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1.
Aging Cell ; : e13028, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496122

RESUMO

Epigenetic "clocks" can now surpass chronological age in accuracy for estimating biological age. Here, we use four such age estimators to show that epigenetic aging can be reversed in humans. Using a protocol intended to regenerate the thymus, we observed protective immunological changes, improved risk indices for many age-related diseases, and a mean epigenetic age approximately 1.5 years less than baseline after 1 year of treatment (-2.5-year change compared to no treatment at the end of the study). The rate of epigenetic aging reversal relative to chronological age accelerated from -1.6 year/year from 0-9 month to -6.5 year/year from 9-12 month. The GrimAge predictor of human morbidity and mortality showed a 2-year decrease in epigenetic vs. chronological age that persisted six months after discontinuing treatment. This is to our knowledge the first report of an increase, based on an epigenetic age estimator, in predicted human lifespan by means of a currently accessible aging intervention.

2.
J Neurovirol ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286441

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is characteristic of both HIV and aging ("inflammaging") and may contribute to the accelerated aging observed in people living with HIV (PLWH). We examined whether three inflammation-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were risk factors for accelerated aging and HIV-associated, non-AIDS (HANA) conditions among PLWH. We examined 155 postmortem cases with HIV (mean age = 47.3, 81% male, 68% self-reported White) from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium who had pre-mortem neurobehavioral/medical/virologic data and epigenomic data from occipital cortex tissue. Accelerated aging was measured according to the Epigenetic Clock; an aging biomarker based on DNA methylation levels. Past or current age-associated HANA conditions including cerebrovascular, liver and kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and diabetes were determined via self-report. Epigenetic Aging Z-scores and likelihood of past/current HANA conditions were compared between major allele homozygotes and minor allele carriers for each SNP (IL-6 - 174G>C, IL-10 - 592C>A, TNF-α - 308 G>A) separately. Analyses were adjusted for relevant demographic/clinical factors. Epigenetic aging (e.g., higher Z-scores) was significantly greater in IL-6 C allele carriers (p = .002) and IL-10 CC homozygotes (p = .02) compared to other genotype groups. The likelihood of any past/current HANA condition did not differ by IL-10 genotype but was 3.36 times greater in IL-6 C allele carriers versus others (OR = 3.36, 95%CI = 1.09-10.34, p = .03). TNF-α genotype was not associated with epigenetic aging or HANA conditions. IL-6 and IL-10 SNPs may help to identify PLWH who are at high risk for accelerated aging. These insights into pathophysiological pathways may inform interventional approaches to treat rapid aging among PLWH.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(5): 565-574, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974969

RESUMO

Rationale: Diesel exhaust (DE), an established model of traffic-related air pollution, contributes significantly to the global burden of asthma and may augment the effects of allergen inhalation. Newer diesel particulate-filtering technologies may increase NO2 emissions, raising questions regarding their effectiveness in reducing harm from associated engine output.Objectives: To assess the effects of DE and allergen coexposure on lung function, airway responsiveness, and circulating leukocytes, and determine whether DE particle depletion remediates these effects.Methods: In this randomized, double-blind crossover study, 14 allergen-sensitized participants (9 with airway hyperresponsiveness) underwent inhaled allergen challenge after 2-hour exposures to DE, particle-depleted DE (PDDE), or filtered air. The control condition was inhaled saline after filtered air. Blood sampling and spirometry were performed before and up to 48 hours after exposures. Airway responsiveness was evaluated at 24 hours.Measurements and Main Results: PDDE plus allergen coexposure impaired lung function more than DE plus allergen, particularly in those genetically at risk. DE plus allergen and PDDE plus allergen each increased airway responsiveness in normally responsive participants. DE plus allergen increased blood neutrophils and was associated with persistent eosinophilia at 48 hours. DE and PDDE each increased total peripheral leukocyte counts in a manner affected by participant genotypes. Changes in peripheral leukocytes correlated with lung function decline.Conclusions: Coexposure to DE and allergen impaired lung function, which was worse after particle depletion (which increased NO2). Thus, particulates are not necessarily the sole or main culprit responsible for all harmful effects of DE. Policies and technologies aimed at protecting public health should be scrutinized in that regard.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02017431).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women exposed to childhood maltreatment (CM) are more likely to exhibit insensitive parenting, which may have consequences for their offspring's development. Variation in the oxytocin-receptor gene (OXTR) moderates risk of CM-associated long-term sequelae associated with mother-child attachment, although functionality of previously investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of OXTR rs237895, a brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), as a moderator of the relationship between CM and maternal behavior (MB) and the association between MB and offspring attachment security. METHOD: Of 110 women with information on rs237895 genotype (T-allele = 64, CC = 46), 107 had information on CM (CTQ) and 99 on standardized observer-based ratings of MB at 6 months postpartum (responsivity and detachment), which were used in principal component analysis to obtain a latent factor representing MB. Offspring (n = 86) attachment was evaluated at 12 months of age. Analyses predicting MB were adjusted for socioeconomic status, age, postpartum depression, and genotype-based ethnicity. Analyses predicting child attachment were adjusted for infant sex, socioeconomic status, and postpartum depression. RESULTS: rs237895 significantly moderated the relationship between CM and MB (F1;66 = 7.99, p < .01), indicating that CM was associated with maternal insensitivity only in high-OXTR-expressing T-allele carriers but not in low-OXTR-expressing CC homozygotes. Moreover, maternal insensitivity predicted offspring insecure attachment (B = -0.551; p < .05). CONCLUSION: Women with a high OXTR expressing genotype are more susceptible to CM-related impairments in MB that, in turn, predict attachment security in their children, supporting the role of the OT system in the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with maternal CM.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 103: 156-162, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690225

RESUMO

Maternal behavior (MB) is observable across mammals and represents an important feature of environmental variation during early postnatal development. Oxytocin (OT) plays a crucial role in MB. Even prior to childbirth, pregnancy induces epigenetic and other downstream changes in the maternal OT-system, likely mediated by the actions of steroid hormones. However, little is known about the nature and consequences of epigenetic modifications in the maternal OT-encoding gene (OXT) during pregnancy. Our study aims to investigate temporal dynamics of OXT promoter DNA methylation (DNAm) throughout pregnancy in predicting MB in humans. In 107 mother-child dyads, maternal OXT DNAm was serially analyzed in whole blood in early, mid and late pregnancy. MB was coded based on standardized mother-child interactions at six months postpartum. After controlling for cellular heterogeneity, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, OXT-promoter DNAm exhibited a dynamic profile during pregnancy (b = 0.026, t=-3.37, p < .001), with decreases in DNAm from early to mid-pregnancy and no further change until late pregnancy. Moreover, dynamic DNAm trajectories of the OXT-promoter region predicted MB (intrusiveness) at six months postpartum (b = 0.006, t = 2.0, p < 0.05), with 6% higher OXT DNAm in late pregnancy in intrusive compared to non-intrusive mothers. We here demonstrate that OXT promoter DNAm changes significantly throughout gestation in peripheral blood and that these changes are associated with variability in MB, providing a novel potential biomarker predicting postnatal MB.

7.
AIDS ; 32(11): 1465-1474, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies demonstrate that infection with the HIV-1 is associated with accelerated aging effects in adults according to a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of aging known as epigenetic clock. However, it is not yet known whether epigenetic age acceleration occurs as early as adolescence in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth. DESIGN: Observational study of PHIV and HIV-uninfected adolescents enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort Study. METHODS: The Illumina EPIC array was used to generate blood DNA methylation data from 204 PHIV and 44 age-matched, uninfected (HIV-) adolescents aged 9-12 years old. The epigenetic clock software and method was used to estimate two measures of epigenetic age acceleration. Each participant completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery upon enrollment to Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. RESULTS: HIV is associated with biologically older blood in PHIV+ adolescents according to both measures of epigenetic age acceleration. One of the measures, extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, is negatively correlated with measures of cognitive functioning (executive functioning, working memory, processing speed). CONCLUSION: Overall, our results indicate that epigenetic age acceleration in blood can be observed in PHIV+ adolescents and that these epigenetic changes accompany poorer cognitive functioning.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 75, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cord blood is a commonly used tissue in environmental, genetic, and epigenetic population studies due to its ready availability and potential to inform on a sensitive period of human development. However, the introduction of maternal blood during labor or cross-contamination during sample collection may complicate downstream analyses. After discovering maternal contamination of cord blood in a cohort study of 150 neonates using Illumina 450K DNA methylation (DNAm) data, we used a combination of linear regression and random forest machine learning to create a DNAm-based screening method. We identified a panel of DNAm sites that could discriminate between contaminated and non-contaminated samples, then designed pyrosequencing assays to pre-screen DNA prior to being assayed on an array. RESULTS: Maternal contamination of cord blood was initially identified by unusual X chromosome DNA methylation patterns in 17 males. We utilized our DNAm panel to detect contaminated male samples and a proportional amount of female samples in the same cohort. We validated our DNAm screening method on an additional 189 sample cohort using both pyrosequencing and DNAm arrays, as well as 9 publically available cord blood 450K data sets. The rate of contamination varied from 0 to 10% within these studies, likely related to collection specific methods. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal blood can contaminate cord blood during sample collection at appreciable levels across multiple studies. We have identified a panel of markers that can be used to identify this contamination, either post hoc after DNAm arrays have been completed, or in advance using a targeted technique like pyrosequencing.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/análise , Sangue Fetal/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Contaminação por DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mães , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos
9.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 43(2): 193-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849916

RESUMO

Protein palmitoylation is a dynamic post-translational modification, where the 16-carbon fatty acid, palmitate, is added to cysteines of proteins to modulate protein sorting, targeting and signalling. Palmitate removal from proteins is mediated by acyl protein thioesterases (APTs). Although initially identified as lysophospholipases, increasing evidence suggests APT1 and APT2 are the major APTs that mediate the depalmitoylation of diverse cellular substrates. Here, we describe the conserved functions of APT1 and APT2 across organisms and discuss the possibility that these enzymes are members of a larger family of depalmitoylation enzymes.


Assuntos
Lipoilação/genética , Tioléster Hidrolases/genética , Cisteína/genética , Cisteína/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo
10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(15): 4142-60, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24705354

RESUMO

HIP14 is the most highly conserved of 23 human palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) that catalyze the post-translational addition of palmitate to proteins, including huntingtin (HTT). HIP14 is dysfunctional in the presence of mutant HTT (mHTT), the causative gene for Huntington disease (HD), and we hypothesize that reduced palmitoylation of HTT and other HIP14 substrates contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. Here we describe the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interactors of HIP14 in the first comprehensive study of interactors of a mammalian PAT. Unexpectedly, we discovered a highly significant overlap between HIP14 interactors and 370 published interactors of HTT, 4-fold greater than for control proteins (P = 8 × 10(-5)). Nearly half of the 36 shared interactors are already implicated in HD, supporting a direct link between HIP14 and the disease. The HIP14 Y2H interaction set is significantly enriched for palmitoylated proteins that are candidate substrates. We confirmed that three of them, GPM6A, and the Sprouty domain-containing proteins SPRED1 and SPRED3, are indeed palmitoylated by HIP14; the first enzyme known to palmitoylate these proteins. These novel substrates functions might be affected by reduced palmitoylation in HD. We also show that the vesicular cargo adapter optineurin, an established HTT-binding protein, co-immunoprecipitates with HIP14 but is not palmitoylated. mHTT leads to mislocalization of optineurin and aberrant cargo trafficking. Therefore, it is possible that optineurin regulates trafficking of HIP14 to its substrates. Taken together, our data raise the possibility that defective palmitoylation by HIP14 might be an important mechanism that contributes to the pathogenesis of HD.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , Cercopithecus aethiops , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lipoilação , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIA/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIA/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
11.
Synapse ; 64(6): 460-6, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20175220

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) acts in the nervous system to activate guanylyl cyclase and increase cGMP. One target for cGMP appears to be the cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2A), which is widely expressed in the brain and provides a molecular mechanism for NO to regulate cAMP levels. We have found that PDE2A is highly expressed in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum, which project to the pallidum and substantia nigra. These cells express dopamine-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, and we have found that increases in cAMP in these neurons, produced by activation of the D1-type dopamine receptor, are dramatically enhanced by the general phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and the PDE2A-selective inhibitor erythro-p-(2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA). These results indicate that PDE2A plays a major role in regulating dopamine-stimulated cAMP production in striatal neurons. EHNA also enhances NO-induced increases in striatal cGMP. In addition, dopamine appears to act via another receptor, activated by the agonist SKF83959, to increase striatal cGMP in a NO-dependent manner. Together, these observations indicate that striatal NO producing interneurons can act via the PDE2A in the medium spiny neurons to regulate the cAMP response to dopamine stimulation.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 2/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dopamina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1783(10): 2001-12, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18590778

RESUMO

Prion protein (PrP) prevents Bax-mediated cell death by inhibiting the initial Bax conformational change that converts cytosolic Bax into a pro-apoptotic protein. PrP is mostly a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein but it is also retrotranslocated into cytosolic PrP (CyPrP) or can become a type 1 or type 2 transmembrane protein. To determine the form and subcellular location of the PrP that has anti-Bax function, we co-expressed various Syrian hamster PrP (SHaPrP) mutants that favour specific PrP topologies and subcellular localization with N-terminally green fluorescent protein tagged pro-apoptotic Bax (EGFP-Bax) in MCF-7 cells and primary human neurons. Mutants that generate both CyPrP and secreted PrP ((Sec)PrP) or only CyPrP have anti-Bax activity. Mutants that produce (Ctm)PrP or (Ntm)PrP lose the anti-Bax activity, despite their ability to also make (Sec)PrP. Transmembrane-generating mutants do not produce CyPrP and both normal and cognate mutant forms of CyPrP rescue against the loss of anti-Bax activity. (Sec)PrP-generating constructs also produce non-membrane attached (Sec)PrP. However, this form of PrP has minimal anti-Bax activity. We conclude that CyPrP is the predominant form of PrP with anti-Bax function. These results imply that the retrotranslocation of PrP encompasses a survival function and is not merely a pathway for the proteasomal degradation of misfolded protein.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Príons/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Príons/genética , Ligação Proteica
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