also points to climate-induced variability in the hydrological forcing as a mechanism driving the interannual shifts in the algal distributions: both P. minimum and K. veneficum shift downstream during wetter years but upstream during dry years. Climate downscaling simulations using the habitat model show upstream shifts of the two species in the estuary and longer blooming seasons by the mid-21st century. Salt intrusion due to sea level rise will raise salinity in the estuary and cause these HAB species to migrate upstream, but increasing winter-spring flows may also drive favorable salinity habitat downstream. Warming leads to longer growing seasons of P. minimum and K. veneficum but may suppress bloom habitat during their respective peak bloom periods.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Baías , Ecossistema , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139468, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479961

RESUMO

Chlorpheniramine is a pharmaceutical widely used and found in water environments. Besides hormone disruption and adverse environmental effects, chlorpheniramine forms carcinogenic nitrosamines during disinfection. We have demonstrated previously the efficient adsorption of chlorpheniramine from aqueous solution onto graphene oxide-magnetite composite (GO-Fe3O4). The present study focused on the elimination of chlorpheniramine and the formation of nitrosamine byproducts during reaction with H2O2 over GO-Fe3O4 catalyst. The effects of the morphology of GO-Fe3O4 in terms of iron fraction, pH, concentrations of H2O2 and organic matters on chlorpheniramine removal in the GO-Fe3O4-H2O2 system were investigated. Chlorpheniramine was efficiently removed at pH 9 when GO-Fe3O4 had a higher micropore volume and surface area. Kinetics study showed that both oxidation (k = 5.1(±0.2) × 10-3 (mg g-1)-1 min-1) and adsorption reactions (k = 2.7(±0.1) × 10-3 (mg g-1)-1 min-1) fitted well with the second-order kinetics model. The adsorption sites on the GO-Fe3O4 surface could be different from those involved during catalytic oxidation. Chlorpheniramine removal decreased by 44.9% in the 5th cycle without regeneration due to the structural fracture of GO-Fe3O4. A tentative pathway of chlorpheniramine degradation and nitrosamine formation by GO-Fe3O4-H2O2 was proposed. GO-Fe3O4 was an adsorbent and effective catalyst in chlorpheniramine degradation by H2O2 that exhibited limited nitrosamine formation at moderate reaction time.


Assuntos
Grafite , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Catálise , Clorfeniramina , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Água
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 325: 108640, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344254

RESUMO

Although a nation-wide microbiological screening program of chicken carcasses after chilling in Taiwanese chicken abattoirs has been undertaken since 2006, little is known regarding the potential sources of the Salmonella during the slaughter process. The present study provides data on the detection and serotypes of Salmonella isolated from broilers during processing and from the environment in six abattoirs in Taiwan. Overall, Salmonella were detected in 156 of 622 samples (25.1%; 95% CI: 21.7-28.7) collected. The prevalence of Salmonella varied between sampling sites with 5.8, 17.6, 31.3 and 35.5% of cloacal swabs, environmental samples prior to processing, environmental samples during processing and carcass rinse fluid, respectively, being positive (χ2 = 51.3, p < 0.0001). A total of 15 serotypes were identified from the 156 Salmonella isolates with S. Albany (41.7%) S. Schwarzengrund (20.5%), S. Kentucky (12.8%) and S. Tennessee (5.1%) being the most commonly isolated serotypes. Characterization of 156 isolates by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 50 PFGE types. Typing confirmed the presence of the same PFGE type at multiple stages during processing including plucking, evisceration, chilling and post-chilling. The abattoir environment and intestinal contents of chickens are important sources of Salmonella in broiler chicken abattoirs, with the same PFGE types detected at different stages of processing both before and during slaughtering. It is concluded that Salmonella isolates present in the environment and intestinal contents of processed birds survived in the abattoir environment resulting in subsequent carcass contamination along the processing chain including plucking, evisceration, chilling and post-chilling.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Sorogrupo , Taiwan
8.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019256

RESUMO

Stannous oxide (SnO) nanowires were synthesized by a template and catalyst-free thermal oxidation process. After annealing a Sn nanowires-embedded anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template in air, we obtained a large amount of SnO nanowires. SnO nanowires were first prepared by electrochemical deposition and an oxidization method based on an AAO template. The preparation of SnO nanowires used aluminum sheet (purity 99.999%) and then a two-step anodization procedure to obtain a raw alumina mold. Finally, transparent alumina molds (AAO template) were obtained by reaming, soaking with phosphoric acid for 20 min, and a stripping process. We got a pore size of < 20 nm on the transparent alumina mold. In order to meet electroplating needs, we produced a platinum film on the bottom surface of the AAO template by using a sputtering method as the electrode of electroplating deposition. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were used to observe the morphology. The EDS spectrum showed that components of the materials were Sn and O. FE-SEM results showed the synthesized SnO nanowires have an approximate length of ~10-20 µm with a highly aspect ratio of > 500. SnO nanowires with a Sn/O atomic ratio of ~1:1 were observed from EDS. The crystal structure of SnO nanowires showed that all the peaks within the spectrum lead to SnO with a tetragonal structure. This study may lead to the use of the 1D structure nanowires into electronic nanodevices and/or sensors, thus leading to nano-based functional structures.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20701-20711, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102232

RESUMO

Chlorpheniramine is a pharmaceutical pollutant and a precursor of carcinogenic nitrosamines during disinfection/oxidation. In our previous study, graphene oxide coated with magnetite (GO-Fe3O4) was capable of removing chlorpheniramine in deionized water by adsorption. This study investigated the removal of chlorpheniramine and its nitrosamine formation potentials (FPs) by adsorption onto magnetic GO-Fe3O4, with respect to the influence by using real municipal wastewaters as the background. In the results, the adsorption performances of chlorpheniramine in wastewaters decreased in the order: GO-Fe3O4 suspension > GO-Fe3O4 particles > activated carbon. Chlorpheniramine adsorptions on GO-Fe3O4 particles and activated carbon were reduced by using real wastewaters as the background, whereas chlorpheniramine adsorption on GO-Fe3O4 suspension was enhanced due to the effects of surface charge on GO-Fe3O4 and ionic strength variation in water. The fittings of adsorption isotherms indicated that the wastewater background reduced the surface heterogeneity of GO-Fe3O4 suspension and improved the adsorption performance. Appreciable removal efficiencies of NDMA and other nitrosamine FPs were observed when GO-Fe3O4 particles were added in real wastewaters. However, when chlorpheniramine was present in wastewaters, chlorpheniramine adsorption and degradation reaction simultaneously occurred on the surface of GO-Fe3O4, increasing NDMA and other nitrosamine FPs in wastewaters after GO-Fe3O4 addition for chlorpheniramine adsorption. The assumption was further demonstrated by observing the NDMA-FP increase during chlorpheniramine adsorption on GO-Fe3O4 in deionized water. GO-Fe3O4 is a potential adsorbent for chlorpheniramine removal. Nevertheless, the low treatment efficiencies at high doses limit its application for nitrosamine FP adsorptions in real wastewaters.


Assuntos
Clorfeniramina/isolamento & purificação , Nitrosaminas/química , Nitrosaminas/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Clorfeniramina/química , Dimetilnitrosamina/química , Dimetilnitrosamina/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Grafite/química
10.
Harmful Algae ; 73: 110-118, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602498

RESUMO

The harmful dinoflagellate, Karlodnium veneficum, has been implicated in fish-kill and other toxic, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events in waters worldwide. Blooms of K. veneficum are known to be related to coastal nutrient enrichment but the relationship is complex because this HAB taxon relies not only on dissolved nutrients but also particulate prey, both of which have also changed over time. Here, applying cross-correlations of climate-related physical factors, nutrients and prey, with abundance of K. veneficum over a 10-year (2002-2011) period, a synthesis of the interactive effects of multiple factors on this species was developed for Chesapeake Bay, where blooms of the HAB have been increasing. Significant upward trends in the time series of K. veneficum were observed in the mesohaline stations of the Bay, but not in oligohaline tributary stations. For the mesohaline regions, riverine sources of nutrients with seasonal lags, together with particulate prey with zero lag, explained 15%-46% of the variation in the K. veneficum time series. For the oligohaline regions, nutrients and particulate prey generally showed significant decreasing trends with time, likely a reflection of nutrient reduction efforts. A conceptual model of mid-Bay blooms is presented, in which K. veneficum, derived from the oceanic end member of the Bay, may experience enhanced growth if it encounters prey originating from the tributaries with different patterns of nutrient loading and which are enriched in nitrogen. For all correlation models developed herein, prey abundance was a primary factor in predicting K. veneficum abundance.


Assuntos
Baías , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Modelos Biológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Tempo
11.
BBA Clin ; 8: 48-55, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879096

RESUMO

Threatened miscarriage is the most common gynecological emergency, occurring in about 20% of pregnant women. Approximately one in four of these patients go on to have spontaneous miscarriage and the etiology of miscarriage still remains elusive. In a bid to identify possible biomarkers and novel treatment targets, many studies have been undertaken to elucidate the pathways that lead to a miscarriage. Luteal phase deficiency has been shown to contribute to miscarriages, and the measurement of serum progesterone as a prognostic marker and the prescription of progesterone supplementation has been proposed as possible diagnostic and treatment methods. However, luteal phase deficiency only accounts for 35% of miscarriages. In order to understand the other causes of spontaneous miscarriage and possible novel urine biomarkers for miscarriage, we looked at the changes in urinary metabolites in women with threatened miscarriage. To this end, we performed a case-control study of eighty patients who presented with threatened miscarriage between 6 and 10 weeks gestation. Urine metabolomics analyses of forty patients with spontaneous miscarriages and forty patients with ongoing pregnancies at 16 weeks gestation point to an impaired placental mitochondrial ß-oxidation of fatty acids as the possible cause of spontaneous miscarriage. This study also highlighted the potential of urine metabolites as a non-invasive screening tool for the risk stratification of women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4392, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663594

RESUMO

Regulation of blood glucose requires precise coordination between different endocrine systems and multiple organs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) arises from a dysregulated response to elevated glucose levels in the circulation. Globally, the prevalence of T2D has increased dramatically in all age groups. T2D in older adults is associated with higher mortality and reduced functional status, leading to higher rate of institutionalization. Despite the potential healthcare challenges associated with the presence of T2D in the elderly, the pathogenesis and phenotype of late-onset T2D is not well studied. Here we applied untargeted metabolite profiling of urine samples from people with and without late-onset T2D using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to identify urinary biomarkers for late-onset T2D in the elderly. Statistical modeling of measurements and thorough validation of structural assignment using liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have led to the identification of metabolite biomarkers associated with late-onset T2D. Lower levels of phenylalanine, acetylhistidine, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were found in urine samples of T2D subjects validated with commercial standards. Elevated levels of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which previously has only been implicated in animal model of diabetes, was found in urine of older people with T2D.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927417

RESUMO

CTP-499 is a novel oral multi-subtype selective inhibitor of PDEs that is currently in clinical testing, in combination with angiotensin modulators, as a potentially first-in-class treatment for diabetic kidney disease. The compound was discovered and developed by using Concert's proprietary DCE Platform(®) in which deuterium was incorporated at select positions of 1-((S)-5-hydroxyhexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine (HDX). CTP-499 metabolizes to five major metabolites: C-21256, D-M2, D-M3, D-M4 and M5, of which all contains deuterium except M5. During in vivo metabolism, however, H/D exchange takes place. As a result, each analyte, except M5, has multiple molecular masses. To accurately quantify the analytes, we developed an LC-MS/MS method focusing on the core structures of the molecules, termed "core-structure analyses". The core-structure analyses method was then validated under GLP guidance in dog, rat and rabbit plasma, with a sample volume of 50 µL. Results demonstrated that this approach accurately quantifies each of the six analytes despite partial exchange of deuterium with hydrogen atoms in the in vivo samples. The validation parameters included accuracy, precision, sensitivity, stability, dilution integrity, hemolysis, matrix effect, selectivity, and recovery. Acceptable intra-run and inter-run assay precision (%CV ≤ 5.5%) and accuracy (90.1-106.7%) were achieved over a linear range of 10-5,000 ng/mL of each analyte. Various stability tests, including bench-top, freeze/thaw, stock solution, and long-term storage, were also performed. All stability results met acceptance criteria. The robustness of the methods was demonstrated by the incurred sample reproducibility (ISR) tests. After validation, the method was successfully used in support of multiple toxicological studies of CTP-499.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Pentoxifilina/análogos & derivados , Pentoxifilina/sangue , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/análise , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Limite de Detecção , Pentoxifilina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/metabolismo , Coelhos , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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